Search Results for: Amber

Amber Oil Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2/17/16

Synopsis: Amber oil fossilized resin to use in perfumery, fragrant rich and a detailed odor with growth description and chemistry.

 

Amber oil-Eden Botanicalsphoto by Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Amber Oil Fossilized

This is probably Pinus succinifera, L, FamilyPinaceae.

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The name Oleum succini is a name that simply means ‘oil amber’ and is a name given by the Pharmacopeia and not a true Latin binomial.  It can be considered a ‘common name’ that you would recognize in old books.

Family: Pinaceae

Countries of Origins: Native to Europe, Himalayas, China and Siberia naturalized worldwide.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Fossilized Amber Oil is dry distilled and refined from Amber originating in the Himalaya Mountains near China. Mined not cultivated.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time

General description of Plant habitat and growth: The origin of amber is somewhat uncertain; it is believed to be a fossil resin, produced by the hardening of the resinous exudates of largely extinct trees of the Coniferae family. (King’s American Dispensatory, 1898, by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.) EB Amber oil is produced from from fossilized tree resin from 35-million-year old Himalayan fossilized tree resin.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: This is a fossilized tree resin from trees millions of years old produced by dry distillation where the amber resin is processed over high heat until an oily substance is obtained.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  Color: dark brown to red
  Clarity: opaque
  Viscosity: viscous
  Taste: bitter
  Intensity of Odor:

1-10 with  1= lowest

2-3

Bergamot & Amber =2; Rose Geranium = 4; Tea Tree= 6

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: Smoky, resinous, leathery, woody-dry with a hint of green and low intensity but with great tenacity.

General Properties: Emotion uses.

Properties and Uses: This is a very specialized product that as a resin has been used medicinally but as the dry distillation the oily scent product is mainly used by inhalation for calming and uplifting.

I have used the Amber oil as a general fixative in perfumery and as a low intensity base note in perfume. It lends a sweet quality to men’s cologne and works very well with smoky notes like Labdanum in Chypre perfumes.

Application/ Skincare: I do not see the need to use this lovely product in any skin care formula although it could add something to a skin care odor if you use only 5% in the scent blend and the scent blend is no more than 1.5% of the total. This becomes a most tiny portion of the total.

Diffuse/Diffusion: Do not diffuse

Here is a lovely Perfume with Amber that I call

Amber Love Perfume
Emotional/Energetic Uses – The addition of this oil in a fragrant perfume blend will add an emotional component that is soothing but also uplifting. This is an ancient scent and could be used in meditation. Use only a tiny drop of the diluted Amber on a piece of cotton or cotton swab. Inhale lightly and meditate or do your yoga. Think of your ancient self.

Key Use: Perfumery

Chemical Components: Complex oil consisting of 41% essential oil components and 59% artifacts from the distillation process and the extreme age of the original fossilized resin.

Physiochemical Properties:

Solubility – Soluble in alcohol and recommended to use at 5% or 5 parts Amber oil to 95 parts of 95% neutral grain or grape spirits.

Solubility in water: insoluble

Soluble in fixed oils.

Specific Gravity: 1.011 +/-0.002

Refractive Index: 1.5066 +/- 0.001

Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog) Cadalene, Calamenene-cis, Calamenene-trans, Calacorene, Calamenene-5-hydroxy-cis

Blends Best with: : Angelica, Balsam of Peru, Cedarwood (Cedrus spp.), Champaca, Cinnamon Bark, Cacao, Fir BalsamGeranium, JasmineLabdanumLiquidambar (Styrax)Nagarmotha, Patchouli, Rose, Sandalwood, Tobacco, Tuberose, Vanilla, Vetiver, Ylang Ylang.

BLENDING with formula – Amber is a pleasant addition to any high end perfumery project especially as a bridge note or in the base not accord. See perfume formula above.

HYDROSOL: None known

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: Amber has been appreciated for its color and beauty in medicine and jewelry since Neolithic times (10,000 BC)

Interesting Information: This is a unique substance that is mined and dry-distilled.

Abstract/Scientific Data: A Brief Exposition of the Science of Mechanical Electricity: Or Electricity Proper; Subsidiary to the Course of Chemical Instruction in the University of Pennsylvania … by Robert Hare, J.G. Auner. 1840

Contradictions: There are many fragrant products called ‘amber’. Most are made from a combination of EO that include Benzoin or Styrax and any number of other scents. Read your label carefully. If it says ‘fragrant oil’ or ‘fragrance’ you can be sure the product is a synthetic version of what you truly want. Eden Botanical amber is the dry distillation of the mineralized amber.

Key Use: In perfumery

Safety Precautions: Do not ingest, do not inhale the vapor. Frequent contact may cause sensitization.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References:

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  North Atlantic Books. 2000:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose .2015 edition. San Francisco, California

 Oil supplied by www.edenbotanicals.com ~ photo by Jeanne Rose

  DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

Do not ingest EO

 

JR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VETIVER PLANT/VETIVERT EO PROFILE

Synopsis:  An ambitious discussion of the essential oil of the grass Vetivert from the rootlets, its uses, growth, description, organoleptic qualities and uses of the essential oil.
A Vetivert basket and Vetivert essential oils from three countries. Courtesy Eden Botanicals.

 

VETIVER ROOTS OF A FRAGRANT PLANT

 Jeanne Rose

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Vetiver or Vetivert is Chrysopogon zizanioides. Vetiver is the plant and Vetivert is the essential oil of the plant.

            Other Common Name/Naming Information: On the basis of similar genetic analysis of related genera such as Chrysopogon and Sorghum, a new taxonomy was proposed by Veldkamp, who combined Chrysopogon zizanioides and Vetiveria zizanioides under the unique denomination Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty. the former term, Vetiveria zizanioides, however, is still widely used in the current literature.

Vetiver belongs to the same part of the grass family as maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and lemongrass. Its botanic name, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn) Nash, has had a checkered history—at least 11 other names in 4 different genera have been employed in the past. The generic name comes from “vetiver,” a Tamil word meaning “root that is dug up.” The specific name zizanioides (often misspelled zizanoides) was given first by the great Swedish taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus in 1771. It means “by the riverside”, and reflects the fact that the plant is commonly found along waterways in India.” — https://www.nap.edu/read/2077/chapter/7

            Family: From the grass family Poaceae. Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. The term Poaceae is derived from the Ancient Greek for fodder

 

Essential Oil Plants of the Grass Family ~ Gramineae (Poaceae).

Chrysopogon zizanioides is commonly known as Vetiver, a bunch grass whose roots are used.
Cymbopogon citratus West Indian Lemongrass;

Cymbopogon flexuosus is East Indian Lemongrass

Cymbopogon martini var. motia is Palmarosa grass, syn. Andropogon martini or Cymbopogon martinii.

Cymbopogon martinii var. sofia is Gingergrass

Cymbopogon nardus is Citronella grass.

 

Countries of Origins: Haiti, Java, Brazil, China, Madagascar, Japan and La Réunion and India for the Khus variety.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Haiti and Sri Lanka with both organically-grown and cultivated types grown.

 

Endangered or Not: The annual world trade in Vetivert oil is estimated to be approximately 250 tons with Brazil, China, Haiti, India, Japan, Java, and Reunion being the main producers. Europe, India, Japan, and the United States are the main consumers.

The plant does not seem to be endangered although there is fear that consumers will mistakenly order the fertile plant over the internet and introduce it to a place where it may overrun.

 

General description of Plant habitat and growth: There are about 50 species of Chrysopogon of which only one is used in aromatherapy and that species zizanioides has two main types, a fertile one and a sterile one. This is a perennial grass with very fragrant long rhizomatous roots, growing to six feet high.

“It is important to realize that Vetiver comes in two types—this is a crucial point because only one of them is suitable for use around the world. If the wrong one is planted, it may spread and produce problems for farmers.

A wild type from North India known as Khus or Vetiver. This is the original undomesticated species. It flowers regularly, sets fertile seed, and is known as a “colonizer.” Its rooting tends to be shallow, especially in the damp ground it seems to prefer. If loosed on the world, it might become a weed.

A “domesticated” type from South India. This is the Vetiver that has existed under cultivation for centuries and is widely distributed throughout the tropics. It is probably a man-made selection from the wild type. It is nonflowering, does not seed (or at least is non-spreading), and must be replicated by vegetative propagation. It is the only safe type to use for erosion control.” — https://www.nap.edu/read/2077/chapter/7

It southern cultivar is a densely tufted, perennial grass that is considered sterile outside its natural habitat.  It flowers but sets no seeds. It is a lawn grass in the tropics, however, when eaten the sharp calluses on the lemma can pierce an animals stomach. (The Lemma is a morphological term used in botany and refers to a part of the spikelet of grasses (Poaceae). It is the lowermost of two chaff-like bracts enclosing the grass floret. It often bears a long bristle called an awn, and may be similar in form to the glumes – chaffy bracts at the base of each spikelet.

Vetiver can grow up to (5 ft.) high and form clumps as wide. The stems are tall and the leaves are long, thin, and rather rigid. The flowers are brownish-purple. Unlike most grasses, which form horizontally spreading, mat-like root systems, vetiver’s roots grow downward, 7 ft. to 13 ft. in depth.

 

Vetiver is the best plant in the world to stop erosion and repair damaged land from erosion. Once permanent Vetiver rows are established the roots should never be dug up. The aromatic roots have been used since ancient times in India. The fragrant, insect-repelling roots yield oil, which is valuable in the perfume industry. Traditionally, these roots were woven into mats, fans and fragrant screens, while the tops of the grass were used for thatch, mulch, handicraft, fodder and animal bedding.

Vetivert roots http://haitireconstruction.ning.com/page/growing-vetiver-for-essential

 

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields:   The roots of Vetiver are picked, washed, comminuted (chopped), dried, and macerated (soaked) in the distillation water, before being steam distilled.  Yield: 0.5%.

The quality of the oil depends on the age of the roots and the length of distillation ~ from 12-36 hours. Distillation studies on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) in northern India during 1987 to 1991, demonstrated that maximum oil content was associated with freshly harvested roots and that extractable oil decreased with delays in harvest and storage period.

 

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  • Color …………………. Depending on source, it is honey colored to a caramel brown
  • Clarity ………………… The lighter the color the more it is clear, the darker then semi-opaque
  • Viscosity ……………. Viscous to very viscous and thick like molasses
  • Intensity of odor … 4-6 (often the darker the color the more intense is the odor)

The guide to gauge the Intensity of odor ~ On a scale of 1-10, Lemon is on the low end about 2, while Peppermint is about 7-8. There are Lavenders that run the gamut from 1-9. However, Vetivert is often not very intense and softens with use in a perfume.

  • Taste ……………………. A burning bitter aromatic flavor, a smoky scent that rises up the throat.

5 Vetivert oils ~ courtesy Eden Botanicals and Prima Fleur

 

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: In general, the odor of this EO is very distinctive, yet when compared with one another there are definite differences. The newer samples of Vetivert are lighter in color and the lighter the color the less intense and less complex is the odor. As you can see from the above illustration, color varies from pale yellow to very dark brown. Color is removed from the oil because perfume makers do not like color. Personally, I prefer the deep rich intense scent of the original Vetivert types with the rich dark color for my perfumery classes.

Vetivert when double-distilled has an earthy, green tenacious character with sweet wood quality. During re-distillation, a small fraction of the constituents is removed, thus removing some of the therapeutic quality and other Vetivert oils are recommended when therapy is required.

Vetivert oil is a viscous amber-colored oil with a characteristic rooty, precious-woody odor of great tenacity. It is olfactorily dominated by a complex mixture of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Has a persistent green-woody note and can be soft, woody-fruity when used with Patchouli, Sandalwood, Jasmine.

Vetivert double-distilled from Haiti is a light-colored EO, clear, medium viscosity and the scent is woody, green and slightly fruity odor, with less definable complexity. Because of its lack of color, it is often preferred in a perfume.

Vetivert organically grown from Haiti is a clear oil with a nice yellow color. It is strongly herbaceous and earth with a woody and even spicy note.

I am very fond of the Vetivert from Java with its deep brown color, semi-opaque, and viscous. The scent is woody, green with a floral and herbal back note. This very complex oil will indeed make your perfumes brown but upon dilution the scent smoothens out. It is wonderful with Rose or jasmine and Patchouly to make deep rich grounding odors that are sometimes

Solubility ……………………… 1-2 volumes of 80% alcohol
Specific Gravity ……………. 0.984 – 1.035 @ 25° C
Optical Rotation …………. Varies from +14° to + 37°
Refractive Index at 20° … 1.515 1.530

 

Chemical Components: There is great variety in the GC/MS of Vetivert but the one that I have seen is Vetiverol up to 50%, Vetivol up to 10%, terpenes like Vetivene up to 20%, and phenols up to 11%, Furfural, and Sesquiterpenes.

Two main chemotypes of the C. zizanioides species can be found: the ‘typical’ vetiver that is widespread all over the world and especially in Haiti, Java, Brazil, China, Madagascar, Japan and La Réunion. This produces an essential oil containing mainly zizaane, vetivane, eremophilane and eudesmane derivatives. The essential oils prepared industrially for the perfumery world market come exclusively from this variety.

On the other hand, ‘Khus’ oil another chemotype, is distinguished from the typical C. zizanioides by high amounts of cadinane derivatives, such as khusinol and especially khusilal. Khus oil is also devoid of the vetivones, characteristic of the ‘typical’ samples.

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General Properties: (by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application):
Application:  Fixative in perfumery, stimulant, humectant, antiseptic, tonic, immuno-stimulant, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, sedative, and antiparasitic.
Ingestion:  It is not taken internally.
Inhalation:  Stimulant, immuno-stimulant, calmative, some think it has emmenagogue properties, sedative, and nervine.

 

Application:  Vetivert is used as a fixative in perfumery. When used in massage oil it is good for the circulation. It is used in lotions for aching joints, arthritis, or rheumatism.  It is a circulatory tonic and it can alleviate menstrual problems.  Specifically, it is said to promote and regulate menstrual flow and alleviates cramping.

 

            Application/ Skincare:   It is moisturizing and humectant for dry skin.  So, it is used in skin care on dry, irritated, mature, or aging skin.  Vetivert EO is useful in lotions to assist in skin hydration, if used with Lemon oil to help even out the color of the skin, and when used regularly will help to reveal smoother, better-looking complexion. The EO is useful in anti-aging creams and lotions, especially with Frankincense EO.

 

Exfoliation,
a recipe for the skin

Exfoliation is just like peeling the skin off an onion.  Dead cells are removed with scrubs, masks, or acid peels, revealing the younger, smoother layer of skin beneath. Exfoliate with ground coffee, ground almonds, ground walnuts, ground oats or a combination of these with hydrosols to hydrate and essential oils to treat. Essential oils should be gentle such as Owyhee, Roman Chamomile, Sandalwood, Rose, and Vetivert.

I am particularly fond of ¼ cup ground Almonds with enough Roman Chamomile or Rose hydrosol to moisten and a drop of Vetivert. Mix together, apply to clean moist face and gently massage in with circular motions. Let it sit while you shower and then gently rinse off.

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Pain Release Formula
Mix together 20 drops Grapefruit – white, + 10 drops Rosewood + 5 drops Vetivert.
Shake vigorously and apply by massage to any painful spots on your body.

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Perfumery ~ Vetiver grass roots contain an essential oil and used with other tropical odors is considered a high-class perfume. Copper plate inscriptions have been found that list the perfume (probably as a maceration) as one of the articles used by royalty. Vetivert oil is one of the ingredients in Chanel No. 5. The famous French perfume was introduced in 1921 and is still in production. Vetivert oil is contained in 90% of all western perfumes and its greatest use is in modern perfume creations. Vetivert oil is estimated to be approximately 250 tons per year in world trade.  The herb has been known in India since ancient times.

 

Diffuse/Diffusion: Vetivert can be diffused if you mix it with other essential oils, specifically those that are less viscous such as the Lavenders or citrus odors. It makes a very warm grounding odor that helps calm a household.

 

Emotional/Energetic Use: In folklore, Vetivert oil is used to increase financial abundance. In more common ritual, inhaling the oil is said to protect the body from menacing energies, including physical illness. Vetiver is employed in massage and aromatherapy for its grounding influence, to calm the central nervous system of one who feels “uprooted.”

 

Emotional Uses (AP or IN):   

Inhalation: “The scent is calming and sedating, used for comforting and for people who feel ‘uprooted’ or without stability.  It affects the parathyroid glands” —  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p. 147.  It also alleviates stress, tension, and nervous tension.

Vetivert is also a good grounding oil for those who focus on intellectual activities to the exclusion of the physical, the herb added to the bath for an exceptional stress-relieving soak, and to inhale in the case of shock due to, for example, an accident, loss of employment, bereavement, separation, or divorce.

 

Ritual Formula – Send All Evil Away
Make a formula 20 drops Rosewood + 10 drops Palmarosa + 3 drops Vetivert.
Mix it together and use by inhalation or add to 70 drops (2 ml +) of a carrier oil.
Apply to wrists with intention and inhale.

 

Key Use: Oil of Depression and the immune system or Oil of Tranquility.

Depending on the country where used, this plant when distilled is used in perfumery and if dried used as potpourri and bug repellent.

 

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Tomato Tales with Vetivert EO & Jeanne Rose’s experience

            I collected the oil of this plant for 30 years, from various company lists. Didn’t like the odor so kept the oil and let it gracefully age on my shelves. This is one of the major essential oils that can age gracefully for many years. I have stock from 1983 and after. I have stock from a company now long gone that has added synthetics. Why this was the case, I do not know as it is a relatively inexpensive essential oil.

For all these years, I was not that fond of Vetivert essential oil although I really loved the Vetiver fans and fragrant baskets that were made with the roots. I tried to like the scent but was not successful using it in perfumes or blends. It took my friend, Marianne Griffeth, of Prima Fleur Botanicals, to teach me to love it via her ability to make successful and fragrant blends using Vetivert. Her blends were always warm and delicious smelling ~ she talked about it so much that I began to try to use Vetivert oil. I have been getting better and better and am now truly loving the scent. I like to use the less intense oils that I have obtained from Eden Botanicals but also love the deep, dark Vetivert I get from Prima Fleur Botanicals.

Recently, I took 1 tablespoon of plain unscented cleansing cream and added 1-drop of Vetivert oil and massaged on my clean face and then let it sit for a few hours before I washed it off with warm water. This was a very pleasant experience and my face looked dewy soft.

 

Blends Best with: Cassie, Cedarwood, Cinnamon, Clary Sage, Clove, Chocolate Absolute, Coffee Bean, Frankincense, Galbanum, Geranium, Grapefruit, Jasmine, Lavender, OakmossPatchouli, Rose, Sandalwood, Tobacco Absolute, Violet Leaf, Ylang Ylang and citrus and other rich long-lived scents.

 

            Blending with formula ~ When making perfumes, always mix your oils together and then shake them via succussion [Succussion – to fling up from below] to make a synergy.  Let them age.  Add more oil if needed.  Age. Then add the carrier. Alcohol is not usually added to a Chypre type scent.

These are made with a top note, heart or body note and base or fixative note plus bridges if needed.

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Chypre #3 ~ Vetivert
Top Note – 8 drops Clary Sage flower
Heart Note – 3 drops Cypress berry + 3 drops Grapefruit peel + 2 drops Petitgrain leaf
+ 2 drops Petitgrain leaf
Base Note – 4 drops Vetivert root + 2 drops Oakmoss
Fixative Note – 1 drop Labdanum resin

Mix these essential oils together, let them age for a few weeks. Smell, adjust ingredients if necessary. Dilute with oil, or alcohol and age again before using.

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Gayathri India Perfume – 8-15-12
Bergamot peel – 40 (dark green)
Vanilla abs – 20
Balsam of Tolu – 10 (pre-dilute 50•50 with grape spirits)
Vetivert roots – 5

Mix – wait – add Cane or Grape spirits – wait – filter if necessary – wait – Use.

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Dark Chocolate Truffle Perfume
Mix in any combination, start with 5 drops of each, smell, analyze
and add more or less of whatever you like.
Cocoa (Chocolate) Abs
Tobacco Abs
Vetivert EO
Vanilla Abs

 

Basket made of Vetiver roots

 

HERBAL USES: Varieties of this plant are grown throughout the tropics and used to thatch roofs or as a terracing plant. The roots of this grass acquire a soft almost sandalwood like odor when dried.  If these plants are kept moist and laid about the house, they help to keep bugs and moths out. And these dried roots are one of the best fixatives for dry potpourri as they blend well with Rose scent. Theses roots can be used in bath herbs, powdered for sachet or drunk as a tonic or stimulant tea. — Herbs & Things, Jeanne Rose’s Herbal, p. 112.

            Sometimes the roots are cleaned and used for brushes, for window screens (when wetted, will cool the house as the wind blows through), fans, mats and baskets and the chemical constituents of zizanol and epizizanol are insect repellents.

 

HYDROSOL: To date I have not had the opportunity to try a Vetiver hydrosol.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Historically used in perfumery while the herb is woven or used in mats to fragrance the air.

 Interesting Information: One type is called Khus-Khus.  The roots are used to make fragrant fans and screens, which give off a refreshing, clean scent when dampened.  “The roots are interwoven with flower matting, window coverings, etc. giving rooms a fragrance and deterring insects.  The oil is used in chypre (green, earthy) and oriental type perfumes, and soaps, toiletries, etc.  Growing the plant protects against soil erosion” essential aromatherapy, p. 170.

Key Use: Depression and the immune system. Oil of Tranquility.

 Contraindications: There do not seem to be any contraindications for the use of Vetiver plant in its use as blinds nor for the essential oil in perfumery or aromatherapy.

Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or in honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

FORMULAS

 

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Herbal Rejuvenating Parchment Skin Bath

Mix together equal parts of Patchouli leaves (upon which you have sprayed a bit of Patchouli oil), Vetivert roots, Linden flowers, and Comfrey leaf. Mix this all together. For a great bath, use at least 4 oz.by volume of the mixture. Add to a quart of water, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, then pour the liquid into your bath and the herbal matter into a gauze bag. Tie off the bag and throw into the tub. The Patchouli is rejuvenating for the senses, the Vetiver is a tonic stimulant and beneficial to healthy skin tone, and the Comfrey regenerates aging skin.

This is a great combination for men. —from Jeanne Rose Herbal Body Book, p. 301.

 

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Orange Chypre Potpourri (dried herbs).

Chypre (sheepre) scents were invented in France and used in the 16th and 17th Century and were made up of various herbal powders and resins.  See Red Chypre as an example of that time.  And they are non-alcoholic perfumes that contain a variety of oils and resins.  The true traditional formula was one composed of Oakmoss, Labdanum, Jasmine, Patchouli and Bergamot with animal notes of civet and musk with Vetivert often added. These are often composed on the contrasts between Bergamot and Oakmoss and will often include Patchouli and citrus odors.  These scents are good on brunettes and for most men except those men who are very fair, pale or blonde. Aromatics Elixir, MaGriffe and Paloma Picasso are examples of Chypre scent for women.

Potpourris and Sachets are usually made of three main ingredients: (not EO) the main plant for its scent and color; the essential scent in EO Perfumes, the blender plant scent and the fixative plant scent, which are usually resins and base notes.

Scent your basic herbs and resins with their own essential oil and age before using them in the final construction.

Remember that Potpourri ingredients are generally left in whole form so that the form of the plants is still identifiable (with fixative ingredients in powder form) while Sachet ingredients are all comminuted and/or powdered form.
8 oz. Orange flowers WH (whole)
4 oz. Spearmint WH
3 oz. Coriander seeds, crushed
2 oz. Calamus CS (cut & sifted)
2 oz. Vetiver roots CS
1 oz. Oakmoss CS
1 oz. Benzoin resin, crushed
Add some cotton balls or tips of Q-tips scented with Bergamot and Vetivert oil.

Mix this all together and age in a covered light-proof container. Occasionally, open the top of the container and let the lovely potpourri scent the room.

 

References
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Published by Krieger.
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://haitireconstruction.ning.com/page/growing-vetiver-for-essential
http://www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils.htm
https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_chzi.pdf
https://www.nap.edu/read/2077/chapter/7
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. San Francisco, CA. 2009
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery Workbook.  Available at http://www.jeannerose.net/books.html
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Frog, Ltd. Berkeley, CA. 2000
Shaath, Nadima • Healing Civilizations; The Search for Therapeutic Essential Oils & Nutrients • Cameron+Co . 2017
Wikipedia on growth and morphology
http://www.vetiver.org/UP_Vetiver.htm

Abstracts/Scientific Data:
Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. PubMed • Zhu, B C; Henderson, etc.
Modification of sleep-waking and electroencephalogram induced by vetiver essential oil inhalation
PubMed Central • Cheaha, Dania etc.
Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils. PubMed • Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; etc.
Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Vetiver being harvested in China

 

 

 

 

 

~ JR ~

 

Patchouli EO & Hydrosol

Synopsis: A well-known essential oil with both physical and emotional properties and a fascinating history of use on many continents.

 

Patchouli Essential Oil and Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ February 2017

Patchouli Oils from Eden Botanicals

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Patchouli or Patchouly is from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

Family: Lamiaceae

 Other Common Name/Naming Information: The name patchouli comes from a Tamil word, paccilai, meaning “green leaf”. An alternate common name seen in some older references is pucha-pat. The name Pogostemon means Pogo or bearded and stemon or stamen of a flower and is sometimes described as meaning “bearded thread”. In Greek this refers to the hairy middles of the four stamens.

Countries of Origins: Grows in tropical areas, 80% of Patchouli oil is produced in Sumatra. Eden Botanicals sources Patchouli EO from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. It grows well in Hawaii, particularly Kauai but is more seasonal there.

 Endangered or Not: Some Cautions. Patchouli is believed to be safe and not endangered. Avoid wild gathering. Please grow your own herbs in your own garden.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The genus Pogostemon consists of some 30 or 40 species of shrubs, sub-shrubs, and herbaceous plants native to tropical Asia. Characteristics of the genus include flowers in whorls in the upper leaf axils; a tubular, five-toothed calyx; a tubular corolla with four nearly equal lobes, and one style with two stigmas. The fruits are four seed-like nutlets. It loves rain but the water has to drain away. It prefers open sunny areas and can be intermixed with corn or Palm trees to improve the thickness of the leaf and deter leginess of the stem. The leaves are known to accumulate essential oil in the glandular trichomes. It thrives in a damp, warm climate with even rainfalls. It exhausts the soil and needs new fertile ground regularly. It flourishes in low altitudes and slightly moist soil that is properly drained. Propagated by stem cuttings planted during the rainy season and protected against too much sunshine and weeds.

Patchouly plants ~ Patchouli leaves cured prior to distillation

 

 Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The leaves are picked the top leaves preferred. A stalk 10 inches long and about 1/8 in. thick with attached leaves is considered good distillation material. After cutting this is laid out to dry on a hard surface and turned frequently to promote even drying. Drying may take 3 days. Press dry leaves into bales immediately. Aging these bales may improve odor. Do let them ferment or mold. But aged leaves do slightly ferment and will yield more oil – but this is not preferred. They were originally steam-distilled in iron pots but now more often in stainless steel. When steam-distilled the essential oil is medium brown to dark brown.  However, with the change to stainless steel stills, often the color of the essential oil is much more pale brown – golden.

The yield is about 3.5%.

            Distillation: This is one of the few plants that is best dried before distillation. Thus you will not get a true hydrosol (with cellular water intact). Arctander states that to get a good yield of Patchouli, the cell walls need to rupture prior to the distillation. This can be done by light fermentation (not to mold), by scalding with superheated steam (like blanching a vegetable), or by stacking the dried leaves and thus ‘curing’ them. My suggestion to those who can grow Patchouly is to take a trip to a Patchouli distillery and watch and learn and then to try and do it yourself. Also, the original distillation was done in iron vessels which yielded a dark and richly scented oil. With copper or stainless steel distillation you will obtain less intense but possibly as tenacious an odor. There is more information on Distillation in Guenther’s The Essential Oil on page 563 of volume III.

In a recent FB post Ramakant Harlalka showed pictures of Patchouli distillation as said, “Patchouli distillation is art, science & technology. Here heat & mass transfer which are core area of Chemical engineering plays important role in cost & quality optimizations. There are few pictures on steam distillation where distillation vessel acts like bio reactor apart taking out oil from leaf. Pretreatments of fresh leaf and digestion of same in vessel through controlled heat makes constituents of Patchouli oil where minor components (《1%) makes unique amber odor of oil.”

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: Three terpenoids Germacrene, Patchoulol or patchouli alcohol, Norpatchoulenol found in patchouli oil are responsible for the typical patchouli scent. Tenacity is one of the virtues of Patchouli oil but often its intensity (strength of odor) is low. The odor in quality Patchouli is floral, fruity, green herbaceous and spicy and more fully described as “possessing an extremely rich, sweet-herbaceous, aromatic-spicy and woody-balsamic odor with a wine-like presence.” At dry-down this same oil will retain a particularly sweet woody floral odor. It will not get tar-like. I suggest that you take a class from someone who has old (20 years old) Patchouli to really get an idea of what its odor is as much of what is sold now is very unpleasant.

 

General Properties: The herb is anti-insecticide, herb and oil are considered anti-dandruff and leech-repellent.

Via Inhalation:  Nervine, anti-depressant, calmative. aphrodisiac, tonic and skin decongesting.

Via Application: Cytophylactic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, antitoxic, and astringent.

Via Perfumery: It is of low intensity, but high tenacity and very useful as a base note and with great fixative quality.

 

Properties and Uses: Patchouli is said to cure apathy, ease confusion and indecision, heal dry skin, be healthful for the endocrine glands, be a nerve stimulant, can be seductive or aphrodisiac, for some it is stimulant, and historically it is rejuvenating.

            EO Ingestion: Constipation, uterine tonic, and to eliminate toxins. (see warning) * It was once used as a flavoring agent in ‘Sen-Sen’ type of breath freshener with a licorice taste (these were small hard pieces of candy that was sucked to camouflage the breath-smell of alcohol or tobacco).

            EO Application: In skin care products, it is used on dry, old, or wrinkled skin.  It is rejuvenating, restorative, and invigorating to the skin.  It is used as a fixative and has much value in perfumery.  It is also useful for fungal infections, bacterial infections, dandruff, as an insect repellent, on insect bites, dermatitis, athlete’s foot, ringworm, parasites, and some use it in skin care to help eliminate skin toxins.

 

Energetic/Emotional Uses by Application or Inhalation: Inhaled Patchouli historically has been used to give peace of mind, relieve confusion, and be grounding. When inhaled Patchouli is used in ritual or emotionally to cure apathy, and indecision, as a seductive agent, and for grounding and in a positive ritual — to invigorate, become lucid and reasonable.
Diffuse/Diffusion: This essential oil mixes well with many oils to produce fragrant diffusions. With its sweet herbaceous and aromatically spicy odor it works with Cedarwoods, citrus oils, Clary Sage, Lavender, Rose Geranium, Sandalwood, Vetiver, and more. Think ahead of what your outcome will be and blend oils to suit the outcome.

 

Key Use: Oil of Warmth and Age©

 

Herbal Usage: Patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is also widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, the herb is used to treat colds, fevers, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. See Jeanne Rose Herbs & Things.

 

Jeanne Rose’s Tomato Tales

Experience with this EO: Back in 1966, I lived in Big Sur as well as having a small apartment in Berkeley. In 1967, I lived in Big Sur but also in San Francisco while being involved in the rock ‘n roll world as a coutourière. In both Big Sur and San Francisco, Patchouli was the big ‘in’ thing as a deodorant. However, shaving under the arms was also ‘out’. So, personally, I found the odor of Patchouli to be retched and repugnant and it became personally inextricably linked in my mind to sweaty stinking hairy armpits and pushy-shove’y stoned fans. I disliked it then and disliked it for 30 years after and refused to use it in my work. But I had kept a 4-ounce bottle that I had purchased from Nature’s Herb Company and it lay unused until one-day I wanted to make a classic perfume. I pulled out the old Patchouli and smelled it and discovered its fragrant, rich, earthy odor — and found it ‘pleasant’. I still have some of that bottle for reference and realized that I hated Patchouli not for its odor but because of people smell who didn’t bathe enough and were using the odor to camouflage their own.  It took me more years to really enjoy using it and now I depend on it in many a formula.

When I queried Monica Miller about Patchouli (as she had done a study of it a few years ago), she said, “I love it (Patchouli) as an ingredient in deodorant, it’s the oil that works best for me and it’s not at all about covering odor it really kills the bacteria that cause odor. But you know that. I just made an awesome massage oil with honeysuckle, patchouli, lavender, arnica. The patchouli is so sexy and musky in the blend.” I completely disagree with the information that Patchouli kills the bacteria that causes underarm odor but I am willing to defer to her assessment.

P.S. If you have never smelled Patchouli on an unwashed armpit, I strongly suggest that you avoid this as you would a plague. Use it diluted with other essential oils, use it in massage, use it in dilution, use it as you will.  Also, do not equate the nasty synthetic patchouli with the real one, buy a Patchouli that you enjoy and put some of it away for the future. This oil ages well.

 

FORMULAS by Application, Massage and Skincare

Patchouli Green Bath (from New Age Creations, 1970)
3 oz. Patchouly, dried
3 oz. Orange leaf or Savory, dried
3 oz. Vetivert root, dried and C&S
2 oz. Linden flower/leaf, dried
2 oz. Strawberry or berry leaf, dried
2 oz. Comfrey or Parsley leaf, dried

Patchouly is commonly used for its rejuvenating effect on the senses. Orange leaf sharpens the awareness, Vetivert is a tonic stimulant, Linden in the bath cools the head and soothes restlessness, Strawberry eases aches and pains in the hips and is mildly astringent, Comfrey and Parsley are healing and rejuvenative.  Mix all together. Take a large handful (1/2 oz.) and place in pot with 1 qt. of water. Bring to simmer for 10 minutes and strain the solution into the tub.
Take the moist herbs, wrap in washcloth and use to exfoliate your skin.
Soak in the herbal waters at least 20 minutes.
All in all, one of the best formulas from my early skin care company New Age Creations.

More bath formulas are in my Herbal Body Book.

 

Soap Used as a bug repellent:

When I queried people in the herbal/EO world about their uses for Patchouli, I got a few responses about Patchouli oil being a bug repellent and a deodorant. Jacqueline Alberti gave me this formula for making soap using a melt and pour base with 7.5 ml of dark Indonesian Patchouli per pound of the base. She said, “I find when I use the EO (Patchouli) in soap the mosquitoes don’t bother me even 8 or 10 hours after showering”.

 

Psoriasis Formula

In a Seaweed (Fucoidan) based lotion add 5-10% mixture of Patchouli, Vetiver and Calophyllum inophyllum, Tamanu, from Madagascar. — Sheila Jacaman

 

Blends Best with: Patchouli blends best with many other essential oils and absolutes including Basil, Bergamot, most Citrus, Geranium Rose, Juniper, Labdanum, Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Sandalwood, and Rose.

 

BLENDING with formula. In perfumery use Patchouli in thoughtful amounts as a base note. Elizabeth Lind says, “Patchouli and Oak Moss are my favorite base notes, smells like the forest floor of the Santa Cruz Mountains.”

 

Three Patchouli Perfumery Formulas

#1 Brown Sugar Formula can be composed of various amounts of these essential oils: Lemon, Neroli,
Patchouli, Tangerine. Of course you know that there could be thousands of variations depending of where the ingredients were grown, how grown, pressed or distilled but these main ingredients combined is the essence of brown sugar that is sweet and fortifying but also uplifting and refreshing. Use this formula as an inhalant or in blends — for aftershave, astringent tonics, face wash or a sweet massage. Start by mixing 1 drop of each ingredient, succussing, waiting and building up the formula one drop at a time.

 

#2 Chypre (sheep ra) The word “chypre” derives from the island of Cyprus which is located in the Mediterranean. It was for many centuries the meeting point of the East and West (Turkey and Greece) for the trade of aromatic materials. During the 1800’s it became famous for the production of perfumes that contained and combined the Mediterranean essences of citrus, floral pomades, and Labdanum with the resins and gums of Arabia, such as Styrax, Frankincense, Opopanax and Myrrh.  Animal products were also traded such as civet from the civet cat of Ethiopia and musk from the musk deer from the Himalayas. These animal products were and are some of the worlds’ most valued perfume commodities.

Originally, the word chypre would have been used to describe a style of perfumery associated with the island of Cyprus. Today, however, it refers rather more specifically to a group of perfumes whose origins can be traced back to the great Chypre by Coty that was created in 1917. Truly an Art Deco scent. Today, these scents are no longer much in fashion, but we can make a Chypre scent to experience those perfumes that existed 100 years ago. [Read Natural Botanical Perfumery by Jeanne Rose for more information about Chypre and many more Chypre formulas.

            Chypre is a fragrance family – a complex of moss mixed with woods, flowers or fruit odors. A Chypre fragrance contains “Oakmoss absolute”, Bergamot and often Labdanum and Patchouli. Mix the following together, succuss, let the blend sit quietly for a few weeks to integrate and become a true synergy where no one scent is dominant over another but all are mixed to make a brand-new odor.

CHYPRE #2 –Patchouli
Top Note
15 Bergamot CP

Heart Note
18 Sandalwood Australia or Hawaii SD
6 Rosa bourbonia ABS

 Bridge Note
3 Oakmoss ABS
3 Labdanum ABS

 Base Note
15 Patchouli SD

 

#3 The Dark Green Woods
Salvia sclarea flowers                      4 drops = top note
Citrus paradisi var. white peel       3 drops = heart note
Citrus x limon var. bergamot peel 2 drops = heart note
Cupressus sempervirens leaves     3 drops = bridge note
Pogostemon cablin leaves               5 drops = base note
Mix together and succuss. Let sit for a week and then add up to 45 drops of carrier or alcohol as a diluent. Succuss again. Let sit for a week. Use as a perfume. This will be 25% perfume ingredients.

All these ingredients available in small sizes from Eden Botanicals.

 

HYDROSOL: This is one of the few plants that is best dried before distillation. Thus you will not get a true hydrosol (with cellular water intact). Patchouli hydrosol can be used as a hair spray for a temporary solution from the static in curly hair! I’m sure any hydrosol would be nice, but there is something about patchouli —Christina Smith

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

 Patchouly Oils over 44 years time

Historical Uses: Patchouli has a lovely history. The scent was introduced into Europe from Asia via the odor of the cashmere shawls. The Patchouli plant leaves had been used to protect cashmere shawls from insect predation. From about 1775 high quality cashmere shawls had begun to find their way to France and England. They were brought by travelers, explorers and military personnel as well as members of the East India Company, who brought them back as presents. François Bernier, a friend of Moliere and Cyrano de Bergerac was the first European of the modern era to see and describe the traditional cashmere shawl. The Cashmere shawl became the rage and great sums of money were spent to obtain them. Then the hunt was on to identify the odor of the shawls and the plants that made the odor. Once this had happened perfumers sought the plant, distilled it for the scent and this scent made its way into the perfume bottles of the era and thus onto the people of that time.

 Interesting Information: “Possibly originated in Malaysia although the word apparently comes from the south Indian Tamil language, patch, meaning ‘green’, and ilai meaning ‘leaf’. Patchouli means bearded stamen…375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols, p. 21. Patchouli herb is used for scenting carpets, shawls and woven materials, and for perfuming ink and sealing wax, as well as for perfume and medicine. Wrapping fabrics in Patchouli herb has been a practice for a thousand years.  Patchouli oil benefits from long storage and definitely improves with age. Old Patchouli (10 years and more old) smells sweeter and better than newly distilled Patchouli.

 Chemical Components: Patchouli is a very complex odor with three terpenoids making up the primary scent but also with dozens of other chemical components.
These three terpenoids Germacrene, Patchoulol or patchouli alcohol, Norpatchoulenol, found in patchouli oil are responsible for the typical patchouli scent.  In one study 41 compounds were separated, 28 of which (92.9% of the total oil) were identified. There are several GC/MS on line that can be looked at.

 Physiochemical Properties: There are many examples of the physical and chemical properties of Patchouly online and in Guenthers’ book, The Essential Oils. They vary by where the plant is grown and processed and distilled. Here is one from a European distillation.           

Specific Gravity …………. 0.975 to 0.987
Optical Rotation ……….. —54°0’ to —65°30’
Refractive Index at 20°.   1.5099 to 1.5111
Solubility at 20°  ………..  Soluble in 0.5 vol. and more of 90% alcohol

Abstract/Scientific Data: There is an extensive article about Patchouli online, called “Review — A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance by Mallappa Kumara Swamy and Uma Rani Sinniah.”

 Contraindications: The Material Safety Data Sheet, or MSDS, for Patchouli oil indicates it is hazardous if ingested. If the oil is swallowed, contact Poison Control immediately. As with any oil-based material, do not induce vomiting as the oil could enter the victim’s lungs during vomiting. However, once was widely used as a flavorant in oriental-style flavorings.

 References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Chakrapani. P, et al • Phytochemical, Pharmacological importance of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth) an aromatic medicinal plant •Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 21(2), Jul –Aug 2013; nᵒ 02, 7-15
Jessee, Jill. Perfume Album. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 1951.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California.
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)

 

Safety Precautions:
Patch Test:
 If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
            Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
*Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally. Essential oils can come from many sources including areas that are heavily farmed and/or sprayed with toxic pesticides and defoliants.
Patchouli flowers, south-facing, 410 feet elevation, photo by Willie Shook, Kilauea, Hawaii, 1-12-17
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

~ JR ~

 

 

 

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

            There is so much information available on this plant, that this short blog post will only highlight what I find to be some of the interesting aspects of Frankincense. When searching for information ignore sites that want to sell you any sort of product. Instead check under words like ‘Frankincense taxonomy’ or ‘science of Frankincense’ or ‘smithsonian.gov or ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or the theplantlist.com, or ‘frankincense gc/ms or the same main leads using its Latin name Boswellia.
frankincense-x5fig. 1 Essential oils courtesy of Eden Botanicals

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin:

            Name. George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood who lived from 1832-1917 named the Olibanum or Frankincense plant, Boswellia carterii, aka B. carteri. The Latin binomial of one of the species of Frankincense was named after James Boswell [companion and biographer of Samuel Johnson] and the word ‘carterii’ after Professor H.J. Carter who described the Egyptian mummies and made the first scientific collection of specimens from Arabian frankincense in 1846. … “Dr. H. J. Carter was surgeon in an East Indian company survey ship, the H.M.S. Palinurus which was surveying the south Arabian coast”.  He studied a branch of Frankincense tree thought to be a species similar to the Indian variety of Frankincense, B. serrata.  Later work showed that Dr. Carter had actually been looking at B. sacra. The tree originally found by Carter was named after him by Birdwood and called B. carterii now called B. sacra.  Even later studies showed that in all probability the tree found by Carter and named by Birdwood was of Somali origin. There are at least 17 species of Boswellia and they are very difficult to distinguish. The family name is Burseraceae and includes the genus of Myrrh, Olibanum and Elemi. The name Olibanum is derived from the Arabic word al luban or the milk, which refers to the milky exudate of the trees that is the resin.
Country. These trees grow in Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa, including Somalia and Ethiopia.

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields:
Botany.
Frankincense (Boswellia carterii) comes from a small tree native to North Africa (Somalia) and some Arab countries. When the bark of the tree is damaged it exudes a white emulsion, the oleo-gum-resin that is white and milky. When this emulsion comes into contact with air it slowly hardens and congeals into tears and drops that are whitish – amber or burnt orange in color about ½ to 1 ½  inches in diameter. It is this emulsion or resin that is picked from the ground or off of the bark and that is steam distilled to produce the pure essential oil of Frankincense, also known as Olibanum. The resin comes from the schizogenous gum-oleo-resin reservoirs within the plant. It is now also CO2 extracted.
Yield from steam-distillation is 3-6%

 

History:  There are very few essential herbs (plants used for medicine or body care or aroma) available that have a longer and more distinguished history than Cinnamon, Frankincense, Galbanum, Labdanum, Myrrh, and Storax.  These have all been known and used since ancient times and all are mentioned more than once in the Bible as well as other historical texts. For about 400 + years we have had their essential oils as well. We have already discussed Myrrh in the November blog. This resin that was known around the world for thousands of years simply as ‘incense’, and has been in use by mankind since antiquity is Frankincense.

This resin that was known around the world for thousands of years simply as ‘incense’, and has been in use by mankind since antiquity is Frankincense. The word Olibanum comes from the Arabic al-luban and means ‘the milk’ — the true incense.  The word Frankincense comes from the old French word fraunk-encens and means the true or real incense.

fig-2-frankincense-tears-al-luban-copyfig. 2. al luban ~ the milk

         The historical use of Frankincense is in spiritual and religious rituals. It is one of the oldest herbs/resins used for this purpose. Rising smoke from burning resins was a means of communicating from the ancient peoples to the gods, and Frankincense was burned on hot coals for this purpose as well as for its healing properties and fragrance. Frankincense was considered a very sacred gift. It was also used in embalming.

In ancient times Frankincense was bought and sold everywhere. Arabia was the largest exporter and its trees produced the best quality Frankincense. In Babylon, every year 57,200 pounds of Frankincense was burned. In Assyria at the annual feast of the god Baal, nearly 60 tons of Frankincense was used. When Herod was buried, 5,000 slaves preceded the funeral procession carrying urns of the burning resin. At his wife’s funeral in 65 AD, Nero burned all the Frankincense produced by Arabia in one year. [He needed to expiate his sins as what is not generally known is that he had beat his pregnant wife to death].

The story most people are familiar with is that of the three holy kings who presented what they considered the most precious gifts to the Son of God at Bethlehem: gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh.

The smoke of Frankincense fills churches and sacred spaces to this day as well as the ritual areas of many people. From this burning incense a fragrance issues that “that floats on an invisible thread to heaven to attract the attention of the Gods”.  For it is on fragrance that the gods feed and it is fragrance that they desire.
         Dr. Michael Stoddord discovered that Frankincense contains a substance similar to sexual hormones, which awaken sexual desire. Reports for the Academy of Science in Leipzig, Germany claim that when Frankincense is burned the chemical tetrahydrocannabinol is produced. This substance is thought to expand the subconscious. Inhalation of Frankincense slows and deepens the breath and is calming and relaxing.

 

Aroma Assessment/Organoleptics: The Frankincense oil that I have from 1972 is deep golden in color, clear, very viscous with a deep intensity of scent and a fragrance that is rich, spicy, balsamic, agreeable, with a citrus or lemon back note. It has a bitter aromatic taste. The Frankincense from 2003 is much paler gold in color, clear, not viscous, with a lighter smoother but not as richly pleasing an odor. Currently, I have five samples of Frankincense and they are colorless to very pale yellow, clear, non-viscous, not intense with a bitter taste. This vast difference from golden yellow – colorless and viscous – non-viscous and intensely fragrant to not intense has happened in the last 10 years. Why? I cannot answer.

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors, hinting at a broader olfactory asymmetry. So if you are lost and wish to get home or wish to know the intensity of a scent, sniff the air with the right side. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left for scent, smell right for intensity and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

Best methods of application:
Application: The use of the essential oil of Frankincense has expanded beyond spiritual use. It is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic properties. It is useful in lotions, salves, soaps and oils and indicated for acne, skin problems, and boils. Frankincense essential oil benefits the skin by keeping it healthy and preventing wrinkling and aging.
Ingestion: Frankincense resin can be partially dissolved in water and this water is drunk for the boswellic acid that is helpful in clearing disease.
Inhalation: Used by inhalation in a diffuser, Frankincense is beneficial in treating bronchitis, excessive mucus, colds, and coughs. It is indicated for excessive mucous, as an inhalant treatment for asthma, inhaled and massaged to stimulate the immune system and for nervous depression.
Perfumery: Frankincense is a useful addition to aromatherapy blends and potpourri, where it serves to fix the scent and acts as a base note. It is of particular value in perfume blends of the Oriental style, because it rounds out and gives alluring tones that are particularly difficult to identify as to the source.
Properties: In addition, Franchomme and Pénoël suggest that the properties are anti-catarrh, expectorant, cicatrizing, immuno-stimulating and anti-depressant.

frankincense treefig. 3. Trygve Harris in front of an Omani Frankincense tree. 2011

Hydrosol: I have had the pleasure to experience the hydrosol of Frankincense that was distilled by Jack Chaitman. It was very refreshing with an herbal citrus scent. This was mixed with Rosemary hydrosol 50•50 and used as a facial spray. With Rosemary hydrosol, the combination is soothing to the skin and anti-aging. If you choose to use the resin instead, soaked in water, then the fluid diluted, filtered — this can be used as a facial or body spray as well.

 Endangered or not: Frankincense is considered to be threatened and/or endangered due to heavy usage, people moving into the Frankincense areas and by over-tapping. Dutch and Ethiopian researchers studying populations of the trees in northern Ethiopia found that as many as 7% of the trees are dying each year and that it could be gone within 50 years.

 Safety Precautions: There are no known contra-indications. However, I recommend that you dilute before using and a patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin. There is more risk of harm if using oxidized oil. See p. 64 The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations for the test.

 Storage: Store the EO in glass in a cool dark place, but not in the fridge or freezer. The resinous oil may harden after a time but can be diluted with a bit of alcohol, and it will slowly soften and liquefy after a few days. Frankincense is considered slowly soluble in 3.5 to 6 vol. of 90% alcohol, sometimes with slight turbidity.

 

Chemistry: Chemistry of the Essential Oil. The chemical components of Frankincense include 1-a-pinene, dipentene, Phellandrene, cadinene, camphene, olibanol, and various resins. Olibanol is considered to be in reality a mixture of verbenone, verbenol, and some other terpene alcohols, including most likely d-borneol. According to Blumann and Schulz “olibanol” is C26H44O.
Physicochemical Properties from Guenther.
Specific Gravity at 15°………….0.872 to 0.892
Optical Rotation.………………….The oils distilled prior to 1903 were levorotatory, up to —17°; since then they are dextrorotatory, up to +35°. The cause of this change is not clear.
Refractive Index at 20°………1.471 to 1.482
Solubility.…………………………Soluble in 3.5 to 6 vol. of 90% alcohol, sometimes with slight turbidity.

 Only four resins have been laboratory tested to have Boswellic acid in them; Boswellia papyrifera, B. sacra/carterii, and B. serrata.

Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(12):1100-16. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Ammon HP1. Author information
Abstract ~ Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases.

Collective information: Frankincense was widely used for medicinal purposes to treat skin disease, nervous system imbalances and digestive disruption, and was listed as a medicinal and aromatic plant in the ancient Egyptian record, Ebers Papyrus. Like Myrrh, the oil was used in ancient times for embalming, as well as beautifying rituals, including using the charred resin for kohl eyeliner. But Frankincense is perhaps best known for its calming and sedative effects on the mind and central nervous system, making it ideal for meditation. The smoke of the burning incense is also used to cleanse the body of critters and smells — you can see this as a painting on the cover of my book, The World of Aromatherapy or in Massachusetts at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown as Fumée d’AmberGris, 1880 by John Singer Sargent.
               Menninger describes Frankincense tree as looking like a ‘decomposing corpse’ with its stiff branches, scanty leaves and trunk color of a peculiar blotchy color. He goes on to say that the flowers are few, red and with an odor that is not always pleasant.

 

 Christmas Season Essential Oils and Herbs


christmas-ribbonFRANKINCENSE:
(Boswellia spp.)  Fam. Burseraceae. The true incense. A much favored incense for churches and other places of spiritual ritual.  The essential oil calms and awakens higher consciousness.  It is useful in coping with grief, soothes the mind and emotions.  It is useful for respiratory conditions, is warming, in body care products for aging skin.  A very spiritual, ancient odor.

GALBANUM: (Ferula galbaniflua) Fam. Apiaceae. This deep aroma that resonates of green and vegetative, represents the element of air.  It is grounding, uplifting, and balancing.  Applied externally in skin care it rejuvenates aging skin; it is used as a fixative in perfumery and aromatherapy.

GIFTS OF THE MAGI: A mixture of Frankincense, the true incense (Olibanum, from the Arabic word, ‘the milk’) and Myrrh with the golden color of the true Cedar. [See above and below]

MYRRH: (Commiphora molmol) Fam. Burseraceae. Inhale to calm fears about the future.  Smells hot but cools the air and the emotions. Antiseptic to the lungs, good for problems of the throat or for arthritis. Possible wound treatment. A luxury infused oil for 5000 years when it was used in cosmetics and perfumery. Revitalizes the skin, especially for aged and wrinkled skin.  Inhaled to regulate the body secretions, as an astringent and antiseptic to the lungs, to stimulate 6th and 7th chakra. Vibrates in blue to indigo.
Mix these EO’s together in any combination and you will have a rich, deeply scented combination of oils to use in meditation, celebration or any use that pleases you. If you are using the herbs, that is, the resins, mix them as well in any combination and burn over charcoal to have a lovely incense for ritual use. Don’t worry! Be content with your life.

Recipes 

~ More Ideas ~

  • Perfume/Cologne ~ Oriental Perfume @ 25% or l6 % if including the water.
    5 drops of each of Frankincense, Patchouli and Ylang-Ylang plus
    4 drops each of Rose abs, Sandalwood of your choice and
    2 drops Coriander seed.
    Mix together by succussion and let age for 2 weeks. Then add 75 drops of 95% alcohol and age again. Add 50 drops distilled water. Shake before using.

 

  • Spiritual Uses: Meditation and calming is what Frankincense is known for. The resin is burned and inhaled in the Catholic Church and other rituals, the essential oil is applied to the pulse points prior to meditation or prayer and I use it in this fashion when I walk the labyrinth.
    Menninger states that the incense burned in the Catholic Church is a mixture of 66% Frankincense, 27% Styrax benzoin, 7% Liquidamber orientalis and this distinctive scent burns visible but without excessive clouding.

 

  • Inhalation for colds, relaxing, healing ~ Diffuser Blend
    Varying amounts of Juniper berry, Frankincense resin, and Bergamot peel. Because the resin will get sticky and dry out you must always clean your diffuser with alcohol after each use.

 

  • Skincare ~ Anti-Aging Skin Formula
    30 drops each of Frankincense resin, Lavender flower from high altitude, & Rosemary verbenone. Blend and add to 2 oz. any carrier oil + 2 oz. Calophyllum and ½ tsp. Vitamin E oil. Apply daily to the skin or scalp and massage in gently.

 

  • Haircare ~ Condition scalp (with substitution it may cure alopecia
    30% Rosemary verbenone
    25% Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica)
    20% Rose Absolute (any kind)
    20% ancient Frankincense (your favorite)
    To the blend add 5% (or more) of 95% grape spirits
    Smells resinous and sharp. The Rose absolute scent may be completely lost. But it does condition the scalp and get rid of any lingering yeast. Mix the oils together, add to the grape spirits. When needed, shake the bottle and add a dab to the scalp, massage into scalp. This will also help cure alopecia if you substitute Thyme linaloöl for the Rose absolute.

 

  • Body ~ Detoxifying Bath Blend
    30 drops Juniper berry or Cypress needle/twig oil
    20 drops Frankincense resin
    20 drops Bergamot peel oil
    Blended and added to 4 oz. carrier oil and ½ tsp. Vitamin E oil. Rub no more than 1 oz.  all over your body after bath or shower.

 

fig-4-frankincense-biospherefig. 4. Frankincense in the Biosphere
  • Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tales: In 2003 I was asked to teach a class at the Biosphere in Tucson, AZ. On our initial tour through this rather amazing place, I saw the Frankincense tree that had been a gift from a Saudi prince. It wasn’t as leafy as it is now, but none-the-less it was growing in the desert atmosphere. What an amazing tree. I had been collecting resin, essential oil and information on this Biblical plant since 1970. And here it was for me to see. The class was a wonderful success and the tour a wealth of information.

 

  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: People want to drink Frankincense for the boswellic acid that is considered a cancer ‘cure’. It is really easy to make. Remember that the essential oil does not have the boswellic acid, it is in the resin. Simply take a small handful of the resin, place in a beaker, add 300 ml of water, let it soak for 2 days, transfer the milky solution to a new container, refrigerate. Drink 1-2 ounce per day. Repeat. Dry out the residue that is in the beaker and burn as incense.
  • Only four resins have been laboratory tested to have Boswellic acid in them; Boswellia papyrifera, B. sacra/carterii, and B. serrata.
fig-5-frankincense-resin-waterfig. 5. Frankincense water to drink

 

 

Bibliography:
Franchomme & Pénoël. l’aromatherapie exactement. Jollois, 1990.
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. vol. IV, pages 352-356. Krieger Publ. Malabar, FL 1972
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=frankincense
Karydas, Rita C. Based on a paper, Frankincense. 2001
Langenheim, Jean H. Plant Resins. Timber Press, Portland. 2003. This is the best book on the subject
Menninger, Edwin. Fantastic Trees. Timber Press, Oregon. 1967, 1995.
Plants of Dhofar. Publ. Adviser for Conservation of the Environment. Sultanate of Oman. 1988.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog Ltd. Berkeley, CA. 1999
—————. The Aromatherapy Book.  North Atlantic Books. 1992.
Sellar, Wanda & M. Watt. Frankincense & Myrrh. C.W. Daniel. 1996.
Wildwood, Christine. Creative AromatherapyThorsons. 1993

 

fig-6-2011-pathetic-frankincense-treefig. 6. Poor pathetic example of the Frankincense tree that I tried to grow in a pot. 2011.

 

 

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.

 

 

fig-7-gatheringfig. 7. Gathering of Frankincense
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

 

~ JR ~

East Indian Sandalwood EO Profile

Santalum album ~ the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses, from S. album from Australia and India. Specific information and many recipes for use.

 

East Indian Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

 screen-shot-2016-09-21-at-9-25-50-amFigure 1. Santalum album grown in Australia and S. album grown in India

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin ~ Sandalwood or Santal from various species of Santalum.  There are many species, that are currently used and distilled for their essential oil S. album L. — Indian sandalwood, white sandalwood, or chandana (India Indonesia, northern Australia); I examined two, S. album grown in Australia and S. album Rare that was grown in India.

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields: The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is becoming endangered. The heartwood is chipped and steam-distilled sometimes over another plant. Yield is 4-6.5%.

            This is a hemi-parasitic tree and requires one or more host plants by which it obtains nutrition through the roots. The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.

Endangered or not The sandalwood tree has now become endangered due to overharvesting, greatly limiting supply and hence use. This is truly unfortunate. When you consider that in 1957 the world population was 2.8 billion and now it is about 6 billion it is pretty clear that with more people there is more demand for precious essential oils and commodities. I believe that we have to grow more but each of us must use less as each and every one of us is responsible for the damage to the planet by over-exploitation and desire. In regards to the pirates who are cutting ad stealing Sandalwood trees in India, Tony Burfield said in 2004, “The Sandalwood tree is being smuggled out of existence.”

 

Sandalwood Distillation

Step one in the custom distillation of Sandalwood heartwood. First you need a two-day soak in water. Try at least 500 grams. to be distilled in a small 20 liter (21 quarts) still. and distilled 2-3 days’ oil if carried out at a pressure of 30-40 psig, to produce the crude oil. The first 2-5% of “sandalwood terpenes” are rejected and then often redistilled. For those persons interested, distillation for Sandalwood is often considered best in the correct corresponding planetary hours maybe on a waning moon.

sandalwood-soakingFigure 2. Sandalwood soaking in water prior to distillation

 

Aging and Storage of Sandalwood: The wood can be stored indefinitely just as other wood and other essential oils are stored in dark, lightproof, airtight containers, glass preferred. However, that being said, I have some Sandalwood chips I purchased over 40 years ago that I stored in a paper bag in the dark basement that seems just fine with the delicious warm, woody odor intact. I have also pulled out all my old samples and bottles of Sandalwood essential oil, dusty as they are and as old as they are, they are somewhat more viscous but the scent has held up over all these years.

            Sandalwood ages well. The essential oil should be kept in a tightly sealed airtight container, glass, and in a cool, dark place such as a basement that has an ambient temperature of 50-55°. The refrigerator is not the place to store good Sandalwood oil.

 

Organoleptic ~ As a learning aid study the organoleptic qualities of essential oils. This is a method to help assist in describing and determining the quality of the essential oil that you are studying by involving the use of the sense organs for evaluation. These qualities are what you perceive through your senses; that is, what you can see, taste and smell as a degree of intensity. There is more to essential oil than its odor. Santalum album Rare from India (Eden Botanicals) had a very pale yellow tint, was clear, semi-viscous, with an intensity rating of 2 (1-10 with 10 being the most intense) and a oily unctuous taste tending to bitter. S. album Plantation grown in Australia was also a very pale yellow tint, clear, semi-viscous and with an intensity of 2-3, just slightly more intense than the Sandalwood grown in India and also an oily unctuous taste that was bitter.

Aroma Assessment ~ Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of scent training is to develop in common odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.

            I have noticed that Sandalwood Oil does not smell the same as in years past. The scent has changed due to several factors: 1) some product makers are using synthetic or partially synthetic oils and 2) because all botanical products change and alter depending on the season and the year. Try tasting Olive oil from one season to the next.

All the Sandalwoods I examined (10) were smooth and unctuous and were predominantly woody; with subsidiary notes. S. album Rare from India was most evocative of the scent that I knew 50 years ago, woody and floral with hay back note. The S. album plantation grown from Australia was also woody, floral and hay and marine back notes.   

 

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors, hinting at a broader olfactory asymmetry. So if you are lost and wish to get home or wish to know the intensity of a scent, sniff the air with the right side. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left, smell right and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

 

Best method of application for Indian Sandalwood. Personally I use Indian Sandalwood ritually in meditation. For me it is calming and uplifting and helpful in overall well-being. The S. album Rare from India is both stimulating and grounding and I use it in meditation for opening that part of my being that is the seat of power and wisdom. According to the Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the Sandalwood tree.

 

Which Sandalwood is best and which is the most therapeutic? The most therapeutic of these various Sandalwoods is the one that you enjoy more than the others. If you can inhale one with a significant amount of santalol — enjoy its benefits and use the others for application.

 

Collective information:

RECIPES

  • Body Care ~ such as a Sore throat. This is often another unpleasant symptom of a cold or flu, for which gargles are quite effective. For a dry throat that needs soothing, use two drops each of Sandalwood (Santalum album) and Lemon in half a glass of warm water. For sore throat due to coughing up of mucus, use Atlas Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) and Eucalyptus. In each case, continue gargling every few hours.

 

  • Emotional Care ~ For Depression (I can’t do anything, I will never do anything) ~ 10 drops each of Bergamot, Geranium, Grapefruit, Orange peel, Sandalwood and 3 drops of Ylang-Ylang Extra. Mix these together and put into a 1-dram vial. Inhale as needed.

 

  • Hair Care ~ The uncomfortable Scalp itch can be mitigated by massaging oils with a formula of essential oils into the scalp. Use 9 drops each of Black Spruce and Rosemary + 2 drops of Sandalwood (20 drops to 2 oz. of almond oil). Massage into scalp, put on a cap and sleep in it overnight. In the morning you can wash your hair.

 

  • Perfume ~ In perfumery some oils like Sandalwood take days to dry down making them a significant contribution to a long lasting perfume. Here is a scent that I enjoy. It is called Sensual Floral/Wood and is made with 100 ml floral water, with the added essential oils of 40 drops Orange or Clementine, 30 drops Sandalwood, 10 drops Neroli, 10 drops Rose, 6 drops Champa or Ylang, 4 drops other Floral. Use the formula as an after-bath or shower spray, or mist lightly on pillows and sheets. Wonderful as a room spray.

 

  • Skin Care ~ such as a Skin Itch from Chemotherapy

Calophyllum inophyllum 25-30 drops
Chamomile, Roman 5 drops
Rose distilled 2 drops
Rosewood 8 drops
Sandalwood East Indian 8 drops
Add the above to 2 oz. cream or with Calendula Infused Oil and apply as needed.

 

  • Sexual Blend for Men. This is for (premature ejaculation and to balance the autonomic nervous system) and is recommended by Victoria Edwards. Mix together 10 drops Bergamot EO, 2 drops Blue Tansy or Blue Cypress EO, 6 drops Sandalwood EO, 3 drops Lemon EO and 2 oz. (60 ml) carrier oil; Massage on lower body, especially around the groin area and just before sex.

 

  • Sandalwood (literature) is also mentioned in many books such as this quote from Hannibal by Thomas Harris “Here the air was music. Here were pale tears of Frankincense awaiting extracting, yellow Bergamot, Sandalwood, Cinnamon and Mimosa in concert, over the sustaining ground notes of genuine ambergris, civet, castor from the beaver, and essence of the musk deer.”

 

  • Woman’s Oil ~. Use 10 drops of Spikenard and Sandalwood as an inhalant to balance and harmonize your spirit. It is amazing how relaxing and focusing this simple remedy can be and all you need to do is inhale it.

An Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale story ~ I have loved this oil since 1960 and chose it and the Sandalwood fans as a scent. During my pregnancy in 1964 I would use the Sandalwood soap and when Amber was born, I kept at least one of her blankets in a bag with thin Sandalwood wood chips that were the size of a business card to add the scent to the ‘blankies’. Later, in 1969, when I started New Age Creations my skin care company, I used the cut and sifted wood chips with Rose and Clove as a potpourri, sleep pillow and the essential oil in lotions and products for Amber and I. To this day it is a scent that Amber prefers above all others.

 

Safety Considerations for Sandalwood oil: No contraindications, but may cause adverse skin reaction; a maximum use level of 2% is recommended in any product. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

For an in-depth discussion of all the Sandalwood oils please read my blog post
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 

Fig. 11. Sandalwood and oil

 

JR

Australian Sandalwood Profile

Some specific information on the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses of Australian Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum.

Australian Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

S.spicatum-EB-circle

West Australian Sandalwood Oil, Santalum spicatum, can be a good substitute for Indian Sandalwood. In this era, where we know that Sandalwood oil from India, Santalum album, is an endangered species; it may be time to switch to a new essential oil. West Australian Sandalwood has a similar woody odor, physically a similar effect to Indian Sandalwood oil and can be used in perfumery. It would also help the Australian economy.

For more information on Sandalwood in general, please see the previous blog post at
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 

Organoleptic Qualities: It is colorless to pale yellow, clear, semi-viscous oil with a low intensity and a bitter taste. When used in perfumery it has a lovely woody tenacity that holds the perfume together for an extended time.

 Aroma Assessment: I have had the opportunity to smell Australian Sandalwood, S. spicatum from several sources as well as assessing the odor of S. album grown in Australia. These oils are the same with some slight differences. If you look at the Figure 2 you will note that this oil has a Predominant note of Wood with Subsidiary notes of Floral and sweet Hay and the Back notes include Green, Leather, Oily/Fatty, Honey, Amber, and Caramel. The unctuous scent is described as Oily/Fatty. This EO has a bit of a different scent than other S. spicatum.

Another oil I sampled, had a Predominant note of Wood, Subsidiary note of Floral while lacking the slightly sweetness of Hay, with Back notes that included a slight Citrus, Green again, Oily/Fatty and this time a slight Civet scent with Caramel.

Both are the same but slightly different. If you have an opportunity, try to smell several Sandalwoods from trustworthy sources (and all are not trustworthy) and then choose your favorite from these and for the purpose that you want. [p.s.. I only mention EO’s from a company that I personally trust].

Inhalation for emotional release might be a different EO than the one to use as a deodorant or a perfume ingredient. So try them and choose your favorite.

 Growth: Sandalwood trees are a hemi-parasite, entwining their roots with the roots of a host and deriving nourishment in this way. In Australia, S. spicatum main host is Acacia acuminata which will sustain the Sandalwood tree from 15-30 years. It grows in semi-arid areas but land clearing for agriculture and over cultivation, since the 1880s, has greatly reduced the range of the species.

The EO concentration and quality depends on the age of the tree and where on the tree the heartwood is collected. Heartwood percentage, oil concentration and oil quality were all lower further up the tree. Studies are being done continuously and often the concentration of santalol is lower in S. spicatum than other species but this is changing due to the collection of seeds from stands that have a higher percentage of santalol.

Chemistry:
Commercial Australian sandalwood oil produced from Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) A. DC. roots were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Seventy constituents were identified: four monoterpenes, 64 sesquiterpenes and two others were found to our knowledge for the first time in nature.4.

            Constituents of Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A. BC. wood oil Article in Journal of Essential Oil Research 3(6):381-385 · November 1991. DOI: 10.1080/10412905.1991.9697970

            Abstract The chemical composition of the steam-distilled wood oil of Santalum spicatum was investigated by means of GC/MS. The major constituents of the entirely sesquiterpenoid oil were trans, trans-farnesol (31.6%), epi-α-bisabolol (anymol?) (10.7%), α-santalol (9.1%), Z-nuciferol (6.5%), cis-β-santalol (5.4%), cis-lanceol (3.9%) and epi-β-santalol (2.9%).5.

Uses:
Commercial Uses:
The tree is grown as a source of essential oil, much of which is exported, the nuts which are a food crop and timber used to make furniture and boxes and in incense.

Therapeutic Uses:
The common name is fragrant Sandalwood Tree, Santalum spicatum. In a test of many essential oils, Australian Sandalwood Oil demonstrated the greatest degree of anti-microbial efficacy. The bacteriostatic effect of Australian Sandalwood Oil, in relation to Staphylococcus aureus, was 25 times greater than that of Tea Tree Oil and demonstrated the greatest degree of bacteriostatic activity against the yeast Candida albicans. European research confirms that Australian Sandalwood Oil kills bacteria, in vitro, against many gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, (and MRSA or ‘Golden Staph’) and many species of Streptococcus, in addition to the organisms that are responsible for acne, thrush, tinea, Athletes Foot and ringworm. The concentration of oil required to inhibit the growth of all bacteria (except Escherichia coli) was very low, confirming a significant bacteriostatic effect. So it is an excellent ingredient in all skin care formulas where it will also add a fine woody scent.

The organism that is apparent in human body odor, Corynebacterium xerosis is strongly inhibited by  Australian Sandalwood and thus would be useful in deodorant formulas. With all bacteria except the enterobacteria, Sandalwood oil demonstrated significantly greater antimicrobial efficacy than terpinene-4-ol, the main component of Tea tree oil.

I have experimented with this oil and found a simple and easy Deodorant formula. First, I add 5% Blue Cypress to the Sandalwood oil. This deepens the scent and gives it an invisible deeper woody odor. Then I add 95% neutral grape spirits to 5-8% of the essential oils. And don’t worry about the alcohol in the formula. You only use a short spray under each pit (less than a drop), this kills the odor causing bacteria.

 

Formula:
In a 100 ml bottle with a spray top
190 drops of Sandalwood oil
10 drops of Blue Cypress
This is about 6 ml. total

Fill the bottle with 95% neutral grape spirits (do not use vodka unless it is 150°, do not use rubbing alcohol, use only real neutral grain or grape spirits (Everclear works also).
The essential oils are at 6% and may need to be increased up to 10% depending on the level of scent that you want. At 6%, this formula kills the human body odor, leaving little to no odor behind.

Bibliography:
1.Aromatic Plant Project Articles. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html
2.
http://www.jeanne-blog.com/
3.http://jonnsaromatherapy.com/pdf/GC-MS_Santalum_spicatum_2007_01.pdf
4.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254246050_Western_Australian_Sandalwood_Oil_-_New_Constituents_of_Santalum_Spicatum_R_Br_A_DC_Santalaceae
5.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233451280_Constituents_of_Santalum_spicatum_RBr_A_BC_wood_oil

Source to purchase oil:

Eden Botanicals

                                                                                  Sandalwood spicatum-EB-odor

 

Figure 2. Odor Assessment of S. spicatum ~ EB

 

Fig. 1.spicatumFigure 1

For more information on Sandalwood in general, please see the previous blog post at

http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

JR

Sandalwood EO Profile

 Sandalwood is a favorite herb, ritual incense and perfume ingredient. It is now widely cultivated but over-harvested. It has some serious healthy benefits with a woody, warm and sensuous scent that is healing to the skin. Read the history and use of this ancient plant material.

Fig. 1.Sandalwood x 2Fig. 1. Oil from 2 Sandalwood species

 Sandalwood EO & Hydrosol
By Jeanne Rose ~ August 2016

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Sandalwood or Santal from various species of Santalum.  There are many species, about 15-25, I will mention only the ones currently used and distilled for their essential oil or that I have mentioned elsewhere in this article:

  1. S. album L. — Indian sandalwood, white sandalwood, chandana (India Indonesia, northern Australia);
  2. S. austrocaledonicum (New Caledonia, Vanuatu);
  3. S. fernandezianum Phil. (Juan Fernández Islands);
  4. S. freycinetianum Gaudich. — ʻiliahi (Hawaiʻi);
  5. S. paniculatum Hook. & Arn. — ʻiliahi (Hawaiʻi);
  6. S. spicatum (R.Br.) A.DC. — Australian sandalwood (Australia);
  7. S. yasi Seem. – yasi (Fiji, Niue) Tonga- Ahi.

 Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word Santalum simply is the Sanskrit name for the tree Sandalwood. How they began to use it in the beginning I don’t think we know. Although, the aroma of the oil and the wood is esteemed by people belonging to three major religions of the world – Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. The various species names are indicative of some part of the plant; album meaning white, austrocaledonicum means coming from the Australian and Caledonian area, spicatum meaning spiked like the grains on wheat.

Family: Santalaceae

Countries of Origins: There are many Indo-Malaysian to Australian and Hawaiian species. The natural distribution of sandalwood extends from 30° N to 40° S from Indonesia in the east to Juan Fernandez Islands (Chile) in the west and from Hawaiian Archipelago in the north to New Zealand in the south. It is a small to medium-sized hemi-parasitic tree, distributed rather widely in India. S. freycinetianum Gaudich is the basis of the Hawaiian Sandalwood industry from 1791 that peaked in 1810 and the trees were exhausted by 1840. Another species S. fernandezianum F. Philippi, is rare through over-exploitation for timber by 1740 and extinct by 1916. Used for fragrant timber, especially S. album L. from India called Sandalwood is widely cultivated and used for making chests, and the distilled oil used in scent and medicine.

 Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Australia, India, Hawai`i and New Caledonia.
http://www.edenbotanicals.com/

 Endangered or Not: The sandalwood tree has now become endangered due to over-harvesting, greatly limiting supply and hence use and unfortunately, Australian sandalwood oil (Santalum spicatum) is not only in short supply but does not have quite the odor quality of East Indian Sandalwood oil due to its lower amount of beta-santalol. When you consider that in 1957 the world population was 2.8 billion and now it is about 6 billion it is pretty clear that with more people there is more demand for precious essential oils and commodities. I believe that we have to grow more but use less, for each and every one of us is responsible for the damage to the planet by over-exploitation and desire. I would like to see people not use Sandalwood for two generations and prosecute, jail, and educate the pirates that are stealing it and cutting down trees.

“In the early 19th century, Santalum paniculatum and three other Hawaiian endemic species of sandalwood were severely over-harvested for the commercial export of their fragrant heartwood. Due to the slow growth of these trees and continued human disturbance, this species is uncommon in the native forests of Hawai`i.”
http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=10201

Fig. 2.Sandalwood x10Fig. 2. Sandalwood oil courtesy of Eden Botanicals, Prima Fleur

General description of Plant habitat and growth: S. album is a tall evergreen tree with bunches of reddish yellow flowers confined to forests in southern India.  Growing at altitudes of 2,000 to 3,000 feet, the tree grows up to 60-65 feet in height and is actually a hemi-parasite plant.  The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.  The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is endangered.

            Santalum paniculatum is only found on the big island of Hawai’i, called Mountain sandalwood, it is a shrub or small tree 3 to 10 meters in height. Its greenish-blue leaves are ovate to elliptic, 2.5-8 cm long and 2-4.5 cm wide. The upper leaf surface is shiny and the lower surface glaucous (covered with a powdery coat) and they are oppositely arranged along the twigs. The flowers are sweet smelling and usually clustered at the ends of the branches. The corolla (tube of fused petals) is green in the bud, turning brown or orange to salmon after opening. Each flower is between 4 to 8 mm long and contains both male and female reproductive parts. The ovary sits below the corolla and develops into a single seeded fleshy fruit. The mature fruits are black to purple and about 1 cm long.
Regarding S. austrocaledonicum and S. yasi there is an extensive article on their growth, plant habitat and description of uses at this link that you will have to cut and paste to read as the file may look scrambled. https://raskisimani.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/santalum-sandalwood.pdf

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: This is a hemi-parasitic tree and requires one or more host plants by which it obtains nutrition through the roots. The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.  The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is becoming endangered. The heartwood is chipped and steam-distilled sometimes over another plant. Yield is 4-6.5%.

Cropwatch Tony Burfield states, “Distillation. Many customers do not realize that production of E.I. Sandalwood oil involves several stages. The first distillation of pulverized wood or milled Sandalwood sawdust is soaked 48 hours and distilled 2-3 days’ oil if carried out at a pressure of 30-40 psig, to produce the crude oil. The first 2-5% of “sandalwood terpenes” are rejected, as it contains compounds like N-fufuryl pyrrole. This compound in extremely low concentrations smells like wheat popcorn, but in higher concentrations detracts from the sandalwood odor. The terpenes fraction also contains sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as the a- and b-santalenes, which detract from the solubility of the oil in alcohol. The oil is then redistilled at 30-40 psig, again, often rejecting the first few fractions. Finally, the resulting oil is rectified. “

Aging and Storage of Sandalwood: The wood can be stored indefinitely just as other wood and other essential oils are stored in dark, lightproof, airtight containers, glass preferred. However, that being said, I have some Sandalwood chips I purchased over 40 years ago that I stored in a paper bag in the dark basement that seems just fine with the delicious warm, woody odor intact. I have also pulled out all my old samples and bottles of Sandalwood essential oil, dusty as they are and as old as they are, they are somewhat more viscous but the scent has held up over all these years.
Sandalwood ages well. The essential oil should be kept in a tightly sealed airtight container, glass, and in a cool, dark place such as a basement that has an ambient temperature of 50-55°. The refrigerator is not the place to store good Sandalwood oil.

Fig. 3.Sandalwood-ChipsFig. 3. small chips of Sandalwood

 Sandalwood Differences and how to choose: Choose the scent that pleases you best. Choose one that is sustainable. Please be conscious of the fact that many Sandalwood trees are being destroyed to satiate the desire for this oil. To choose your favorite, read this profile and then try to purchase small samples of several Sandalwood types. Smell them. What do you like the best? Woody and floral? Woody and unctuous. Smell them over the course of a few days and then purchase what works best for you. Remember that you do not need to apply this oil to obtain its benefits on the skin. Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. Read the paragraph near the end of this article. If you want a Santalol type, then do not choose the spicatum type.

Fig. 4.sandalwood spicatumFig. 4. This Sandalwood from Australia is colorless, clear and viscous
 Organoleptic Qualities of 4 Different Species of Sandalwood Fig. 5. samples-organoleptic-sandalwood copyFig. 5. 6 Courtesy of Eden Botanicals samples of Sandalwood.

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors. So if you are lost, sniff the air with the right side to get home and if you wish to know how intense something smells, smell with the right side as well. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left, smell right and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

Fig. 6.Oval six SandalwoodFig. 6. Sampling 6 different Eden Botanicals Sandalwood oils ~ note the color differences

 Odor Assessment: All the Sandalwoods I examined (10) were smooth and unctuous and were predominantly woody; with various subsidiary notes. S. album was evocative of the scent that I knew 50-some years ago, woody and floral. S. austrocaledonicum was the most like S. album but a wee bit more intense. S. paniculatum was woody, herbal, floral. S. spicatum had a slight floral subsidiary note and another S. spicatum had a slight sour back note.

 General Properties:
Australian Sandalwood was used both orally and externally against UTI and gonorrhea, more effective against Candida than Tea Tree oil, useful for many skin diseases such as acne and tinea, inhaled for calming or for the respiratory system and used as an exciting perfume addition.

Properties and Uses: Usually Sandalwood is of the East Indian type of fragrant Sandalwood Tree but we now have others. From Australia is Santalum spicatum R. Br. produced from the heartwood & rootball by solvent extraction and then the concrète is Steam-Distilled —USES have been both oral and external against UTI and gonorrhea, and more effective against Candida than Tea Tree oil and useful for many skin diseases such as acne and tinea; it is inhaled for calming or for the respiratory system and used as an exciting perfume addition.
All other Sandalwoods are having somewhat the same uses.

Application/ Skincare: Hawaiian Sandalwood, leaves and bark called `iliahi were used to treat dandruff and hair nits by early Hawaiians. Hawaiian healers are also reported to have used wood shavings in a maceration and application of `iliahi to treat venereal disease and skin sores. Our Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. This data indicates that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. So you don’t have to actually use it, just smell it. Isn’t that wonderful? We don’t have to actually use this over-harvested plant but we can just inhale the scent.

Diffuse/Diffusion: You can blend any Sandalwood with other fragrant oils and diffuse for a soft meditative blend that is mentally soothing and calming.

 Emotional/Energetic Use: Ritually used in meditation, Sandalwood is calming and uplifting and helpful in overall well-being. Both stimulating and grounding, Sandalwood is used in meditation for opening the Third Eye. According to Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the sandalwood tree (Brahma Vaivarta Purana)

Which Sandalwood is best and which is the most therapeutic? The most therapeutic of these various Sandalwoods is the one that you enjoy more than the others. If you can inhale one with a significant amount of santalol — enjoy the benefits, then that is what I would suggest. If you want a deodorant type, use the Australian Sandalwood, if you want the meditative one used for 5000 years then occasionally make use of the E.I. Sandalwood type. Learn what you really want and then find the right species to use.

 Key Use: Oil of Meditation and of Fatigue

Chemical Components: See Bojensen reference at end.

Fig. 7. Santalol copyFig. 7. Alpha-santalol and Beta-santalol

 Physicohemical Properties of Santalum album: (the properties that relate to both the physical and chemical aspects). These numbers are from 1950 when the Sandalwood was authentic and carefully grown and harvested. The closer your numbers are to these the better your oil probably is.

Fig. 8. Physico- Sandalwood copy

Fig. 8. Physicochemical Properties of S. album

 

Comparison of Main Components: Which Sandalwood has the most santalol and is this important? Recent studies have shown that no recently tested Sandalwood oil reached the desired expectation of santalol and that a reevaluation needs to be made of this oil.
Hawaiian sandalwood oil produced from wood of Santalum paniculatum originating from the island of Hawai`i (“The Big Island”) were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Main constituents of the oils were (Z)-α-santalol (34.5-40.4%) and (Z)-β-santalol (11.0-16.2%).
Trade and historic oils from ‘sandalwoods’, labelled as Amyris balsamifera, Eremophila mitchelli, Fusanus acuminatus (= Santalum acuminatum), Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, S. latifolium, S. spicatum and S. yasi, were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using GC-MS, none of the oils assessed complied with the internationally recognized standard of a 90% santalol content, and only about half of the trade sandalwood oils met with recent International Organization for Standardization standards. The majority of trade oils, reportedly from S. album, contained approximately 50-70% santalols (Z-alpha and Z-beta). Thus, the internationally recognized specification (90% santalols) for S. album requires re-evaluation by more efficient analysis methods. In view of the issues associated with the quality of sandalwood oils being traded, specifications of > or = 43% Z-alpha-santalol and > or = 18% Z-beta-santalol for S. album oil estimated by GC-MS are suggested. GC-MS are recommended as it assists with authentication and quality control issues associated with sandalwood oils. — J Chromatogr A. 2004 Mar 5;1028(2):307-12. Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by GC/MS Howes, MJ, Simmonds MS, Kite GC.

Evolva is making Sandalwood santalol by fermentation as a replacement for Sandalwood oil in formulations. They say, “Sandalwood oil primarily consists of a number of sesquiterpenoids, with alpha-santalol and beta-santalol comprising around 80%. Beta-santalol is the most important character impact compound, but is economically non-feasible to chemically synthesize.” Australian Sandalwood does not contain beta-Santalol.

Blends Best with: This wonderful soft, sweet-woody and delicately animal-balsamic odor has been used for thousands of years and it has been one of perfumery’s most precious items. It forms the basis of heavy Oriental compositions, and creates delightful combinations with Bergamot, Clove, Lavender, Rose, Tuberose and and so much more of the fragrant materials. It blends well with all florals and other woody scents.

 HYDROSOL: To date, I have only seen four analysis of this product and have not seen an analysis offered by any company with their sales. (I am hopeful this will change in the future) And the price differential is amazing. One site lists 4 oz. for $6 while two other sites list 2 oz. of Sandalwood hydrosol at about $7.00 and with no obvious analysis or Latin binomial it seems that something other than Sandalwood is being sold. Other companies list 2 oz. at $14-$24, also with no obvious analysis. The analysis from Ann Harman fine book, Harvest to Hydrosol shows Hawaiian Sandalwood (S. paniculatum) with about 7% santalol types and 30% furfuraldehyde.
Because no analysis and usually no Latin binomial comes with the hydrosols, at this point I probably would not purchase a Sandalwood hydrosol. I would use the EO with care and discretion and use another hydrosol as a spray or mist for skin care and skin health.

 PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. And as Ann Harman says, “I find that distilling for a quality hydrosol takes longer than distilling for the essential oil.”

 Historical Uses: “For more than 5000 years, India has been the traditional leader of sandalwood oil production for perfumery and pharmaceuticals. The aroma of the oil and the wood is esteemed by people belonging to three major religions of the world – Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. According to Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the sandalwood tree (Brahma Vaivarta Purana). The ancient Egyptians imported the wood and used it in medicine, for embalming the dead and in ritual burning to venerate the gods.” — Current Science, Vol. 103, No. 12, 25 December 2012

 Interesting Information: It is customary in certain communities among the Hindus to put a piece of sandalwood in the funeral pyre. The beige-colored paste of sandalwood is applied on the forehead and other body parts, especially by devotees of God Krishna (Vaishna-vites) and for ritual bathing of Hindu gods.

 Contraindications: Individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Sandalwood or its constituents should avoid using the oil, as there are reports of Sandalwood causing dermatitis, and Sandalwood oil causing photo-allergy. But there are very few reports of Sandalwood side effects — of the available literature, a few cases of the allergic reactions mentioned above.

 Safety Precautions: Sandalwood from India has been in use for 5000 years and yet there is little or no evidence of efficacy. Exposure to this oil and herb is of very minor concern.

 Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References and Bibliography:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Askinson, George. Perfumes and Cosmetics. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 1915
Cooley, Arnold J. Complete Practical Treatise on Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia. 1874.
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Oregon. 1995
Deite, Dr. C. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Philadelphia, 1892.
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida. 1949 reprint 1974.
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils27/EssentialOils27.htm
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Kumar, A. N. Arun *, Geeta Joshi and H. Y. Mohan Ram. Sandalwood: history, uses, present status and the future. Current Science, Vol. 103, No. 12, 25 December 2012
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, CA.,
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. In spiral bound format from Jeanne Rose from a 1972 1st Editor
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Guide to Food. North Atlantic Books. 1979.
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery. San Francisco, Ca. 2014

 Scientific Data: Olfactory receptors in the skin: Sandalwood scent facilitates wound healing, skin regeneration ~ Date: July 8, 2014. Source:Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum
Summary: Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. This data indicates that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics.
Story: Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, as researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered. Their data indicate that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. The team headed by Dr. Daniela Busse and Prof Dr med habil Hanns Hatt from the Department for Cellphysiology published their report in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

        The nose is not the only place where olfactory receptors occur. Humans have approximately 350 different types of olfactory receptors in the nose. The function of those receptors has also been shown to exist in, for example spermatozoa, the prostate, the intestine and the kidneys. The team from Bochum has now discovered them in keratinocytes — cells that form the outermost layer of the skin.

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

Do not Ingest Essential Oils

Following this post are individual posts on Australian, Hawaiian and East Indian Sandalwood.
See http://jeanne-blog.com/east-indian-sandalwood-eo-profile/

Fig. 9.Sandalwood-no backgroundFig. 9. ~ 6 Sandalwood types

 Jeanne Rose Formulas and Recipes for Sandalwood

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO and Herb: I have used various iterations of this herb and oil for 45 years. I loved it as a scent for my daughter to focus upon when she was a baby 52 years ago and I used it in potpourri and sachet when I had a cosmetic company (New Age Creations) and then again in perfumery. When I realized some years ago that it was in trouble ecologically I stopped using both herb and oil. Now I find myself occasionally using Australian or Hawaiian types of Sandalwood if I am positive they are sustainably grown and harvested.

Jeanne Rose uses this EO as little as possible because of the possibility of it being overexploited in the market place.

Sandalwood for a UTI. I have a very specific formula that has worked for me for mild UTI infections (urinary tract infections). In an herbal capsule of Marshmallow root add 2 drops of E.I. Sandalwood and 2 drops of Grand Fir (Abies grandis). Take a capsule 3-4 times per day, one every 4-6 hours; as well as using herbal dietary methods and fluids that include Cranberry juice and lots of water. [full treatment program is in the Aromatherapy Treatmentsbook.

Recipe by Jeanne Rose for an Underarm Deodorant. Sweat is essentially odorless, but acts as a culture medium for bacteria and that can produce unpleasant smells

Sandalwood Deodorant.
I have experimented with this oil and found a simple and easy Deodorant formula. First, I add a bit of Blue Cypress to the Australian Sandalwood oil (5% to 95%). This deepens the scent and gives it an invisible deeper woody odor. Then I add 95% neutral grape spirits to 5-10% of this essential oil blend. And don’t worry about the alcohol in the formula, alcohol also kills bacteria and you only use a short spray under each armpit (less than a drop), this kills the odor causing bacteria.

Formula:
In a 100 ml bottle (3.5 to 4 oz.) with a spray top
190 drops of Sandalwood oil
10 drops of Blue Cypress
This is about 6 ml. total
Fill the bottle with 95% neutral grape spirits (do not use vodka unless it is 150°, do not use rubbing alcohol, use only real neutral grain or grape spirits (Everclear works also)). Shake well.
The essential oils are at 5-6% and you may  increase up to 8% depending on the level of scent that you want. At 5-6%, this formula kills the human body odor, leaving little to no odor of itself behind. Only a short spray is used after bathing.

Formula for Incense using the herb and the oil

ECCLESIASTICAL INCENSE (from an old book)
That used by the Catholic Church is Frankincense, however, it must be burned on Charcoal. The Catholic Church has rigid specifications as to the Incenses used in its Church. No aromatic or synthetics may be used. There are occasions when some churches will use an Incense containing other ingredients than plain Frankincense. As an example, an addition of Myrrh and Benzoin, Sandalwood or Cinnamon.

 Sandalwood Incense for Charcoal — Herbs & Things p. 251
Mix together the following herbs: 4 oz. rasped or scraped Santal that you have added 10 drops of Sandalwood oil too; add this to 2 oz. gum Benzoin or Storax, 2 oz. ground Cascarilla or Cinnamon bark, ½ oz. Vetiver [cut & sifted or CS], 1 oz. potassium nitrate, and ½ oz. Balsam of Tolu (must be powdered and evenly incorporated throughout the mixture) — make sure that the resins do not clump up. Add 10 more drops of Sandalwood oil. Shake and mix and stir and store in a 16 oz. dark lightproof jar. The incense is ready anytime after 30 days. Drop a little on some burning charcoal. If your karma is really working for you, you won’t even need the charcoal; it will burn after being lit with a match. This is a lovely scent and good for meditation.

 Rose and Santal wood Sachet Powder
“Mix together 1 lb. of Rose petals and ½ lb. of finely rasped Santal wood. Add ½ oz. oil of any Rose.” —from Perfumes and Cosmetics by George Askinson 1909.
Put in an airtight container and let this age for a few weeks. Then bag in small linen bags (that hold about ½ oz. of the product) and store this in an airtight container. The scent should last for years if made well.

Blending/Perfumery with formula: There are simply dozens of beautiful formulas that incorporate Sandalwood in the formula. Since it works so well with Rose and Clove those are always go-to formulas. Here is one I made for my daughter Amber Rose as Sandalwood has been her favorite since she was a baby.

 Fig. 10. Lovely perfume

Fig. 10. A Lovely Perfume

 

AMBER & SANDALWOOD IN A LOVELY PERFUME
It is March 2003 but I find this note from 20 years ago by the electric Selectric,
When did I write these words, 1983? I don’t know. I just remember that when I was pregnant I found the note and that I had wanted to see if Amber would remember a favorite scent. So I had Sandalwood oil and herb and Sandalwood fans and also a Sandalwood box that I kept mementos in. These I gave to her and let her use; I kept Sandalwood scented paper in her clothing drawers. I wrote down the recollections in her baby book.

Amber’s Scent from 1964/65
Amber smells the Sandalwood that I have saved all these years.
She says, “It smells safe, a happy scent.”
It reminds her of when she was young.
It is woodsy and sweet.
She loves the scent, especially in intimate apparel —
So, familiar this scent of Sandalwood.
It smells friendly.
It smells feather bed, — clean
Crisp Sheets.  She likes this.
“Sandalwood reminds me of childhood,” she says,
Amber has always liked Sandalwood.

 

JR

 

I love Amber — she is my child!

 

Fig. 11. Sandalwood and oil

Fig. 11. Wood and oil

 

Tonka Bean EOP

TONKA BEAN EOP

By Jeanne Rose ~ 7-07-16

Tonka Bean Synopsis: Tonka Bean information including growing, properties, uses with tobacco, blending bits, perfume formulas and recipes.

Tonka-EO-butter OPT

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. Tonka Bean

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Tonka Bean was named by the French explorer, botanist and pharmacist Jean Baptiste Christophore Fusée Aublet (1720-1778). It is also called Tonkin beans or tonquin beans.

Family: Fabaceae, the pea family

Countries of Origins: Tonka bean is exclusively a tropical American species. Some of the world’s largest producers are Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Brazil

Endangered or Not: not extinct but heavily harvested in some countries.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Tonka trees are large with a canopy and usually grow up to a height of 30 meters in the Amazon rainforest region.  Tonka flowers every five years, has fragrant seeds that are cured in rum and used for scenting Tobacco and snuff. The beans are long, oval, black and wrinkly and have a smooth, brown interior. The fragrance is strong and similar to sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) because of the high content of coumarin.


Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields:
Harvesting takes place in the forests, and the tree is not cultivated. The fruits ripen in the winter and fall off the tree naturally. They are gathered from February to April and processed locally in the forest: the nut and its pulp are broken with a stone tool to recover the bean, which has brown skin and is ivory white inside. Tonka is expressed, extracted or tinctured or the beans used whole. The beans are up to 50% fatty oil.    The annual production of Tonka beans varies from 60 to 100 tons, depending on the year, and is heavily influenced by climatic variations. Grown in South America, shipped to France where the absolute is produced. The butter is handled differently.

Organoleptic Characteristics of
Tonka Bean OrganolepticsOdor Description/
Aroma Assessment: The solvent extracted absolute belongs in the coumarin-hay family of odor and has a sweet hay, and honey scent. The butter is a light floral followed by the scent of bitter Almond.

General Properties: Tonka bean is considered a narcotic and cardiac tonic (although in large doses it paralyzes the heart). —Herbs & Things, p.111. Used as a flavoring for tobacco, snuff and butter and to scent sachets and potpourris.

Properties and Uses: This plant has been used medicinally in the past but because of the coumarin content this usage has been abandoned. The bean butter is antiseptic, expectorant and the oil is fragrant used in perfumery. Because of the coumarin content the bean, butter and oil are considered an insect repellent.

Application/ Skincare (formula at end): Scrapings of the bean mixed with other ingredients are used in bath soaks, perfumes and misting products.

Diffuse/Diffusion: not diffused

Emotional/Energetic Use: Love charm; the use of the bean is considered aphrodisiac.

Key Use: Perfumery although in some countries it is used in tiny amounts to flavor food. Some call it the ‘Oil of Initiation’.

Chemical Components: largely coumarin: To liberate the coumarin, the beans are processed by soaking in alcohol (rum) for 24 hours and drying, whereby a fermentation process takes place. Afterwards, the coumarin content may be as high as 10%. Coumarin crystals are visible below the epidermis of the seed.

Coumarin glycosides occur in several plants; upon wilting or drying, coumarin is liberated. For example, coumarin contributes to the pleasant smell of fresh dried hay. Woodruff (Asperula odorata) has high coumarin content and is sometimes used to flavor alcoholic drinks in Western Europe and the US. It has come out of use, though. Coumarin is toxic and causes serious though reversible liver damage in high dosages or if applied regularly over some time; toxic doses range around one gram, but some individuals are more susceptible. For more information, please look in Herbs & Things p. 111.

Comparison of Main Components of Tonka Bean: Lactones [lactone]- are temperature reducing and generally a fruity odor.  By INHalation – mucolytic; by EXTernal use- skin sensitizing such as the Massoia lactone. The lactone Coumarin (2-hydroxycinnamic acid lactone) in Hay abs and Tonka Beans is anticoagulant, hypotensive, phototoxic, relaxant, sedative, nerve tonic, general tonic.

            The Tonka Butter is comprised of 94-96% fatty acids, Oleic acid is the predominant fatty acid present in Tonka Bean Butter (nearly 50%)and gives the Omega 9 series; though not essential, oleic acid is a hydrating material and is conducive to cell regeneration. Other fatty acids found in Tonka Bean Butter are Linoleic acid, 12 -16%; Behenic acid, 12 – 15.5%; Lignoceric acid, 7 – 9.5%; Palmitic acid, 6 – 8.5%; and several others.

Physiochemical Properties ~ Tonka Bean Butter:

  • Solubility = Buchner states that it is readily soluble in fatty and essential oils.
  • Specific Gravity at 100° C = 0.888
  • Optical Rotation – not found
  • Refractive Index at 20°  – not found

Blends Best with: Bergamot, Blood or Bitter Orange, Clary Sage, Champa, Mimosa and/or Cassie, any of the Chamomiles, Helichrysum, Lemon, Tobacco Absolute, Ylang Ylang.  It is easy to work with Tonka Bean in the creation of certain fern blends.

HYDROSOL: This author has not found a Tonka bean hydrosol.

             PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most of which are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Extracted with water to make a coumarin extract.

Interesting Information: Tonka beans are used in love magic because they have that unique vanilla odor but the warning is that one should never, ever crush the bean for the magic to work. They are also used as a good luck charm and should be carried on the person.

Contradictions: Allergen

Safety Precautions: Use with care, dilute before using.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Do not Ingest Essential Oils: I do not recommend the internal use of Perfumery materials for therapeutic purposes.

Tonka-Bean
Tonka Beans

Tonka Beans References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://www.fragrantica.com/notes/Tonka-Bean-73.html

Regulating Safety of Traditional and Ethnic Foods edited by V. Prakash, Olga Martin-Belloso, Larry Keener, Siân B. Astley, Susanne Braun, Helena McMahon, Huub Lelieveld

 Bibliography
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Deite, Dr. C. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Philadelphia, 1892.
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, CA.,
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. In spiral bound format from Jeanne Rose from a 1972 1st Edition
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery. San Francisco, Ca. 2014

Scientific Data: See Prakash  

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

JEANNE ROSE PERSONAL USES:

Tonka tincture for perfumery: In my collection is a lovely old book, dated 1892 that has a very useful perfumery tincture from Tonka beans. Put 1 oz. of the beans without comminuting or or removing the crystals adhering to them, into a flask, add 6 oz. of the finest alcohol (neutral grape spirits), and let the whole macerate, with frequent shaking, for about 14 days. Then filter off the fluid. The tincture prepared in this manner only contains the cumarin [original spelling] found as a white coating upon the beans, and is used only in the finest products. Now take the beans from the flask, and add 6 ½ cups of alcohol. This extract gives an excellent tincture suitable for products of medium quality. [Deite]

 Jeanne Rose’s experience Tonka Bean and EO: Years ago when I was fascinated with the names of herbs and essences I had never heard of, I found out about Tonka. This was about 1968. I got some Tonka beans that were thickly covered with a white crystalline substance. Of course, now I know that is the coumarin crystals. I never used Tonka bean extract, tincture or butter then only the whole beans and I used them in ritual and in potpourri. Some of these 50-year-old potpourris still exist today and they smell divine.

Tonka-tinc-beanTonka photo by Jeanne Rose

Jeanne Rose uses this EO for perfumery ~ Adding fixatives to the alcohol to complement the final perfume is a useful technique. Remember first that quality alcohol has no scent and no taste. You can add the base notes in small quantities to 95% neutral grape spirits to slightly scent it. Start with a liter/quart of this spirit, which already has the pleasant slightly fruity odor of grapes. Of particular interest is adding 1 gram of Tonka Bean to 1 liter of spirits for a floral odor base fixative. Macerate for several months, label it and use it in as a diluent in your perfumes. Other base alcohols that can be used are Vanilla bean or Benzoin resin/quart for floral, woody odors.

A recipe by Jeanne Rose for the skin. A fragrant somewhat antiseptic hand lotion can be made by mixing a salt spoon size scoop (1/4th teaspoon) of Tonka bean butter with ½ oz. to 1 oz. of unscented hand lotion or plain oil. Mix together and use — your hands will have a lovely odor of bitter almond or you might describe it as homemade Jergens lotion (original lotion from 1882)

Blending with formula:
Top Notes: Bergamot 40-60 drops
Heart Notes: Jasmine, Ylang-ylang — 20-30 drops total
Base Notes: Amber, Tonka Bean — 10 drops total
Mix together, succuss, age, add your diluent, age and then use.

Moth Repellent:  The seed, also called a bean is a perfume and a preventative against Moths: Take one ounce each of Tonquin beans, Caraway Seed, Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, all well ground; add six ounces of Florentine Orris root; mix well, and put in bags among your clothes. They will smell good and also repel any moth larvae.

An Old Perfume:
Oh La La! (Azzaro) 1993 – Oriental Style
Use all the odors that you can find of the odors mentioned. Start with equal amounts of each odor and smell test to see if it agrees with you. Then mix the three notes using about 30% each in the final blend. Now you have 10% left to add more of one odor or another or to add a bridge or fixative. Let it rest two weeks, smell test again and then add the carrier or dilute with alcohol to 25%. Succuss every day. Try your perfume in 2 weeks.

Top Notes: Fruit notes. Raspberry, Peach, Mandarin, Bergamot, Fig Leaves, Muscat Grape
Heart Notes: Yellow Rose, Jasmine, Narcissus, Ylang-Ylang, Orange Blossom, Osmanthus
Base Notes: Cinnamon, Sandalwood, Amber, Vanilla, Patchouli, Tonka Bean
Bridge Notes: Tobacco, Birch

Tonka Bean Limerick
Tonka SE is a mighty funny bean

It is solid and needs to be seen.
Use it for a hay smell
It works in perfumes well
And makes nice perfume for a dean.—JeanneRose2014

 Tonka extract-opt

JR

 

Vanilla Profile

Synopsis: Vanilla in all its forms is an essential ingredient in skin care, perfumery, culinary, and emotional needs. Read Jeanne Rose’s profile of this essential plant.

Vanilla ~ The Favored Flavor and Scent

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2-20-16

Jeanne Rose Vanilla GG Park(Photo by Jeanne Rose at the Conservatory in Golden Gate Park)

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Vanilla, Vanilla planifolia

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word vanilla from the Latin ‘vagina’ (sheath) or scissors case and refers to the shape of the pods and ‘planifolia’ means flat leaves.

Family: Orchidaceae. Vanilla is the only species of Orchid that is extracted, distilled or used in aromatherapy or foodstuff.

Countries of Origins: Vanilla is indigenous to Mexico and tropical America. It is now grown in many places including Madagascar and the island of Réunion

Harvest Location: Our Vanilla originates in Madagascar. In 2015, there was a difficult harvest of Vanilla.

Endangered or Not: Vanilla planifolia, the source of Vanilla essence, grows in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India in the Bay of Bengal and classified as a vulnerable species while Vanilla andamanica, a wild relative of commercial Vanilla is considered endangered.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Perennial, herbaceous vine trained to grow in rows and reaches up to 75 feet.

Vanilla-Vanilla-EB via Jeanne Rose
(photo by Jeanne Rose of fresh Vanilla beans)

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Solvent extracted absolute. “The green fruit which looks like a green bean is picked after it spends some time on the vine and is then cured.  This is another one of the plants that has no odor; the odor develops upon drying and curing (See also Orris and Patchouli).  These immature pods are then picked, put on trays, and left to ferment.  When they turn brown, they become extremely fragrant, this fermentation process allows the Vanilla to develop, and the best quality beans accumulate white Vanilla crystals on the bean” 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p.154.

About Other extractions of Vanilla.

Vanilla abs has the best and strongest scent and this dark brown viscous product makes an excellent addition to many perfumes. It is alcohol soluble but portions of the absolute will settle out of the perfume and the perfume will need to be filtered.

Vanilla CO2 This is a creamy substance extracted with carbon dioxide with a lovely Vanilla odor is pale yellow to tan, has a shelf life of about 3 years. This can be used as a flavoring agent as well as in solid perfumes.

Vanilla oleoresin is also available. Arctander describes the scent as rich, sweet, Vanilla without the Tobacco note of the absolute. This is usually used in oil-based scents and not alcohol based scents or products.

Vanilla water-soluble. I was able to get a sample of this some years ago from a supplier in Madagascar. It was very interesting but I prefer to use the others

Organoleptic Characteristics of absolute:

  • Color dark brown with crystals
  • Clarity opaque
  • Viscosity Viscous, the EO/abs begins solidifying at room temperature
  • Intensity of odor 4 on a scale of 1-10

 Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment – The scent is woody floral fruity and spicy. Sometimes the floral note is at the forefront but in my experience, a soft wood scent presents first and then the floral, fruity and spicy.

General Properties Vanilla products are a powerful calmative and relaxant and can be used as an aphrodisiac.

Properties and Uses: Vanilla is used by inhalation and application. Inhaled it is calming, relaxing and soothing to the mind. It is used in many body care products and as a sexual lubricant. Applied in a massage blend it can be an aphrodisiac.

I personally use this substance as an odor for inhaling, relaxation, sweet thoughts of where I have seen it and as a necessary part of most of my perfume bass notes as well as in cooking.

Application/ Skincare. Vanilla CO2 is preferred for skin care and here it is somewhat anti-inflammatory and will help to soothe and calm skin that is irritated.

A Recipe for the Skin
Alter this recipe as you need to suit yourself, you can use a different carrier oil each time you make it.

Maple Sugar/Vanilla Body and Foot scrub
½-cup Maple sugar (can use granulated sugar for a grainier scrub or Turbinado sugar for a nice change)
½-cup fine sea salt
¼-cup or less or more of a combination of favorite carrier oils
1-tablespoon kaolin or china clay (white)
1-tablespoon honey
10 drops each of Vanilla abs or CO2, Lemon and Orange essential oils.

Mix all ingredients in small bowl.  Spoon into jar.  This recipe makes 2-cups + ounces.  The oil will rise to the top, just stir before use.  This is an invigorating scrub so rub gently.  Bath gloves work best for good exfoliation.  Works very well on legs, feet, knees, and elbows.  Not recommended for the face.

Vanilla-Orchid-1

Diffuse/Diffusion: Filtered Vanilla tincture can be used in blends in the diffuser.

I like to make my own Vanilla tincture for use as the fixative in a perfume, a flavoring agent for foods, or in blends that will be alcohol soluble. This is what I do: Take a small container and fill it with chopped Vanilla beans that have been sliced open, the grains scraped out and added and beans chopped. (It is the grains that will have the most odor). Add 95% neutral grape spirits to fill the container. Let this age for a period of time (at least a month) and use the tincture in foods or in alcohol based perfumes. Portions of the Vanilla cannot be extracted with this high-proof alcohol and when added to a perfume blend it will settle out as a dark brown sludge or particles and the tincture of perfume will need to be filtered. As you remove the tincture for use, you can refill the container with more alcohol several more times. The first fraction will be the best however. For best flavor results it is best to use 70-75% grape alcohol.—jeannerose-2000

Emotional/Energetic Use: Vanilla is used to soothe and calm the psyche, and to help with frigidity and sterility.

Key Use: Perfumery and flavoring food.

Chemical Components: Vanillin, ethyl vanillin and coumarin.

Physiochemical Properties:

       Solubility partially soluble in alcohol and carrier oils
Specific Gravity 0.90200 – 1.00200 @ 20 C and 1.15000 to 1.29000 @ 25.00 °C.    Depends on the manufacturer
Optical Rotation -24 – -27 @ 20°C
Refractive Index at 20° 1.42200 – 1.42300 @ 20 C

Comparison of Main Components: Vanilla can be detected in very small quantities – at concentrations of 0.1 parts per million when it is dissolved in water. To show how small changes in chemical structure can influence taste, ethyl vanillin, which has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms than vanillin, is 3-4 times stronger in its vanilla aroma.

Blends Best with: Vanilla adds an exotic note to just about any formula and is mostly used with floral, fruity, woody and spicy scents. It is stunning with Amber, Labdanum and floral scent such as Ylang Ylang. Blends well with all citrus such as Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon, Mandarin, Orange, Tangerine, and woods like Atlas Cedar and Sandalwood and spicy notes such as Frankincense.

Blending with formula. A Favorite Perfume Formula.

8-flowers Perfume – Huit Fleurs
Jasmin abs OR CO2
Lavender SD & abs
Linden abs
Mimosa abs
Neroli SD
Rose abs
Tuberose abs
Vanilla CO2
Ylang-Ylang SD

These can be mixed in any quantity and/or in equal quantities to make a stunning perfume.

Don’t forget to let it age for several weeks before adding an equal quantity of 95% neutral grape spirits. Then let it age again for several weeks. Smell it, sample it. You may want to dilute by half again and age again. The resultant perfume will be 25% pure natural perfume ingredients.

 

HYDROSOL: I think it would be a waste of water to try to distill Vanilla beans. To date there is no hydrosol.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: As flavoring and as an aphrodisiac. Vanilla was used by the Aztecs and indigenous people of Central America to flavor Cocoa; Vanilla was combined with Chilé Pepper and Chocolate to make a tasty drink only fit for the god/kings. It was cultivated for ornamental use.

Interesting Information: The Vanilla plant is so interesting that entire books have been written about it. In 2004 I spent many happy hours reading “Vanilla: The Cultural History of the World’s Favorite Flavor and Fragrance” by Patricia Rain. It is the only plant of the Orchid family used in Aromatherapy.  The plant hasn’t any odor; the odor develops upon drying and curing. Vanilloside breaks down to Vanillin and glucose upon ripening and when cured is the source of Vanilla extract. In Madagascar the anther and stigma have to be pressed together by hand as pollinating bees are absent. Here Vanilla is the only hand-pollinated crop (this was pioneered in 1841 by a 12-year-old slave from Réunion); all West Indies Ocean stock is allegedly from a single cutting in Jardin des Plantes in Paris.

Abstract/Scientific Data: Vanilla–its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties. By Anuradha K1, Shyamala BN, Naidu MM.

Abstract. Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent’s, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.— PMID:24090143 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Please note that most Vanilla flavoring today is not from the Vanilla plant but from wood pulp as a byproduct of paper-making and from coal-tar.

Safety Precautions and Contradictions: Prolonged exposure can be deleterious to the nervous system

Key Use: Flavoring and in Perfumery.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Steffen Arctander. 1960
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 JR

 

 

 

 

 

Clary Sage Essential Oil Profile



Native to Europe and cultivated worldwide, Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a
separate scent profile depending on what is harvested and the terroir. This profile details the many sides
of Clary Sage and how it is used.

Clary flowers_1101 opt(Clary Sage flowers – Jeanne Rose garden 2014)

Clary Sage Synopsis

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Clary Sage, Salvia sclarea

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word salvia comes from the Latin salvus having to do with medicinal properties and health and sclarea from the Latin clarus or clear meaning the leaves and seeds are used medicinally to clear the eye. [It does NOT mean you can use the EO in the eye; it means if there was a bug or something in the eye, the seed was placed in the corner of the eye and exuded a moist gooey substance called a mucilage that would enable the person to remove the seed as well as whatever it was stuck too.]

Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Countries of Origins: It is native to Europe and cultivated worldwide. in the past was found in Southern France, Italy, and Syria, but today is cultivated worldwide – mostly within European regions, including Central Europe, as well as England, Morocco, Russia, and the United States.

Harvest Location: Clary Sage absolute originates in France and Clary Sage EO is from Bulgaria.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Biennial or perennial plant growing up to three feet high with large hairy leaves that only grow to half the height of the plant.  Coming directly off long, thin stems, the lilac-pink flowers rise above the leaves.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Clary Sage must be picked and distilled fresh and with removal of the thick stalk. The flowers and flowering tops are steam distilled. Depending on terroir, climate and weather, the yield is .1-1.0%.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  • Color                           pale yellow green
  • Clarity                         clear
  • Viscosity                     Non-viscous
  • Intensity of odor        4

Bergamot & Amber =2; Rose Geranium = 4; Tea Tree= 6; Cinnamon = 8; Wintergreen & Cloves = 9

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment:Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a separate scent profile.I use a simple Vocabulary of Odor© to describe to describe the odor of essential oils. It is easy to learn and very helpful in the study of these products of distillation. I also have an Advanced Vocabulary of Odor© that is more complex but gives you a snapshot of the scent. So it always surprises me when someone can’t seem to use descriptive words to describe an odor and resorts to poetical uses. Poetry is beautiful but it is not helpful in describing an odor. The Perfume Album by Jessee describes Clary Sage thusly, “It taxes vocabulary and imagination to describe adequately the precise character of the clary sage fragrance. It has been likened to that of ambergris and labdanum…”. “The odor is considered reminiscent of Ambergris (a type of whale excreta)”. I find this description very unhelpful. It really doesn’t do this herb or EO justice.

However, since there are so many different Clary Sage odors due to the many chemotypes or the different terroirs and how it is grown; or whether it is harvested and distilled for leaves or for flowers alone; the variety of scent descriptions is enormous. My favorite Clary Sage odor is one that comes from plants distilled mainly from the flowers; it is citrus, strongly fruity and lightly floral with a distinctive herbaceous back note that is quite spicy.

Clary Sage Abs-EB copyClary Sage Absolute supplied by Eden Botanicals

General Properties: The herb is calmative, relaxant, and soporific. The EO can be calming, aphrodisiac, tonic, nervine, estrogenic, antidepressant astringent, antispasmodic and even grounding.

Uses of Properties:  When used by application in skin care products, Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may also be useful in certain products for muscular fatigue, cramps, and excessive perspiration.  The EO may also be inhaled for menstrual problems, fertility, PMS, menopausal problems, exhaustion, and for reducing epileptic attacks. Only more science and time will tell if these problems can be successfully treated by Clary Sage EO.

For years I primarily used Clary Sage as an inhalant during hot flashes. I alternated with Pink Grapefruit and White Grapefruit.

Application/ Skincare: Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may be used for excessive perspiration.

 

A Recipe by Jeanne Rose for the Skin

FINE SKIN CARE OIL Acne/Pimples.
Make a mixture of the following
• 2 drops Clary Sage
• 2 drops Roman Chamomile or Owyhee
• 1 drop Lantana
• 1 drop Cypress
• 14 drops Almond or Olive oil
Apply directly to the Acne or Pimple after cleansing the skin.

 

Diffuse/Diffusion: Clary Sage EO can be added to most other EO to make a blends depending on your need and what oils you blend together. Diffusion can be used for hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, and a good night’s rest.  It is grounding, relaxing and mildly intoxicating.

Thirty years ago I decided to spend a summer making Clary Sage perfumes. I tried everyone’s recipes and made over a hundred using Clary Sage and Patchouli as the top note and base note with a variety of different odors in between. Up to that time I had not truly appreciated the scent of Clary Sage but grew to love it especially with Labdanum and Vetivert. So I grew it in the garden. Now I notice that the very special pungent odor of Clary Sage EO that I am used too is gone, replaced by a pale shadow of itself. This less intense odor may be preferred by those who make perfume. I suggest to anyone who enjoys Clary Sage EO to make a point of growing several of the chemotypes (sclareol type and other) sometime to really get to know and understand the odor.

Clary Sage Exam of 13 sorts – see how many I studied

Emotional/Energetic Use:  When inhaled Clary Sage is useful to reduce hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, PMS, and for a good night’s rest.  It is grounding and also mildly intoxicating. There are internet sites that state Clary Sage is “energetically attuned to the structure of the eye, connecting the physical eyes with the Third eye.  It expands sensory and psychic powers.”

Key Use: Skin care and female problems related to the reproductive system.

Chemical Components: linalool, linalyl acetate up to 72%, caryophyllene, a-terpineol, geraniol, neryl acetate, sclareol in the sclareol chemotype and germacrene D. There are many chemotypes of Clary Sage and they are rarely identified on the bottles. The farmers who grow Clary Sage for the tobacco crop often have the sclareol type while perfumers want the non-sclareol type.

Physiochemical Properties:
Specific Gravity at 15°/15° ……….
0.900 to 0.910
Optical Rotation ……………………… -11°22’ to -32°38’
Refractive Index ……………………… 1.4613 to 1.4700
Solubility        ………………………… Soluble in some cases in 1 vol. of 80% alcohol, opalescent with more. In most cases, however, soluble in 0.5 vol. of 90% alcohol, clear to turbid with more.      

clary-sage-EO_smEssential oil glands of Clary Sage

Comparison of Main Components: Abstract from Flavour and Fragrance Journal. June 1991, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages fmi–fmi, 109–169. The chemical composition of two essential oil types of Salvia sclarea L. during early and late flowering stages was analyzed. A new chemotype with relatively high citral, geranyl acetate and geraniol content was observed in two small populations growing in northern Israel. Comparison of the new chemotype with a Russian type showed a great difference in composition, scent and organoleptic character between the two oils. The highest amount of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was detected in the Israeli type, at the early flowering stage. The relative quantity of most components of hybrid oils was intermediate between those of the parent plants.

Blends Best with: Clary Sage blends well with Bergamot, Wild Orange, Cypress, Geranium, Jasmine, Lavender and Sandalwood essential oil and is a perfect combination with Labdanum or Patchouli.

Blending with formula: Here is a simple calming massage oil.
Top note – 20 drops of Pink Grapefruit
Heart note – 10 drops of Clary Sage
Base Note – 5 drops Patchouli

Succuss the formula. Then add a carrier oil of your choice up to ½-1 oz. Succuss again. Use.

Clary Sage Hydrosolphoto by Jeanne Rose ~ see Hydrosol Booklet

 HYDROSOL: Clary Sage hydrosol is used for oily skin as an astringent. It can be a facial spray to energize, for PMS and for easing drug withdrawal. I also spray it on sweets as a tasty addition.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Poucher mentions that Salvia sclarea “is pre-eminent as a fixator for any perfume and when added to a perfume at ½ to 1% will within a month smooth out and get rid of “any chemical smell” of your perfume”.  It is invaluable as a blender and fixative in alcoholic perfumes, and particularly in toilet waters —such as traditional eau-de-cologne.

Interesting Information: It is grown in North Carolina for the flavor and fragrance industry. When it is in bloom it fills the field at harvest time and the odor is very strong.  David Peele of Avoca, Inc. laughs when he mentions how people react to the odor, … “People have a concept of what it should smell like,” he said. “We have to laugh when we see them stop on the road and grab a bunch of the flowers. “Then, about a mile down the road, we’ll see the flowers thrown out on the side.”

“The name Salvia is derived from the Latin word for ‘good health’.  In Germany the herb was used with elderflowers as an additive to cheap wine to make it taste like Muscatel.  Also used to flavor vermouths and liqueurs.  In Britain, it was used as a substitute for hops in beer making.  In Jamaica, the plant was blended with coconut to ease scorpion stings.  The seeds were used in many countries to clear conditions of the eye—hence the name ‘clear-eye’”, Essential Aromatherapy, p.126.

Contraindications: There is no evidence that the sclareol of Clary Sage ‘balances the hormones’ and does not seem to have any negative side effects although there are some sources that recommend it not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. For some, Clary Sage is mildly intoxicating.

Safety Precautions: Moderation in use is recommended.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Ingestion of  Essential Oils: I do not recommend the ingestion or injection of essential oils for any reason.

References:

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Jessee, Jill. Perfume Album. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 1951.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

Abstract/Scientific Data:

Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae) By C. Schmiderer1, P. Grassi1, J. Novak1, M. Weber2 and C. Franz1

Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00053.x© 2008 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands Plant Biology Volume pages 433–440, July 2008.

The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialized epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavor. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 JR

 

 

 

Bergamot Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol EO Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 3-3-16

Synopsis of Bergamot Essential Oil ~ A complete description, country of origin, characteristics, skin care, formulas and recipes on how to use this oil

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Bergamot

Citrus x limon (syn. Citrus bergamia (Risso))

Other Common Name/Naming Information:  It also takes its name from an Italian city, that of Bergamo in Lombardy, where the essential oil was originally sold. It is related to French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, of Turkish origin: beg-armudi or beg armut (“prince’s pear” or “prince of pears). The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, and are named for their similar aroma.

Family: Rutaceae

 Countries of Origins: Native of tropical Asia, Bergamot is now extensively cultivated in the southern part of Italy, particularly Reggio di Calabria, Sicily; and Ivory Coast.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Calabria region of Italy.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The small fruit tree 16 feet tall, branches with thorns, flowers white, fruit not edible about 2-4 inches in length is a characteristic of the southern Italian landscape; its small, round fruit is very bitter and is inedible when raw. The fruit looks like a miniature pear-shaped orange. It is a hybrid of bitter Orange and Lemon, a product of cultivation.

citrus_bergamot_orange

Bergamot citrus on the tree

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Bergamot essential oil is obtained from the cold expression of the peel of nearly ripe fruit of the Bergamot tree. Yield up to 9.7% for hydro-distilled and .5-1.5% for cold-pressed or 100 Bergamot fruit yields 85 grams of oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics of Bergamot:

Organo-Bergamot

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: The odor is floral, fruity, slight spicy back note, that is, predominating floral and citrus, subsidiary notes of fruit with a slight spicy back note. When you purchase Bergaptene-free or decolorized Bergamot oil, you begin to lose the rich floral/fruity/citrus odor and it becomes less ‘natural smelling’ and more ‘synthetic smelling’.

Bergamot EO

General Properties: Bergamot is an important ingredient in high end perfumery. Without it many perfumes could not be made. It is calmative, antispasmodic, antidepressant and antiseptic.

Properties and Uses:  Physically Bergamot oil can be used highly diluted as a gargle for sore throat, used to flavor Tobacco and tea; by application it can be used in skin care for skin infections, on cold sores, and inhaled for depression, stress, frustration, anxiety or emotional crisis

 Application/ Skincare. Bergamot is used in a variety of skin care lines, in lotions, creams, bath, salve, unguents and for massage or direct application to a variety of skin conditions; cold sores, acne, skin infections.

Diffuse/Diffusion.  Bergamot is best used in a blend in the diffuser (Lavender or Rosemary are good) to promote relaxation and alleviate stress by stimulating the mind. It helps to resolve your irritable nature and soothe tension and ease sadness.

Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN) Use Bergamot by inhalation while drinking the Earl Grey Tea (bergamot infused); this is both uplifting and calming. Ritually, Bergamot oil is used for success and comfort as it can help clear the mind of depressing recurring thoughts.

 Key Use: ‘The Oil of Anxiety’ and for perfumery.

Chemical Components: The peel oil contains; The chemical composition of Bergamot from Tunisia was obtained by hydrodistillation and fifteen compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).

When cold-pressed, Bergamot oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl and linalyl acetate up to 50%. The ester content changes depending on climate in any year.(375 Essential Oils, p. 49) 30-60% linalyl acetate and 11-22% linaloöl. Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and Bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

linaloollinalool

Bergamot juice contains neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, ponceritin, melitidin, and brutieridin.  Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties.

 Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog): The hydrodistilled was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%). The cold-pressed oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl 11-22% and linalyl acetate up to 30-60%.  Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

Blends Best with: Bergamot’s light refreshing citrus scent makes is a good blending partner for just about any other oil. And its use in the perfume industry bears this out. It is of particular importance in a ‘Chypre’ type blend with rich deep oils like Labdanum, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Frankincense, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetivert.

HYDROSOL: I have not as yet had hydrosol of true Bergamot only of sour Oranges.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: – History is speculative. Possible that the tree was brought to the Canary Islands and found there by Christopher Columbus who brought it to Calabria.

 Interesting Information: a native of tropical Asia, Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is now extensively cultivated in the Southern part of Italy, particularly in the Calabria region. The Italians have used Bergamot in folk medicine for years, in particular for fevers. Legend has it that Christopher Columbus found the tree in the Canary Islands and brought it back to Italy. Bergamot gets its name from Bergamo a town in Italy, where it was originally cultivated.

Fruitcake copy

It can be candied and eaten either in a fruitcake or with bitter Coffee as a sweetmeat as they do in Greece.

Abstract/Scientific Data: “Bergamot is frequently adulterated … when doubtful of purity, the expert should resort to thorough odor and flavor tests, which usually are more indicative of the quality than mere chemical analysis.” — Guenther, The Essential Oils

 Contraindications: Pure Bergamot is photo-sensitizing; we recommend that it be highly diluted (less than 2%) when applied to the skin, or that one of our Bergamot FCF essential oils be used instead. FCF (furanocoumarin-free) is an acronym that indicates the chemical constituent(s) responsible for extreme sensitization of the skin to sunlight has been removed, in the case of Bergamot oil, the specific furanocoumarin being bergaptene.

Key Use: Perfumery, skin care and calming.

 Safety Precautions: Bergamot is known to be one of the most photo toxic essential oils and for this reason should be used with care in sunlight, hot climates and with other ultraviolet light. Photo sensitivity is caused by the presence of furocoumarins, most notably Bergaptene, in this particular essential oil. Apart from this factor, Bergamot is considered to be a relatively non-toxic and non-irritant essential oil. Photosensitizing. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Here is some basic information from the web on this reaction of Bergamot with the sun.

  1. Definition: Berloque Dermatitis is a skin condition in which patients develop a brownish to reddish discoloration of the neck and sometimes the arms due to applying perfume or cologne to the skin. Sometimes the skin first turns red before changing to a brownish color. This condition can persist for years or even be permanent.
  2. Causes: Many perfumes and colognes contain oil of Bergamot, an extract of the peel of a specific orange grown in the South of France and the Calabria district of Italy. When this oil contacts the skin and the skin is exposed to sunlight, the oil of Bergamot causes the skin to discolor. With repeated exposures to sunlight, the discoloration becomes permanent.

Treatment:

  • Cosmetics can work well to cover the area so it is not as noticeable.
  • Patients with Berloque dermatitis should use a daily sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher to help keep the condition from worsening. In addition, perfume should no longer be applied to areas of the skin that get sun exposure.
  • Laser treatment may be an effective treatment in the future. At this time, we do not have this available. You may want to go to a laser center to seek their opinion.
  • Retin-A applied to the involved areas daily will improve this condition.
  • Daily application of soothing gels is a treatment for this problem.

 

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO:

A story about Bergamot Sensitivity, called Berloque Dermatitis
March 11, 2004 – “Ask Jeanne Rose” Question

I need your advice.  I was wearing a strong blend of Bergamot, Rosemary and Geranium on a HOT day this week. I woke up the next day with a big brown-red splotch on my neck. I realize this may take months and months to heal correctly (it’s the Bergamot I think that is so sensitive to sunlight.) I am going on vacation to the beach. Any suggestions as to what to put on my neck NOW that I have burned it? I need something to heal it fast. At least I am an example of what not to do. I am so embarrassed. I forgot to look at the Aromatherapy Studies Course Work. — Thanks, Jeanne,

Answer: Dear K.
Wear a hat. Keep face and neck out of sun. It will only get worse. Use Sea Buckthorn, Calophyllum, and Bruise Juice in this proportion 25•25•50.   Do not use any citrus at all as a scent or deodorant or body wash until it is gone. This brown mark is the reaction of the sun and Bergaptene. Now you know from personal experience what not to do.   In the future, you can put on the citrus as scent on the parts of the body that are covered or put on the scent and stay out of sun for several hours. It is the combination of the application and the immediate sun exposure that does this.

Jeanne Rose

=====

Dear Jeanne,
Thank you for your help with my neck burn, I really appreciate your time and caring. Some notes: I went and got some Calophyllum inophyllum (cold pressed) and filled up the rest of the bottle of Bruise Juice with it. About .25 oz. or 20-25% total. I am applying this in the morning and evening. I am wearing scarf to keep out of sun. I am using titanium 25 sunscreen that is nice, thick, and mostly organic. I notice when the sun/heat gets on the scarf even, the burn mark will start to hurt/sting, than I will apply more of the Sea Buckthorn/Calophyllum/Bruise Juice treatment. (I also have applied a Calendula and Comfrey salve when I didn’t have the other treatment handy). I have an inclination to apply the Calophyllum by itself because it is so soothing. It is like becoming familiar with Calendula infused oil, it works for everything! The mark is now a brown/pink. I am writing down in my journal and taking notes. Thanks again Jeanne, don’t know what I would have done without you -probably cried for days about ruining my neck.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 Do not ingest clause for EO

Jeanne Rose Recipes/Formulas Using Bergamot

Blending and Perfume Formulas:

Summer Breeze Blend

Bergamot – Citrus bergamia – 10 drops
Geranium – Pelargonium graveolens – 5 drops
Lemongrass – Cymbopogon flexuosus – 2 drops
Peppermint – Mentha x piperita – 2 drops

“Summer Breeze” scent has become a hot weather staple around here. We use it to scent bath gel for a cooling shower, or it makes a wonderful detoxifying scrub in Sugar or Salt Glow; in room spritzers for a bright refreshing atmosphere, or to spray in a hot car. I also like to use it as a body spray for a light cologne IF I’m not going to be in the sun. (If I am going to be in the sun, I’ll use Bergaptene-free Bergamot oil).

Bergamot Floral and Smoke ~ a light tempting perfume
Top Note ~
10 drops Pink Grapefruit
10 drops Bergamot BGF

Heart Note ~
5 Drops Jasmine Sambac
5 drops Ylang complete

Base Note ~
2 drops Amber
2 drops Vanilla

Use the residue in the Amber and Vanilla bottle to get your drops. Take the empty ¼ oz. Amber bottle and add neutral grape spirits to half full. Shake it up. Pour that alcohol into the empty ¼ oz. Vanilla abs bottle. Now you have your base note mixed. To this bottle add the rest of the ingredients. Shake the bottle vigorously by succussion. Now just almost fill it with neutral grape spirits. Succuss again. Label the bottle and let it sit on your desk for 2 weeks. Smell it now and again. It should be perfect to you. Your perfume is at about 15%.

 

Consultation Usage ~ I have also used this oil, inhaled, to inhibit anorexia and generally in any blend where I want a bright sassy citrus scent.

Ritual Use ~ I like to add a drop or two to a dollar bill and put it in my wallet. It inhabits my entire purse with a wonderful cheery odor.

 

Skin Care for Normal skin ~
Apply in evening to clean washed face
Bergamot – 15 drops
Rosemary verbenone – 10 drops
Spikenard – 5 drops
Jojoba/Almond oil or lotion to fill 1 oz. = about 2.5% [EO an be reduced by adding more carrier oil]

 

JR

 

Petitgrain Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 3-17-16

Petitgrain is a particular EO and not a species; leaves and twigs from any citrus when distilled are called Petitgrain (small fruit) and depending on terroir the scent is different. Includes formulas and recipes.

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Petitgrain is the name of a particular essential oil and is not a particular plant species, it is the results of distilling the leaves and twigs of citrus and can be made from any citrus. Normally, it is from Citrus x aurantium (L.).

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Originally, Petitgrain which means “small seed” was actually distilled from the immature and small round green fruits of the Citrus trees.  Of course, if you distill the fruits then there will be no mature fruit to eat or preserve.  So eventually, the distillation was limited to the leaves and small branchlets but the oil is still called Petitgrain.

Blossoms of the true bitter (sour) orange tree, Citrus x aurantium Linnaeus, subsp. amara L., on being distilled yield Neroli bigarade oil. If, on the other hand, the leaves and petioles (leaf stalk) are distilled, oil and hydrosol of Petitgrain bigarade is obtained.

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Jeanne Rose ~ Jeanne is the founder of New Age Creations, the first body-care company in the United States to use aromatherapy (since 1967) based on the formulas she invented and then used in The Herbal Body Book; she is the Director/Educator of both the Herbal Studies Course and the Aromatherapy Studies Course by home-study and Distance-Learning and the author of 25 books.  She coined the word ‘hydrosol’ for the aromatic waters of distillation. She was the first to teach the Art of Distillation to aroma practitioners.

She brings 45 years of experience and personal research in her practice of Aromatherapy.  Jeanne Rose has held the Executive positions of (NAHA), The American Herbalist Association (AHA), and The Aromatic Plant Project (APP) —which encourages the production and use of American grown essential oils and hydrosols. Jeanne Rose teaches all aspect of aromatherapy and herbalism as well as Aromatherapy Certification Courses; and the Art of Distillation.

She practices a personal ecology and eats organically grown and locally sourced foods.

www.JeanneRose.net

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Table of Contents ~ Profiles

Amber
Bergamot

Calendula Infused Oil


Cedar-Virginia

Chamomile, Roman

Citronella Story

Citronella Grass – a Profile

Clary Sage

Cypress and Blue Cypress EO


Douglas-Fir

Evergreens & Similars

Black Spruce – Picea mariana

Firs – Profile & Hydrosol

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

Hydrosol Story -Rose Geranium

Juniper Berry – Juniperus communis

Lavender, Lavender, Lavandin

Lemongrass ~ EO & Herb

Licorice Scent in Essential Oils

Myrrh EO & CO2

Palmarosa ~ a grass

Patchouli

Petitgrain

Pines – Pinyon and Scotch


Rose-Geranium

Roses – Grown for Scent

Roses – Used for Scent

Rosemary. Chemotypes and Hydrosol

Sage


Sandalwood – ALL
Sandalwood-Australian
Sandalwood-Hawaiian & New Caledonia
East Indian Sandalwood


Tonka Bean
Vanilla

Vetiver  & Vetivert

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