Search Results for: Calendula

Calendula ~ When and How to Make infused oils

Jeanne Rose going to go back to herbal and gardening and perfumery basics of tincturing, infusing, weeding, blending with moon lore, and plant knowledge to make even better infused medicinal oils.

 

CALENDULA INFUSED OIL

Jeanne Rose ~ circa 1972

Kingdom is Plantae
Order is Asterales
Family is Asteraceae
Tribe is Calenduleae
Genus is Calendula – referring to the first day of the month or here the long growing period.
species is C. officinalis – originally meaning used medicinally. The Pot Marigold “my thoughts are with you”

 

Contents: fresh Calendula flowers & Virgin Olive oil
figure 1. Calendula infused oil

MAKE CALENDULA INFUSED OIL VS Calendula Hydrosol
           “I know that some will disagree with me on this subject but I strongly feel that distilling Calendula flowers is a waste of botanical product. Calendula Hydrosol is obtained from freshly picked Calendula flowers and distilled in a copper still. It produces a green and vegetative smelling hydrosol. It seems a waste of good Calendula flowers.” My suggestion is to not distil it but to infuse the fresh flowers in good-quality Olive Oil for an infused oil. This can be used in all skin care lotions. It works to smooth and soothe the skin, to heal small eruptions or sores. It makes a perfect infused oil. You use less resources when you infuse or macerate than when you distil.

When you distil the Calendula you will use (waste) up to 30 POUNDS of flowers (250 flowers per pound or 7500 flowers in 30 lbs.) to make ONLY 3 Gallons of hydrosol + all the water wasted going through the condenser. Though the hydrosol of Calendula is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems, The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product, it is a serious waste of plant material.  When you distil for hydrosol you have to also think of the environmental impact of your work and the value of the water used.

Yes, there are some water-soluble compounds in the flowers but we can use the flowers more efficiently as a tea or compress. With the Calendula infused oil, you use 1 lb. of resin covered flowers to 1 gallon of good Olive oil. Nothing is wasted. I make my freshly picked Calendula infused oil from fresh flowers and not dried – it is a fantastic product.”

Sometimes an herbal product is a better choice of a product to use than a distilled product.

 

 Parts of Calendula Used. The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.
Calendula Leaves – Gather these in dry weather, in the morning, after the sun has dried the dew — for tea. They can also be dried for tea. The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed.

Calendula Flowers – The flowers are picked when they are covered with the resin and then used and if they will be dried, it needs to be done quickly in the shade, in a good current of warm air. They can be hung in mesh bags from tree limbs or spread out on sheets of paper, without touching each other. If they are dried and the flowers have been touching they will become discolored. Another method of drying is to spread them on screens in a warm dry attic or over a stairway. This has been described extensively in The Herbal Studies Course, chapters 31 and 33.   
          The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.

Calendula resin: When you pick Calendula, your fingers will be sticky from the resinous bracts which form the green base of the flower head. This resin is an important part of Calendula’s healing and is a good indicator of strength. If you are buying Calendula, make sure you purchase the bright yellow or orange flowers which is a good barometer of its freshness and medicinal quality. If picking fresh flowers, the stickier (with resin) the better. The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex. This is particularly common among the Cichorioideae).

 

Calendula Chemistry. The German herbal medicine manufacturer, Dr. Theiss, registered ‘Rinathei’ in 1998 for its own exclusive production use. This variety is claimed to be rich in faradiol triterpenoids believed to be most responsible for calendula’s anti-inflammatory activity. Intriguingly, a readily available dwarf ornamental variety, ‘Calypso Orange,’ is also rich in faradiols, having the highest content of 10 cultivars tested, as much as a third more than ‘Erfurter Orangefarbi.
The petals and pollen contain triterpenoid esters (an anti-inflammatory) and the carotenoids flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (antioxidants, and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids, mostly lutein (80%) and zeaxanthin (5%), and beta-carotene. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics, presumably due to the presence of compounds such as saponins, resins, and essential oils.

figure 2. fresh Calendula flower

 Calendula infused oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book and refer to pages 249-250.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available Jeanne Rose teaches both courses and classes making this wonderful infused oil for massage, blending or perfumery.
I do not recommend sun infusion ~ I AM NOT a proponent of letting something sit in oil for 4-6 weeks, hot during the day and cooler at night, as this is a perfect way to create spoilage. I use the hot maceration method and get my perfect Calendula oil or St. Johnswort Oil in about 2-3 days.

 

TO MAKE INFUSED OIL: To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book or the Aromatherapy Studies Course and read up on it. Use 1 lb. of fresh flowers to 1 gallon of organically grown Olive oil. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers when they are ready and covered in resin; pick them in the morning when the dew is dry but the sun not yet high and infuse and macerate them slowly over a series of days in organically-grown Olive oil, heating gently but not boiling, cooling, heating and cooling until the flowers have exuded (sweated) their liquid moisture. Keep heating and cooling until the pot lid no longer collects the condensation, pouring off the condensate and drying the inside of the lid. During hot weather, this might be done in a day but here in San Francisco it takes about 3 days. Cool, and allow the oil to drain into a clean container.

         When pouring off the condensate, remember to not pour it back into the oil, but into a separate container. This liquid can be considered a perfect hydrosol of Calendula as it is the natural exudate from the flowers. Collect it and then use it as a facial tonic within the next three days.

After the oil has taken on the deep orange color of the flowers, (2-4 days of warm maceration), let it cool enough to pour into a glass jar. Use a funnel lined with a mesh bag and pour the oil through the bag into the jar. The mesh bag collects any stray bits of plant material. It is not necessary to use a filter or filter paper as that just adds another dimension to the product and does not remove any bacteria or yeast. If you have made the oil correctly it will be yeast and mold-free for up to a year and the filter paper doesn’t filter only makes a mess.

Now you will have to be patient and let the finished Calendula Infused Oil sit for a day or two and settle. Any liquid that may be left will drop to the bottom of the jar and the oil decanted into a clean container. If the oil is cloudy, however, you will have to heat it gently one more time to remove the fluid. My Calendula Infused oil is golden yellow-orange and clear and will stay pure for up to a year or more.

At this point, pour your oil into sterile quart or 8-oz. bottles. Label your product with its name, contents, the size of the container, and your name or phone number or website. Store them in a basement or wine cellar at about 45-55°. They will keep until you use or sell them.

 

      MEDICINAL ACTION AND USES. Used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. A lotion made from the infused oil, flower wax and an essential oil is most useful for sprains and wounds, and if you have a hydrosol water distilled from these flowers that is good for inflamed and sore eyes (but only used if kept sterile).

 

INGREDIENTS: Calendula infused (Olive) oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. Olive oil by itself contains the phytonutrient, oleocanthal, which mimics the effect of ibuprofen in reducing inflammation in the body. Squalene and lignans are among the other olive oil components being studied for their possible effects on cancer.

Calendula officinalis (is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain, and as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.

 

USE. Used for dry or sensitive skin, baby care, and also good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers, infuse and macerate in olive oil, heat gently and cool several times removing all condensate that collects on the lid. Then allow the oil to drain into a clean, sterile container. Only the common variety with deep orange color and sticky resin is of medicinal value. The yellow flower can also be used but it does not make as deeply colored infused oil and it seems of ‘lesser’ strength.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available there are classes to teach the making of this wonderful infused oil.

figure 3. Bottles of Jeanne Rose Calendula Infused Oil

 

Medicinal Action and Uses. Calendula infused oil made from fresh flowers and organic olive oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in blends, lotions, and massage.

The flowers also called Marigold are chiefly used as a local remedy. They have a stimulating action and are diaphoretic (makes you sweat) when taken as a warm tea. Given internally, it encourages a natural internal action and prevents suppuration (pus formation as in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus). The usual recipe for herbal infusion is of 1-ounce dried herb to a pint of boiling water, steep for 10-20 minutes and take internally, in doses of one tablespoonful, every hour; and used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. It is useful as an internal tea in chronic ulcer, varicose veins, etc. This infusion was formerly considered to have much value as an aperient (mild laxative) and intestinal cleanser in obstructions in the digestive system and for jaundice.

Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. The hydrosol is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems. The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product.

 

An infusion of the freshly gathered flowers, drunk hot is useful in summer fevers and cold, as it gently promotes perspiration – a decoction of the flowers has been used to treat smallpox and measles. Marigold flowers are very useful for children’s ailments.

The expressed juice of the flower or the dried powdered flowers, snuffed up the nose triggers sneezing and a discharge of mucous from the head. Years ago when I tried to express the juice of fresh flowers, I used a Champion juicer, got only a few drops of juice but used this, diluted by half with water, as nose drops for a client who had a hole in the septum.

The leaves when chewed at first taste gummy and sweet followed by a strong penetrating salty taste. The expressed juice of flowers and leaves, which contains the most of this pungent matter, especially with Rose petals has been given in cases of costiveness (retained feces), where it acts as an aperient and proved very useful for this problem. Since it is gentle, it can be used with children and in small doses for your pets.

The leaves and flowers can be eaten as a salad and also been considered a medicinal culinary herb, useful in skin diseases and swollen lymph nodes of children. Some of the stronger scented Calendula with lots of resin is recommended to remove warts.

 

Using the Moon to Make the Infusion:
Phases of moon

For instance, it is good to start a tincture on a New Moon in a Water sign (Cancer/Scorpio/Pisces).

If you want to weed a garden, or filter/strain your infused oil or Bruise Juice ~ do it in the last quarter leading to the full moon in an Earth sign (Taurus/Virgo/Capricorn).

If you want your blend/infusion to have a strong good scent or to boost the olfactory powers of a scent, make sure you pick the plants when they are ready. When they are ready means at the time when their scent is the best. For instance, Jasmine at night, Tuberose early in the morning or at dark, Chamomile types in the early morning, Roses when the dew is dried but before the sun is high.

Start blends in the New Moon/First Quarter in a Fire sign (Aries/Leo/Sagittarius).

The Llewellyn book on moon signs can be used for off-line reference, and there are online websites that have the phases and astrological signs.

 I am keeping my book, Herbs & Things open in my reading room because I want to be able to reference the formula and what I had to say then.  I already visit various moon lore and weather sites on the Internet for basic charts. When I make Bruise Juice, I pick and start work on a waxing to full moon when the herbs are at their fullest. Let it drain and bottle on a waning moon. For great moon information see — http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneDay.html or go to MoonMenu for a quick moon update.

 Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy • 415-564-6785 or www.JeanneRose.net

Resource:
http://www.thegardenhelper.com/calendulapix.html
The Aromatherapy Book. http://www.jeannerose.net/books
The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet by Jeanne Rose. $24.50 from http://www.jeannerose.net/
 In-person Seminars, courses and classes by home-study or Distance Learning
Calendula Infused Oil
1 quart = $150 + S&H
8 oz. = $45 + S&H
http://www.JeanneRose.net 

Pictures During the Process of Making Infused Calendula Oil

 

~ JR ~

Cypress and Blue Cypress EO

Understand the difference between these two different genus of the Cupressaceae family of Evergreen/Conifers and then use them for their best traits.

 Cypress and Blue Cypress

Herbal Use, Essential Oil and Hydrosols

Jeanne Rose – January 2017

 

Conifer/Evergreen ~ Don’t confuse even the conifers with the evergreen. Conifer is a term meaning cone-bearer and has to do with reproduction while evergreen means a plant that is always green and has to do with the nature of the plant. Most conifers are evergreen but not all (Ex: Larch). Not all evergreens are conifers (Ex: Ivy). However, in this article we will assume that you know the difference.

Common Name/Latin Name: The Coniferae are the Conifers now known as Pinopsida. Yes, those botanists drive us crazy with their name changes. That is why you must know your plants by their Latin binomial and not just common name. How many times do you hear the word Cypress when the person actually means blue Cypress referring to the beautiful color of the essential oil of a particular plant. Blue Cypress is Callitris intratropica and Cypress generally refers only to Cupressus sempervirens. As you read on you will see the vast difference between these two related conifer trees.

Chart 1. Taxonomy

Naming: The word cypress is derived from an Old French word cipres, which was imported from the Latin word cypressus and this word was Latinized from a Greek word Kyparisso.

             Australian Blue Cypress Oil Northern Cypress Pine
Callitris intratropica R. T. Baker & H. G. Smith. The blue Cypress, Callitris intratropica is from the Greek word calli or beautiful and treis or three, alluding to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves i.e. scales and intratropica within the tropics.

Countries of Origin: Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens this tree, the pencil-pine or Italian Cypress, is from Southern Europe, Libya or SW Asia.  Eden Botanicals organically grown Cypress branches and leaves are steam-distilled in France.
Callitris intratropica, the so-called Blue Cypress because of the color of the essential oil; is native to Australia and grows in the Northern Territory (including Melville and Bathurst, Indian and other islands), the Kimberly region of Western Australia and, Cape York to Bowen in Queensland. Its range of altitude is from near sea level up to 900 meters. The tree usually grows in open forest but also found in heath forest, vine thickets, monsoon forest and on rain forest edges. Callitris intratropica is a medium to large sized tree, from 15 to 45 meters in height. The timber is very aromatic, resistant to termites and is known in modern times by aboriginals of Arnhem Land as “Kerosene Tree” because of its flammability, and “Mosquito and Sand fly tree” because of its effect on repelling these insects while being burnt and is mainly used in the wet season.

fig. 1. Blue Cypress ~ Callitris intratropica – photo by Jeanne Rose©

Other Named Cypress: There are many Genus of trees that are given this common name ‘Cypress’. They include trees the genera of Widdringtonia, Taxodium, Callitropsis, Callitris, Chamaecyparis, Fitzroya and more. It can be very confusing. Some Cypress trees are even called Cypress-Pine. However, our main concern in this short profile is the genus Callitris and Cupressus and specifically the species called sempervirens.

Endangered: Callitris intratropica can live for over 200 years, although the population has declined significantly since European settlement, because of over exploitation and the change in fire regimes and the introduction of grasses that burn with a greater intensity than the native grasses.
Some of the world’s ancient populations of Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, have declined in Europe and Iran due to overpopulation and war. Cypress trees can live a very long time such as the longest living Cypress, the Sarv-e-Abarkooh in Iran’s Yazd Province, whose age is estimated to be approximately 4,000 years.

Storage: All the blue-colored oils are likely to oxidize in time due to the azulenes and they should be kept cool. Since Blue Cypress is a somewhat viscous oil and comes from the bark and wood, do not freeze but keep in the fridge, probably in the door section. It will get more viscous but the colder air of the fridge will delay any deterioration and the essential oil will last longer. Just remember to bring it out of the fridge several hours before you are going to use the oil so that it warms up some. With the blue oils you must be very careful and conscious of their color. If it is oxidizing, it will go from a beautiful blue to green and eventually to brown. If brown put it down and do not use for therapy or medicinal use. This is why you must always check the organoleptic qualities of your essential oils – there is much to be learned by their color, clarity, viscosity and intensity.

Cypress oil from Cupressus sempervirens should be handled the way most conifers are and that is

Keep in a cool dry place and replace every year or so.”

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted:

            The Cypress leaves and young branches are steam-distilled for the essential oil. Cypress used to be used in distilleries as staves to hold mash ferments to make alcohol before the invention of stainless steel and now used sometimes to scent the alcohol. Commonly seen throughout New Mexico, the Mediterranean Cypress is also known as the “drama tree” because of its tendency to bend with even the slightest of breezes. It is also the traditional wood used for Italian harpsichords.
Yield: 1.3-1.5%

The Blue Cypress, “The essential oil of Blue Cypress, Callitris intratropica, is composed of a considerable proportion of rather unique lactones like callitrin (I), callitrisin (II) and columellarin (III). “During the investigation of the volatiles obtained by hydrodistillation of the wood of this Cupressaceae species it was noticed that the oil yield increases with distillation time while the oil composition is shifted more and more towards the high boiling components. Both the method of production and oil are patented.”   “Clear oil is produced if the heartwood is distilled by itself, containing clear azulene compounds, which requires a separate National Industry Chemical Assessment to produce and is not covered by the registered Chemical abstract number.”
Yield: Yield is hard to ascertain as the numbers vary and parts of the distillation style is patented.

 fig. 2. Cupressus sempervirens • 2nd oldest tree in the world ~ Sarv-e-Abar, Yazd Province, Iran

 Organoleptics:
Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens is almost colorless to pale-gold, clear, non-viscous, intensity of 5 (scale is 1-10) and the taste is bitter and astringent.

Australian Blue Cypress Oil is a vivid and pure cobalt-blue colored oil (see fig. 1), opaque, viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5 on a scale of 1-10).  The taste is bitter. Turns green when oxidized. “…The oil was widely promoted in the essential oils and aromatherapy professions a decade past, and can be steam distilled from the powdered heartwood when a colorless oil is obtained according to Webb (2001) (other sources say pale lemon-green oil), but when this oil is reacted with natural resinous compounds in the bark & cambium, a cobalt blue oil containing guaiazulene is obtained – presumably the secret process referred to by Domio…” in the article written by Cropwatch.

fig. 3. Cypress & Blue Cypress from Eden Botanicals

             There are two other species of Callitris that are used for essential oil. See this link for Australian Essential Oils. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html

Australian Victorian Emerald Cypress Oil, Coastal Cypress Pine, Callitris columellaris F. Muell. The essential oil is a beautiful emerald green color, clear like green water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominantly fruity, woody sustaining note and green/vegetal and floral back notes. Bitter taste.

Australian Jade Cypress Oil, White Cypress Pine, Callitris glaucophylla (syn. Callitris glauca) The essential oil is a pleasant jade-green color, clear like greenish water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominant green/vegetal and woody, sustaining notes of herbaceous and a floral back note. Bitter taste.

 

Aroma Assessment:
Cypress (C. sempervirens) has a wood predominating note, sustaining notes of green and herbaceous and a spicy back note.

Australian Blue Cypress Oil (C. intratropica) scent is predominating wood, with vegetal sustaining notes and back notes of herbs and floral.

 

Properties of the EO, Hydrosol and Herb

General Properties and Uses: Both of these ‘Cypress’ oils are used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant.
Cypress is stimulating and warming and antiseptic and also known for its very durable, scented wood, used most famously for the doors of St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City of Rome.
Blue Cypress is mainly analgesic, insect repellent, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral.
In cosmetics these two ‘Cypress oils’ are used as astringent, for firming, to reduce oil in the hair or skin and in shampoo to reduce dandruff,

Specific Uses of Herb and Oil

 Application ~ Australian blue cypress EO also contains eudesmol’s known for their anti-viral properties hence its reputation among aroma-therapists for the topical treatment of warts and cold sores (it has not worked well for me in this regard). It is used externally in men’s cosmetic products and in lotions for skin irritation, diaper rash and muscle aches and pains. This is a superb ‘first-aid’ oil and can be mixed with Tea Tree for this purpose. Both Blue Cypress and Cypress work particularly well in blends for aching muscles and joints.

Cypress is great in skin and hair care products for oily skin, and sweaty palms and feet. It works well at reducing overactive sweat and oil glands. It may be used in massage oils for rheumatism, aching muscles, abdominal cramps, circulation problems in blends with Lemon and Juniper berry oil for varicose veins and even hemorrhoids and for fluid retention and cellulite.

  • Inhalation ~ Cypress is a wonderful oil used for respiratory issues and congestion in a blend with other oils such as Eucalyptus and Blue Cypress not so much.
  • Ingestion ~ I would not use either of these oils internally, although the diluted Cypress hydrosol can be gargled for coughing or sore throat.

 

  • Emotional uses ~ Cypress oil is inhaled for nervousness, tension and grief and is thought to promote comfort and strength.
  • Diffusion ~ Mix either of these oils in blends for diffusion, particularly for cleansing the air and uplifting the psyche. Make blends that suit you as they work well with other conifer oils, Rosemary or Lavender Oil and some of the other Mediterranean oils such as Cistus.
  • Perfumery and other ~ Cypress EO it is anti-aging and as fragrance in perfume. Blue Cypress EO can be used as a base note in many perfumes or particularly men’s colognes and scents. Use it where the other essential oils have no color so that the beautiful blue of the Blue Cypress shines through.
fig. 4.  Blue Cypress and Cypress showing the beautiful color
  • Hydrosol Properties and Uses ~ There is a Cypress hydrosol coming from France and it is considered to be cleansing and detoxifying and a good toning addition to a skincare facial spray. Samara Botane sells a hydrosol from the leaves and branches of Callitris intratropica that is preserved with alcohol and is said to have many uses. Personally, I have not as yet experienced either a Cypress or a Blue Cypress hydrosol.
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most of which are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. Also, a hydrosol does not have the same components as does the essential oil, the components are often very different and in very much smaller amounts.
  • Herbal Uses ~ Any of the conifer needles including Cypress and Blue Cypress can be used in infusion form in the bath for aching muscles or simply to cleanse the skin and provide a natural sort of deodorant for the body. I have on occasion used the branch tips in tea for its forward coniferous taste and especially for respiratory distress.

 

fig. 5. CypressCupressus sempervirens

 

FAVORITE RECIPES

  • Perfume

 

Chart 2. Lush Perfume

 

  • Skincare ~

CYPRESS SHAVING BALM

Using a premade shave lotion or thin cream or make one with Lavender hydrosol, Calendula extract, Oat protein, aloe gel, and glycerin, and then scent it with Cupressus sempervirens (Cypress) oil, Lemon oil, Cananga odorata (Ylang Ylang) oil, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Niaouli) oil and preserve it with vitamin E and Rosemary extract. The scent should be at no more than 2-5% of the total.

  • Hair Care ~ Make an infusion with the needles and branch tips of either of these Cypress types, add to your shampoo and shampoo as normal, especially for oily scalp or dandruff. The EO can also be added to the conditioner to provide extra therapeutic action.
  • Body Care ~ The ancient use is that the decoction of wood of Cypress is an ‘excellent footbath against the feet stinking with perspiration’.

 

Personal Formulas

  • Formula for Hemorrhoids & Varicose Veins ~ Varicose Veins and hemorrhoids are pretty much considered the same if treated by an herbalist. And Cypress oil is a good oil to use. Here is a favorite formula that various people have commented upon. Mainly, that it makes them and their hemorrhoids smell good.

30 drops (1 ml) Cypress, +
30 drops high linalool Lavender, +
30 drops Lemon

Put into a 1-oz. glass bottle.  Succuss and mix completely.  Then fill with either Calendula infused oil or Jeanne Rose Bruise Juice 90% + St. Johnswort oil at 10%. Mix together. Apply regularly to the hemorrhoids/spider Veins/varicose veins by applying with gentle massage from bottom to top (from your extremities to your heart. — from 1-20-10

  • Energetic Use ~ Heart or Base note is Cypress, and depending on your ingredients can be used for broken veins, astringent, oily skin, rejuvenating, wrinkles and in spiritual/energetic use to inhale for loss of friends and for smoothing transitions and for indecision, and to soothe an irritable spirit.

 

COLLECTIVE INFORMATION:

The genus Cupressus, whose taxonomy has been reviewed eight times during the last 80 years, includes to date twenty-five species of evergreen plants diffused in the Mediterranean area, in the Sahara, in northern-western America, in central China. There is just a lovely article about this Mediterranean Cypress at http://www.photomazza.com/?Cupressus-sempervirens

 

Key Use: Cypress is the Oil of Astringency while Blue Cypress is like Tea Tree the Other Oil of First-Aid.

 

Chemistry and History ~ Cupressus sempervirens L. is a medicinal plant. The dried leaves of this plant are used as an emmenagogue and for stomach pain as well as for diabetes. Its dried fruit decoction is used for inflammation treatment, toothache, and laryngitis and also as a contraceptive, astringent, and antiphrastic (?) drug. The dried seed of this tree has been used for wounds, ulcers, bruises, sores, pimples, pustules, skin eruptions, and erysipelas. Cupressus sempervirens essential oil is used externally for headache, colds, cough, and bronchitis. Studies on phytochemical compounds of Cupressus sempervirens L. revealed that it contains active constituents such as flavonoids (cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, and myricitrin), phenolic compounds (anthocyanidin, catechins flavones, flavonols and isoflavones, tannins, and catechol), and essential oils (EO). It has been demonstrated that the principal’s active from Cupressus sempervirens L. display antiseptic, aromatherapeutic, astringent, balsamic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Cupressus sempervirens L. antimicrobial activity has been reported in several studies.” —https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/538929/

GC/MS analyses of the cones of Cypress showed up to 50% a-pinene, and many other terpenes as well as a-cedrol and other alcohols.

Chart 3. Blue Cypress Chemistry

Contraindications: Do not confuse Cypress oil with Blue Cypress oil or the oils from other Cypress-like trees. Blue Cypress is only licensed for cosmetics while Cypress has many uses.

 

References & Bibliography:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. botANNicals. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://cropwatch.org.uk/Blue%20Cypress%20oil%20further%20updated.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callitris
http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-bioactive-compounds/volume/11/issue/2/page/73/
http://www.australianbluecypress.com.au/about-blue-cypress
http://www.photomazza.com/?Cupressus-sempervirens
http://www.australianbluecypress.com.au/about-blue-cypress
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Rose, Jeanne. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html

 

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

fig 6. Blue Cypress herbarium sample

 

 

 ~ JR ~

 

 

Black Spruce – Profile/Hydrosol

Synopsis: Specifics on history, uses, and aroma assessment of Black Spruce including chemistry and hydrosol.

Black Spruce – Picea mariana
Essential Oil & Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose

black-spruce-tip

Name of Oil and Country of Origin:  Black Spruce, Picea mariana, of the family Pinaceae, native to Canada, especially Quebec. The name Picea is from the root word pix meaning pitch or something that produces pitch and mariana means ‘of Maryland’.

Endangered: This is a common tree species and not endangered.

Safety Precautions:      None known.

Storage: Best to store all the conifers out of the light or in light proof containers. I prefer clear glass so that I can see what the essential oils look like but then I put them in wooden boxes in a cool dry place for storage.

Organoleptic and Aroma Assessment:
Color – Colorless
Clarity – Clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity – 3-5 (depends on what you are comparing it too)
Taste – bitter, astringent

 Aroma Assessment: The scent of Black Spruce has a clean bright deliciously conifer scent, green and delicately spicy. Black Spruce is calming in that it seems you are walking through a green forest of trees but it elevates the mind and stimulates as well.

 

Method of Application:

Essential Oil Properties include uses by both AP=application, IG=ingestion and IN=inhalation): Bactericide, anti-fungal, vulnerary, disinfectant, expectorant, calmative.

By Application:   Use this great oil in antifungal creams and lotions for external skin care and use as a vulnerary* as well. When applied is can be antifungal for Candida, useful on the solar plexus for spasms or excess hiccups, and as an application around the groin for prostatitis. Also used in household cleaner.
*Vulnerary is a plant or drug used in the healing of wounds.

By Inhalation: This EO has hormone-like action, possibly stimulating to the thymus and adrenal gland, seems to have cortisone-like properties that affect the HPA axis in a positive way. It is a mild stimulant, useful expectorant especially in sequential inhalation and thought to be an adrenal stimulant, grounding in a meditation, calmative, and uplifting. Useful for bronchitis and asthma.

For Emotional Uses (AP or IN): Inhalation:  Useful for sudden fatigue and exhaustion, grounding, anxiety, stress, and deep healing for the dark side of the male, or active, principle.

By Ingestion: It can be taken with other oils as a treatment for asthma, allergies, chronic bronchitis. However, this should be under the care and guidance of a qualified aromatherapy expert.

Hydrosol Use:   This is a fragrant hydrosol, one of my favorites, that can be used in bath, compress, and particularly in steams or nasal lavage for the health of the respiratory system and for the skin. It is soothing and cleansing.

General description of plant, habitat & growth:  “A northern evergreen tree ranging from Alaska and sweeping down across Canada to the Maritime Provinces and northeastern states. The trunk grows straight and is without branches for much of its length” from Canadian Forest Tree Essence.  Leaves are steam distilled. Yield is about 1.5- 3%.

spruce-tip

The Difference between Firs and Spruces by Jeanne Rose

            FIRS = Think about Abies the genus and then A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and common name Fir is for friendly [Abies has needles that are soft to touch and aren’t sticky and needles when pulled leave a Flat scar].

SPRUCE = Picea and the P is for prickly and S is for Spruce is for spiky. [Picea for prickly needles, Peg-like scar after needle is plucked and Spruce for spiky feel]

 

 

Chemistry Components: 55% Monoterpenes, including Camphene, -Pinene and -3-Carene, -Bornyl acetate, and Sesquiterpenes.

black-spruce-chemistry-phytochemiawith thanks to PhytoChemia for this photo

Historical Uses:       Respiratory aide and for parasites

Interesting Facts:  Valuable for asthmatics who take corticosteroids. “It is known that Black Spruce roots were used for sewing birch bark canoes. Its resin was used as chewing gum and a poultice for sores, and the inner bark to treat a variety of other ailments” —Canadian Forest Tree Essences, p. 73.

Patch Test and Safety Considerations: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin. Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Key Use:       Respiratory ailments and as a vulnerary (a remedy used for treating wounds)

 

My Personal Recipes

  • Perfume: Spruce scent usually acts as a middle or heart note and blends well with other conifers and the tree mosses. The true tree moss is a lichen that grows on the trunks and branches of both spruces and firs in the forests in central and southern Europe. Climacium dendroides is a tree moss that grows in America but is not processed for its scent.
  • Body Care: I use Black Spruce in a particular way that I call Sequential Inhalation.

Sequential Inhalation (A Treatment)
By Jeanne Rose – 1986

There are six essential oils that I particularly like for colds and flus and include Black Spruce (stimulate the adrenal), Eucalyptus radiata (expectorant and mucolytic or liquefies the mucus in the lungs), Douglas Fir (antiseptic and disinfectant, Rosmarinus pyramidalis (sinus cleanser and relief), Ravensara aromatica (antiseptic, antiviral), and Fir Pine is Abies spp. (cleanser and respiratory tonic).

When there is any sort of respiratory congestion, it is good to inhale the essential oils in hot water.  Your mother probably taught you to do this. You will need a pot, water, essential oils and a towel. Bring two cups of water to a boil in a small pot. Bring the pot to the table. Cover your head with a towel over the pot making a tent. Now add one drop of essential oil at a time to the pot. Inhale one at a time until the scent is gone and then add the second oil. Continue until you have used all six oils. Use the oils in the sequence as given above. This will take about six minutes. Do not add more than one drop of essential oil at a time. Inhale the scent until the scent is gone (about one minute). [If you add more than one drop at a time you will probably gag and cough which is not a healthy act and not what you want.

Inhale through the mouth, exhale through the nose; then inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. Alternate throughout the procedure. This gives the essential oils a chance to cleanse both the sinus area and the throat and lungs. —using this method since 1990

 

  • Haircare: Rosemary herb and EO and Spruce EO make a wonderful treatment for the hair. Make an infusion of Rosemary herb and strain it. To a cup of the strained herb add 1-2 drops each of Black Spruce and Rosemary. This liquid can be added to your shampoo or it can be the hair rinse or in the conditioner. I believe this is what has kept my hair dark all of these years as I have used this since 1970.

 

  • Skin Care: In 2012 while in the rehab hospital after a hip transplant I acquired nasty little skin parasites from the bedding – probably the mattress. In the beginning I thought nothing of the itch but since it continued into 2013, I began to treat it. At that time, I did not know what was making me itch. But one of the best treatments I devised included Black Spruce oil. For any sort of itch this would be useful.

Skin Itch from Broken Skin Infection
Calendula Infused Oil or 70% alcohol – 2 oz.
Black Spruce – 5 drops
Chamomile, Roman – 5 drops
Lavender oil -10 drops
Tea Tree or Plai – 5 drops
This is a total of 25 drops per two ounces or about 2.5% EO/oz.
Apply the mixture to the itch and not to the entire body.
Use several times per day and not more than 5 days.
Alternate formulas with another.

 

  • An Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale stories: I love a good gin and tonic and notice that many of the local conifers are being used or infused to add an interesting spirited taste to these drinks. Also, in the northern parts of the United States Spruce tips as well as Fir tips are used in the making of various gins. Gin is an incredibly popular spirit choice no matter where in the world you are and are being experimented with both in terms of distillation methods and ingredients for many times. There are now hundreds of gins made in the world.
  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: Sequential inhalation of certain essential oils is one of my most important discoveries using these very powerful substances. They often seem to work better in sequence and in small amounts (no more than one drop at a time) than using several oils all at once and in larger quantities. I first wrote about “Sequential Inhalation” in 1980 and published it in “Aromatherapy Treatments” book about 10 years ago (available on my website).

black-spruce

Black Spruce – Picea mariana Essential Oil – with appreciation to Eden Botanicals

 

Source: I am very fond of the needle oils including Black Spruce that come from Eden Botanicals.

Bibliography:
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1995
http://uptreeid.com/KeyLeafOnly/Collection1.htm
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils.
Miller, Richard & Ann. The Potential of Herbs as a Cash Crop. Acres USA. Kansas City. 1985.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press,
Prakash, V. Leafy Spices. CRC Press. NY. 1990
Rizzi, Susanne. Complete Aromatherapy. Sterling. NY. 1989.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne . Herbal Studies Course, Jeanne Rose – Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies, 1992.
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, CA. New World Library, 2003.
DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and some personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

 

JR

 

 

East Indian Sandalwood EO Profile

Santalum album ~ the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses, from S. album from Australia and India. Specific information and many recipes for use.

 

East Indian Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

 screen-shot-2016-09-21-at-9-25-50-amFigure 1. Santalum album grown in Australia and S. album grown in India

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin ~ Sandalwood or Santal from various species of Santalum.  There are many species, that are currently used and distilled for their essential oil S. album L. — Indian sandalwood, white sandalwood, or chandana (India Indonesia, northern Australia); I examined two, S. album grown in Australia and S. album Rare that was grown in India.

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields: The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is becoming endangered. The heartwood is chipped and steam-distilled sometimes over another plant. Yield is 4-6.5%.

            This is a hemi-parasitic tree and requires one or more host plants by which it obtains nutrition through the roots. The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.

Endangered or not The sandalwood tree has now become endangered due to overharvesting, greatly limiting supply and hence use. This is truly unfortunate. When you consider that in 1957 the world population was 2.8 billion and now it is about 6 billion it is pretty clear that with more people there is more demand for precious essential oils and commodities. I believe that we have to grow more but each of us must use less as each and every one of us is responsible for the damage to the planet by over-exploitation and desire. In regards to the pirates who are cutting ad stealing Sandalwood trees in India, Tony Burfield said in 2004, “The Sandalwood tree is being smuggled out of existence.”

 

Sandalwood Distillation

Step one in the custom distillation of Sandalwood heartwood. First you need a two-day soak in water. Try at least 500 grams. to be distilled in a small 20 liter (21 quarts) still. and distilled 2-3 days’ oil if carried out at a pressure of 30-40 psig, to produce the crude oil. The first 2-5% of “sandalwood terpenes” are rejected and then often redistilled. For those persons interested, distillation for Sandalwood is often considered best in the correct corresponding planetary hours maybe on a waning moon.

sandalwood-soakingFigure 2. Sandalwood soaking in water prior to distillation

 

Aging and Storage of Sandalwood: The wood can be stored indefinitely just as other wood and other essential oils are stored in dark, lightproof, airtight containers, glass preferred. However, that being said, I have some Sandalwood chips I purchased over 40 years ago that I stored in a paper bag in the dark basement that seems just fine with the delicious warm, woody odor intact. I have also pulled out all my old samples and bottles of Sandalwood essential oil, dusty as they are and as old as they are, they are somewhat more viscous but the scent has held up over all these years.

            Sandalwood ages well. The essential oil should be kept in a tightly sealed airtight container, glass, and in a cool, dark place such as a basement that has an ambient temperature of 50-55°. The refrigerator is not the place to store good Sandalwood oil.

 

Organoleptic ~ As a learning aid study the organoleptic qualities of essential oils. This is a method to help assist in describing and determining the quality of the essential oil that you are studying by involving the use of the sense organs for evaluation. These qualities are what you perceive through your senses; that is, what you can see, taste and smell as a degree of intensity. There is more to essential oil than its odor. Santalum album Rare from India (Eden Botanicals) had a very pale yellow tint, was clear, semi-viscous, with an intensity rating of 2 (1-10 with 10 being the most intense) and a oily unctuous taste tending to bitter. S. album Plantation grown in Australia was also a very pale yellow tint, clear, semi-viscous and with an intensity of 2-3, just slightly more intense than the Sandalwood grown in India and also an oily unctuous taste that was bitter.

Aroma Assessment ~ Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of scent training is to develop in common odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.

            I have noticed that Sandalwood Oil does not smell the same as in years past. The scent has changed due to several factors: 1) some product makers are using synthetic or partially synthetic oils and 2) because all botanical products change and alter depending on the season and the year. Try tasting Olive oil from one season to the next.

All the Sandalwoods I examined (10) were smooth and unctuous and were predominantly woody; with subsidiary notes. S. album Rare from India was most evocative of the scent that I knew 50 years ago, woody and floral with hay back note. The S. album plantation grown from Australia was also woody, floral and hay and marine back notes.   

 

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors, hinting at a broader olfactory asymmetry. So if you are lost and wish to get home or wish to know the intensity of a scent, sniff the air with the right side. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left, smell right and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

 

Best method of application for Indian Sandalwood. Personally I use Indian Sandalwood ritually in meditation. For me it is calming and uplifting and helpful in overall well-being. The S. album Rare from India is both stimulating and grounding and I use it in meditation for opening that part of my being that is the seat of power and wisdom. According to the Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the Sandalwood tree.

 

Which Sandalwood is best and which is the most therapeutic? The most therapeutic of these various Sandalwoods is the one that you enjoy more than the others. If you can inhale one with a significant amount of santalol — enjoy its benefits and use the others for application.

 

Collective information:

RECIPES

  • Body Care ~ such as a Sore throat. This is often another unpleasant symptom of a cold or flu, for which gargles are quite effective. For a dry throat that needs soothing, use two drops each of Sandalwood (Santalum album) and Lemon in half a glass of warm water. For sore throat due to coughing up of mucus, use Atlas Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) and Eucalyptus. In each case, continue gargling every few hours.

 

  • Emotional Care ~ For Depression (I can’t do anything, I will never do anything) ~ 10 drops each of Bergamot, Geranium, Grapefruit, Orange peel, Sandalwood and 3 drops of Ylang-Ylang Extra. Mix these together and put into a 1-dram vial. Inhale as needed.

 

  • Hair Care ~ The uncomfortable Scalp itch can be mitigated by massaging oils with a formula of essential oils into the scalp. Use 9 drops each of Black Spruce and Rosemary + 2 drops of Sandalwood (20 drops to 2 oz. of almond oil). Massage into scalp, put on a cap and sleep in it overnight. In the morning you can wash your hair.

 

  • Perfume ~ In perfumery some oils like Sandalwood take days to dry down making them a significant contribution to a long lasting perfume. Here is a scent that I enjoy. It is called Sensual Floral/Wood and is made with 100 ml floral water, with the added essential oils of 40 drops Orange or Clementine, 30 drops Sandalwood, 10 drops Neroli, 10 drops Rose, 6 drops Champa or Ylang, 4 drops other Floral. Use the formula as an after-bath or shower spray, or mist lightly on pillows and sheets. Wonderful as a room spray.

 

  • Skin Care ~ such as a Skin Itch from Chemotherapy

Calophyllum inophyllum 25-30 drops
Chamomile, Roman 5 drops
Rose distilled 2 drops
Rosewood 8 drops
Sandalwood East Indian 8 drops
Add the above to 2 oz. cream or with Calendula Infused Oil and apply as needed.

 

  • Sexual Blend for Men. This is for (premature ejaculation and to balance the autonomic nervous system) and is recommended by Victoria Edwards. Mix together 10 drops Bergamot EO, 2 drops Blue Tansy or Blue Cypress EO, 6 drops Sandalwood EO, 3 drops Lemon EO and 2 oz. (60 ml) carrier oil; Massage on lower body, especially around the groin area and just before sex.

 

  • Sandalwood (literature) is also mentioned in many books such as this quote from Hannibal by Thomas Harris “Here the air was music. Here were pale tears of Frankincense awaiting extracting, yellow Bergamot, Sandalwood, Cinnamon and Mimosa in concert, over the sustaining ground notes of genuine ambergris, civet, castor from the beaver, and essence of the musk deer.”

 

  • Woman’s Oil ~. Use 10 drops of Spikenard and Sandalwood as an inhalant to balance and harmonize your spirit. It is amazing how relaxing and focusing this simple remedy can be and all you need to do is inhale it.

An Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale story ~ I have loved this oil since 1960 and chose it and the Sandalwood fans as a scent. During my pregnancy in 1964 I would use the Sandalwood soap and when Amber was born, I kept at least one of her blankets in a bag with thin Sandalwood wood chips that were the size of a business card to add the scent to the ‘blankies’. Later, in 1969, when I started New Age Creations my skin care company, I used the cut and sifted wood chips with Rose and Clove as a potpourri, sleep pillow and the essential oil in lotions and products for Amber and I. To this day it is a scent that Amber prefers above all others.

 

Safety Considerations for Sandalwood oil: No contraindications, but may cause adverse skin reaction; a maximum use level of 2% is recommended in any product. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

For an in-depth discussion of all the Sandalwood oils please read my blog post
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 

Fig. 11. Sandalwood and oil

 

JR

Chamomile, Roman Essential Oil Profile

Organoleptic qualities, description, growth, and properties, uses and blends for all sorts of needs.

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2/16

roman_chamomile

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Roman, Tea or Sweet Chamomile. Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (syn. Anthemis nobilis)

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Also called Sweet or Tea Chamomile. Chamae means ‘on the ground’ and melum means honey-like and thus Chamaemelum refers to the scent and that it grows low to the ground.

Family: Asteraceae

Countries of Origins: Native to south and western Europe and the Mediterranean and naturalized worldwide.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Oregon, USA organically grown

Endangered or Not: No

General description of plant habitat and growth: This perennial plant grows 20” with feathery, green leaves, and small white single or double flowers with yellow centers extending from strong stems. It grows along roadsides and damp grassland

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Steam-distilled from fresh flower heads, particularly of a double-flowered form. “The distillation of dried calices—the part left after the petals fall off—produces a pale blue oil which quickly turns to pale yellow and which may not have the same properties as true flower Roman Chamomile herb. Yield: 1.7%

Organoleptic Characteristics:  What  you can see, taste and degree of intensity ~ There is more to essential oil than odor —
There are also the organoleptic qualities color, clarity, viscosity, intensity and even taste.

  • Color                    when fresh it is pale blue that quickly fades palest yellow to colorless
  • Clarity                  Clear
  • Viscosity              Non-viscous (water-like)
  • Intensity of odor 3-4 on a scale of 1-10

Jeanne Rose Chamomile photo bottles

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment – Steffen Arctander has a lovely description of the odor as sweet herbaceous, somewhat fruity-warm and tealeaf-like odor. When charted out on the ‘Advanced Circular Vocabulary of Odor’ the scent of Roman Chamomile is predominating Fruity with a subsidiary note of Herbaceous and several back notes of Floral, Conifer, Woody, Oily-Fatty, Aldehydic and Spicy.  It has a low intensity of 3 and low tenacity as well.

General Properties.  Anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative,antiseptic, anticatarrhal and spasmolytic properties are the main properties. Tea is used traditionally to treat nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and gas. EO is often used today to relieve anxiety or in skin care.

Properties and Uses: Roman Chamomile is used in flavoring liqueurs, as a tea, and especially for hair shampoos (especially blonde hair) and many other cosmetics.; formerly cultivated as a lawn that needed minimum maintenance and good drought tolerance before mowing was simplified through mechanization. It is still mixed with grass that is under heavy pressure such as at Buckingham Palace, London. The scented plant gives off perfume when crushed; seats are planted with it, although there are some who are allergic. Used on the skin, it may also reduce inflammation from cuts. and the flowers are used medicinally as oil to mitigate psoriasis. It is sometimes used to ease the discomfort from eczema and gingivitis (swollen gums) or hemorrhoids. Used in formulas for acne, couperose skin, devitalized or inflamed skin, sensitive skin or moist or sweaty skin. The herb is used to flavor alcoholic beverages such as gin.

Application/ Skincare. This is a wonderful oil to use on tender or delicate skin and in proper dilution can be used on a child’s skin after an insect bite or sunburn. It gives relief for any skin irritation and by inhalation of the product is calming as well. I like the fact that Shirley Price thinks this Chamomile is the best for all uses. I add it to any lotion that I have as an application to my sensitive skin.

Jeanne’s Age Spot Lotion – Measurements are by volume using percentage or drops – Mix carrier oils, mix waters and mix extracts, mix essential oils. Mix all together and then heat gently in a bain-marie. Cool, Bottle. Probably needs to be shaken prior to each use.

Ingredients: Sunflower seed oil 45%, + Cistus or Chamomile hydrosol 20%, Licorice root decoction 10%, Sugar cane or sugar cane alcohol like white rum 5%, Lemon juice 3% + Shea nut butter 5%, beeswax or any solid butter 10%, + Essential Oil Mixture 2% of Roman Chamomile, Lemon oil and Cypress oil. [you may need to experiment yourself with the proportions as I use very specific strengths of Licorice root and beeswax. I always use only totally natural products that are organically grown with no processing.]

Diffuse/Diffusion: This essential oil diffuses quite nicely and can be mixed with any other oil and especially those that contain esters such as Lavender or Petitgrain. Start with a 1•1 mixture of Roman Chamomile to other oil and add to your diffuser. Put the diffuser on a timer • 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Use to to calm people in the room and prepare for sleep.

Tomato Tales ~ A personal Story
I remember many years ago, another boy was visiting my 8-year-old and they were riding skateboards and bikes up and down my flat along the hallway which is only 15-feet long. The noise was intense. Rather than yelling at them to be quiet, I mixed together an equal quantity of sweet Lavender and Roman Chamomile and put it in the diffuser at the entrance near the hall. Within moments the two boys were calm and relaxed, had stopped skateboarding and were working on some project in the bedroom. It was a most efficient calming mechanism.

Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale for nervous tics, asthma, insomnia, headache or depression. When you use a diffuser, make sure that you only use it for 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Do not let it run non-stop. Energetically, use this oil in blends for peace.

          Relaxing & Skin Treatment Formula
½ oz. Calendula infused oil
10 drops sweet Lavender EO
10 drops Bergamot EO
10 drops Roman Chamomile EO
Mix these all together and succuss well. This formula can be used in the evening for dry skin by application and the scent will be useful for sleep and sweet dreams as well.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory.

Chemical Components: Esters of Angelic, Butyric & Tiglic Acids, Bisabolol, and Farnesol. The biological activity of chamomile is mainly due to the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin and essential oil constituents such as α-Bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes. The ester content is very high about 85% and is considered along with Owyhee (Artemisia ludoviciana CT. esters) as the highest in essential oils.  There are several Chamomile chemocultivars.

 Physiochemical Properties:

Solubility in oil and alcohol and insoluble in water. Soluble in 5-10 vol. of 70% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity. Soluble in 1-2 vol. of 80% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity

Specific Gravity @ 20° C 0.880 to 0.930

Optical Rotation —1°0’ to +3°0’

Refractive Index at 20° 1.430 to 1.490

Comparison of Main Components: The main components are esters which account for its fruity scent and gentle nature on the skin.

Blends Best with: Blends seamlessly with many oils such as Bergamot, Lavender, Neroli, Petitgrain, Rose, Sandalwood. Useful in a perfume blend with Bergamot, Grapefruit (30 drops total) as the top note, Rose (20 drops total) as the heart note and Patchouli (5-10 drops total) as base note.

Blending with formula. One of our customers say “I use it in many blends; muscular oils, joint oils, migraine and headache oils and PMS/Woman’s health. I also make body balms, salts, scrubs and massage oils that enhance the pure oil.”

Muscle Aches and Pains-Relaxing

Make a blend of equal quantities of of Roman Chamomile, sweet Basil and Cypress EOs. Take 20 drops and add to 1 ounce of carrier oil. Succuss thoroughly. Use by application.

HYDROSOL: I adore Roman Chamomile hydrosol. I use it in the bath, as a facial toner and to spray my sheets for sleeping. Ann Harman found that in testing Roman Chamomile hydrosol there was 0.0042% of EO in it and the hydrosol was composed of 61 components, mainly sorbic acid, trans-pinocarveol and lesser amounts of ketones, acids and other components.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Cultivated for lawns, for ornament, and for therapeutic infusions.

Interesting Information: Insoluble in glycerin.  “Upon exposure to air and light and on prolonged standing the light blue color of the oil changes first to yellow to green and later to yellow-brown.  They present the highest ester value of all essential oils, from 272 to 293.5”   World of Aromatherapy, p. 203.        Roman Chamomile has a lower concentration of azulenes than Blue/German Chamomile, and it does not stimulate liver regeneration after subcutaneous applicationContradictions: None discussed.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory

Safety Precautions: Possibly not to be used by persons allergic to the Ragweed family.  Non-toxic.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, a pocket guide to essential oils and aromatherapy.  Novato, California:     New World Library, 2003.

 

Scientific Data: Although chamomile is popular, there are not many studies about it. Test tube studies have shown that chamomile can kill bacteria, fungus, and viruses. It also helps relax muscle contractions, particularly in the smooth muscles that make up the intestines. There is an interesting article about both the “German and Roman Chamomile” in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (10; 2011:01-05).

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

Bergamot Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol EO Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 3-3-16

Synopsis of Bergamot Essential Oil ~ A complete description, country of origin, characteristics, skin care, formulas and recipes on how to use this oil

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Bergamot

Citrus x limon (syn. Citrus bergamia (Risso))

Other Common Name/Naming Information:  It also takes its name from an Italian city, that of Bergamo in Lombardy, where the essential oil was originally sold. It is related to French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, of Turkish origin: beg-armudi or beg armut (“prince’s pear” or “prince of pears). The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, and are named for their similar aroma.

Family: Rutaceae

 Countries of Origins: Native of tropical Asia, Bergamot is now extensively cultivated in the southern part of Italy, particularly Reggio di Calabria, Sicily; and Ivory Coast.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Calabria region of Italy.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The small fruit tree 16 feet tall, branches with thorns, flowers white, fruit not edible about 2-4 inches in length is a characteristic of the southern Italian landscape; its small, round fruit is very bitter and is inedible when raw. The fruit looks like a miniature pear-shaped orange. It is a hybrid of bitter Orange and Lemon, a product of cultivation.

citrus_bergamot_orange

Bergamot citrus on the tree

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Bergamot essential oil is obtained from the cold expression of the peel of nearly ripe fruit of the Bergamot tree. Yield up to 9.7% for hydro-distilled and .5-1.5% for cold-pressed or 100 Bergamot fruit yields 85 grams of oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics of Bergamot:

Organo-Bergamot

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: The odor is floral, fruity, slight spicy back note, that is, predominating floral and citrus, subsidiary notes of fruit with a slight spicy back note. When you purchase Bergaptene-free or decolorized Bergamot oil, you begin to lose the rich floral/fruity/citrus odor and it becomes less ‘natural smelling’ and more ‘synthetic smelling’.

Bergamot EO

General Properties: Bergamot is an important ingredient in high end perfumery. Without it many perfumes could not be made. It is calmative, antispasmodic, antidepressant and antiseptic.

Properties and Uses:  Physically Bergamot oil can be used highly diluted as a gargle for sore throat, used to flavor Tobacco and tea; by application it can be used in skin care for skin infections, on cold sores, and inhaled for depression, stress, frustration, anxiety or emotional crisis

 Application/ Skincare. Bergamot is used in a variety of skin care lines, in lotions, creams, bath, salve, unguents and for massage or direct application to a variety of skin conditions; cold sores, acne, skin infections.

Diffuse/Diffusion.  Bergamot is best used in a blend in the diffuser (Lavender or Rosemary are good) to promote relaxation and alleviate stress by stimulating the mind. It helps to resolve your irritable nature and soothe tension and ease sadness.

Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN) Use Bergamot by inhalation while drinking the Earl Grey Tea (bergamot infused); this is both uplifting and calming. Ritually, Bergamot oil is used for success and comfort as it can help clear the mind of depressing recurring thoughts.

 Key Use: ‘The Oil of Anxiety’ and for perfumery.

Chemical Components: The peel oil contains; The chemical composition of Bergamot from Tunisia was obtained by hydrodistillation and fifteen compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).

When cold-pressed, Bergamot oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl and linalyl acetate up to 50%. The ester content changes depending on climate in any year.(375 Essential Oils, p. 49) 30-60% linalyl acetate and 11-22% linaloöl. Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and Bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

linaloollinalool

Bergamot juice contains neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, ponceritin, melitidin, and brutieridin.  Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties.

 Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog): The hydrodistilled was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%). The cold-pressed oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl 11-22% and linalyl acetate up to 30-60%.  Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

Blends Best with: Bergamot’s light refreshing citrus scent makes is a good blending partner for just about any other oil. And its use in the perfume industry bears this out. It is of particular importance in a ‘Chypre’ type blend with rich deep oils like Labdanum, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Frankincense, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetivert.

HYDROSOL: I have not as yet had hydrosol of true Bergamot only of sour Oranges.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: – History is speculative. Possible that the tree was brought to the Canary Islands and found there by Christopher Columbus who brought it to Calabria.

 Interesting Information: a native of tropical Asia, Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is now extensively cultivated in the Southern part of Italy, particularly in the Calabria region. The Italians have used Bergamot in folk medicine for years, in particular for fevers. Legend has it that Christopher Columbus found the tree in the Canary Islands and brought it back to Italy. Bergamot gets its name from Bergamo a town in Italy, where it was originally cultivated.

Fruitcake copy

It can be candied and eaten either in a fruitcake or with bitter Coffee as a sweetmeat as they do in Greece.

Abstract/Scientific Data: “Bergamot is frequently adulterated … when doubtful of purity, the expert should resort to thorough odor and flavor tests, which usually are more indicative of the quality than mere chemical analysis.” — Guenther, The Essential Oils

 Contraindications: Pure Bergamot is photo-sensitizing; we recommend that it be highly diluted (less than 2%) when applied to the skin, or that one of our Bergamot FCF essential oils be used instead. FCF (furanocoumarin-free) is an acronym that indicates the chemical constituent(s) responsible for extreme sensitization of the skin to sunlight has been removed, in the case of Bergamot oil, the specific furanocoumarin being bergaptene.

Key Use: Perfumery, skin care and calming.

 Safety Precautions: Bergamot is known to be one of the most photo toxic essential oils and for this reason should be used with care in sunlight, hot climates and with other ultraviolet light. Photo sensitivity is caused by the presence of furocoumarins, most notably Bergaptene, in this particular essential oil. Apart from this factor, Bergamot is considered to be a relatively non-toxic and non-irritant essential oil. Photosensitizing. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Here is some basic information from the web on this reaction of Bergamot with the sun.

  1. Definition: Berloque Dermatitis is a skin condition in which patients develop a brownish to reddish discoloration of the neck and sometimes the arms due to applying perfume or cologne to the skin. Sometimes the skin first turns red before changing to a brownish color. This condition can persist for years or even be permanent.
  2. Causes: Many perfumes and colognes contain oil of Bergamot, an extract of the peel of a specific orange grown in the South of France and the Calabria district of Italy. When this oil contacts the skin and the skin is exposed to sunlight, the oil of Bergamot causes the skin to discolor. With repeated exposures to sunlight, the discoloration becomes permanent.

Treatment:

  • Cosmetics can work well to cover the area so it is not as noticeable.
  • Patients with Berloque dermatitis should use a daily sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher to help keep the condition from worsening. In addition, perfume should no longer be applied to areas of the skin that get sun exposure.
  • Laser treatment may be an effective treatment in the future. At this time, we do not have this available. You may want to go to a laser center to seek their opinion.
  • Retin-A applied to the involved areas daily will improve this condition.
  • Daily application of soothing gels is a treatment for this problem.

 

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO:

A story about Bergamot Sensitivity, called Berloque Dermatitis
March 11, 2004 – “Ask Jeanne Rose” Question

I need your advice.  I was wearing a strong blend of Bergamot, Rosemary and Geranium on a HOT day this week. I woke up the next day with a big brown-red splotch on my neck. I realize this may take months and months to heal correctly (it’s the Bergamot I think that is so sensitive to sunlight.) I am going on vacation to the beach. Any suggestions as to what to put on my neck NOW that I have burned it? I need something to heal it fast. At least I am an example of what not to do. I am so embarrassed. I forgot to look at the Aromatherapy Studies Course Work. — Thanks, Jeanne,

Answer: Dear K.
Wear a hat. Keep face and neck out of sun. It will only get worse. Use Sea Buckthorn, Calophyllum, and Bruise Juice in this proportion 25•25•50.   Do not use any citrus at all as a scent or deodorant or body wash until it is gone. This brown mark is the reaction of the sun and Bergaptene. Now you know from personal experience what not to do.   In the future, you can put on the citrus as scent on the parts of the body that are covered or put on the scent and stay out of sun for several hours. It is the combination of the application and the immediate sun exposure that does this.

Jeanne Rose

=====

Dear Jeanne,
Thank you for your help with my neck burn, I really appreciate your time and caring. Some notes: I went and got some Calophyllum inophyllum (cold pressed) and filled up the rest of the bottle of Bruise Juice with it. About .25 oz. or 20-25% total. I am applying this in the morning and evening. I am wearing scarf to keep out of sun. I am using titanium 25 sunscreen that is nice, thick, and mostly organic. I notice when the sun/heat gets on the scarf even, the burn mark will start to hurt/sting, than I will apply more of the Sea Buckthorn/Calophyllum/Bruise Juice treatment. (I also have applied a Calendula and Comfrey salve when I didn’t have the other treatment handy). I have an inclination to apply the Calophyllum by itself because it is so soothing. It is like becoming familiar with Calendula infused oil, it works for everything! The mark is now a brown/pink. I am writing down in my journal and taking notes. Thanks again Jeanne, don’t know what I would have done without you -probably cried for days about ruining my neck.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 Do not ingest clause for EO

Jeanne Rose Recipes/Formulas Using Bergamot

Blending and Perfume Formulas:

Summer Breeze Blend

Bergamot – Citrus bergamia – 10 drops
Geranium – Pelargonium graveolens – 5 drops
Lemongrass – Cymbopogon flexuosus – 2 drops
Peppermint – Mentha x piperita – 2 drops

“Summer Breeze” scent has become a hot weather staple around here. We use it to scent bath gel for a cooling shower, or it makes a wonderful detoxifying scrub in Sugar or Salt Glow; in room spritzers for a bright refreshing atmosphere, or to spray in a hot car. I also like to use it as a body spray for a light cologne IF I’m not going to be in the sun. (If I am going to be in the sun, I’ll use Bergaptene-free Bergamot oil).

Bergamot Floral and Smoke ~ a light tempting perfume
Top Note ~
10 drops Pink Grapefruit
10 drops Bergamot BGF

Heart Note ~
5 Drops Jasmine Sambac
5 drops Ylang complete

Base Note ~
2 drops Amber
2 drops Vanilla

Use the residue in the Amber and Vanilla bottle to get your drops. Take the empty ¼ oz. Amber bottle and add neutral grape spirits to half full. Shake it up. Pour that alcohol into the empty ¼ oz. Vanilla abs bottle. Now you have your base note mixed. To this bottle add the rest of the ingredients. Shake the bottle vigorously by succussion. Now just almost fill it with neutral grape spirits. Succuss again. Label the bottle and let it sit on your desk for 2 weeks. Smell it now and again. It should be perfect to you. Your perfume is at about 15%.

 

Consultation Usage ~ I have also used this oil, inhaled, to inhibit anorexia and generally in any blend where I want a bright sassy citrus scent.

Ritual Use ~ I like to add a drop or two to a dollar bill and put it in my wallet. It inhabits my entire purse with a wonderful cheery odor.

 

Skin Care for Normal skin ~
Apply in evening to clean washed face
Bergamot – 15 drops
Rosemary verbenone – 10 drops
Spikenard – 5 drops
Jojoba/Almond oil or lotion to fill 1 oz. = about 2.5% [EO an be reduced by adding more carrier oil]

 

JR

 

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Jeanne Rose ~ Jeanne is the founder of New Age Creations, the first body-care company in the United States to use aromatherapy (since 1967) based on the formulas she invented and then used in The Herbal Body Book; she is the Director/Educator of both the Herbal Studies Course and the Aromatherapy Studies Course by home-study and Distance-Learning and the author of 25 books.  She coined the word ‘hydrosol’ for the aromatic waters of distillation. She was the first to teach the Art of Distillation to aroma practitioners.

She brings 45 years of experience and personal research in her practice of Aromatherapy.  Jeanne Rose has held the Executive positions of (NAHA), The American Herbalist Association (AHA), and The Aromatic Plant Project (APP) —which encourages the production and use of American grown essential oils and hydrosols. Jeanne Rose teaches all aspect of aromatherapy and herbalism as well as Aromatherapy Certification Courses; and the Art of Distillation.

She practices a personal ecology and eats organically grown and locally sourced foods.

www.JeanneRose.net

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Table of Contents ~ Profiles

Amber
Bergamot

Calendula Infused Oil


Cedar-Virginia

Chamomile-Roman

Citronella Story

Clary Sage

Cypress and Blue Cypress EO


Douglas-Fir

Evergreens & Similars

Black Spruce – Picea mariana

Firs – Profile & Hydrosol

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

Hydrosol Story -Rose Geranium

Juniper Berry – Juniperus communis

Myrrh EO & CO2

Patchouli

Petitgrain

Pines – Pinyon and Scotch


Rose-Geranium

Roses – Grown for Scent

Rosemary. Chemotypes and Hydrosol

Sage


Sandalwood – ALL
Sandalwood-Australian
Sandalwood-Hawaiian & New Caledonia
East Indian Sandalwood


Tonka Bean
Vanilla

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