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Calendula ~ When and How to Make infused oils

Jeanne Rose going to go back to herbal and gardening and perfumery basics of tincturing, infusing, weeding, blending with moon lore, and plant knowledge to make even better infused medicinal oils.

 

CALENDULA INFUSED OIL

Jeanne Rose ~ circa 1972

Kingdom is Plantae
Order is Asterales
Family is Asteraceae
Tribe is Calenduleae
Genus is Calendula – referring to the first day of the month or here the long growing period.
species is C. officinalis – originally meaning used medicinally. The Pot Marigold “my thoughts are with you”

 

Contents: fresh Calendula flowers & Virgin Olive oil
figure 1. Calendula infused oil

MAKE CALENDULA INFUSED OIL VS Calendula Hydrosol
           “I know that some will disagree with me on this subject but I strongly feel that distilling Calendula flowers is a waste of botanical product. Calendula Hydrosol is obtained from freshly picked Calendula flowers and distilled in a copper still. It produces a green and vegetative smelling hydrosol. It seems a waste of good Calendula flowers.” My suggestion is to not distil it but to infuse the fresh flowers in good-quality Olive Oil for an infused oil. This can be used in all skin care lotions. It works to smooth and soothe the skin, to heal small eruptions or sores. It makes a perfect infused oil. You use less resources when you infuse or macerate than when you distil.

When you distil the Calendula you will use (waste) up to 30 POUNDS of flowers (250 flowers per pound or 7500 flowers in 30 lbs.) to make ONLY 3 Gallons of hydrosol + all the water wasted going through the condenser. Though the hydrosol of Calendula is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems, The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product, it is a serious waste of plant material.  When you distil for hydrosol you have to also think of the environmental impact of your work and the value of the water used.

Yes, there are some water-soluble compounds in the flowers but we can use the flowers more efficiently as a tea or compress. With the Calendula infused oil, you use 1 lb. of resin covered flowers to 1 gallon of good Olive oil. Nothing is wasted. I make my freshly picked Calendula infused oil from fresh flowers and not dried – it is a fantastic product.”

Sometimes an herbal product is a better choice of a product to use than a distilled product.

 

 Parts of Calendula Used. The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.
Calendula Leaves – Gather these in dry weather, in the morning, after the sun has dried the dew — for tea. They can also be dried for tea. The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed.

Calendula Flowers – The flowers are picked when they are covered with the resin and then used and if they will be dried, it needs to be done quickly in the shade, in a good current of warm air. They can be hung in mesh bags from tree limbs or spread out on sheets of paper, without touching each other. If they are dried and the flowers have been touching they will become discolored. Another method of drying is to spread them on screens in a warm dry attic or over a stairway. This has been described extensively in The Herbal Studies Course, chapters 31 and 33.   
          The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.

Calendula resin: When you pick Calendula, your fingers will be sticky from the resinous bracts which form the green base of the flower head. This resin is an important part of Calendula’s healing and is a good indicator of strength. If you are buying Calendula, make sure you purchase the bright yellow or orange flowers which is a good barometer of its freshness and medicinal quality. If picking fresh flowers, the stickier (with resin) the better. The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex. This is particularly common among the Cichorioideae).

 

Calendula Chemistry. The German herbal medicine manufacturer, Dr. Theiss, registered ‘Rinathei’ in 1998 for its own exclusive production use. This variety is claimed to be rich in faradiol triterpenoids believed to be most responsible for calendula’s anti-inflammatory activity. Intriguingly, a readily available dwarf ornamental variety, ‘Calypso Orange,’ is also rich in faradiols, having the highest content of 10 cultivars tested, as much as a third more than ‘Erfurter Orangefarbi.
The petals and pollen contain triterpenoid esters (an anti-inflammatory) and the carotenoids flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (antioxidants, and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids, mostly lutein (80%) and zeaxanthin (5%), and beta-carotene. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics, presumably due to the presence of compounds such as saponins, resins, and essential oils.

figure 2. fresh Calendula flower

 Calendula infused oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book and refer to pages 249-250.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available Jeanne Rose teaches both courses and classes making this wonderful infused oil for massage, blending or perfumery.
I do not recommend sun infusion ~ I AM NOT a proponent of letting something sit in oil for 4-6 weeks, hot during the day and cooler at night, as this is a perfect way to create spoilage. I use the hot maceration method and get my perfect Calendula oil or St. Johnswort Oil in about 2-3 days.

 

TO MAKE INFUSED OIL: To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book or the Aromatherapy Studies Course and read up on it. Use 1 lb. of fresh flowers to 1 gallon of organically grown Olive oil. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers when they are ready and covered in resin; pick them in the morning when the dew is dry but the sun not yet high and infuse and macerate them slowly over a series of days in organically-grown Olive oil, heating gently but not boiling, cooling, heating and cooling until the flowers have exuded (sweated) their liquid moisture. Keep heating and cooling until the pot lid no longer collects the condensation, pouring off the condensate and drying the inside of the lid. During hot weather, this might be done in a day but here in San Francisco it takes about 3 days. Cool, and allow the oil to drain into a clean container.

         When pouring off the condensate, remember to not pour it back into the oil, but into a separate container. This liquid can be considered a perfect hydrosol of Calendula as it is the natural exudate from the flowers. Collect it and then use it as a facial tonic within the next three days.

After the oil has taken on the deep orange color of the flowers, (2-4 days of warm maceration), let it cool enough to pour into a glass jar. Use a funnel lined with a mesh bag and pour the oil through the bag into the jar. The mesh bag collects any stray bits of plant material. It is not necessary to use a filter or filter paper as that just adds another dimension to the product and does not remove any bacteria or yeast. If you have made the oil correctly it will be yeast and mold-free for up to a year and the filter paper doesn’t filter only makes a mess.

Now you will have to be patient and let the finished Calendula Infused Oil sit for a day or two and settle. Any liquid that may be left will drop to the bottom of the jar and the oil decanted into a clean container. If the oil is cloudy, however, you will have to heat it gently one more time to remove the fluid. My Calendula Infused oil is golden yellow-orange and clear and will stay pure for up to a year or more.

At this point, pour your oil into sterile quart or 8-oz. bottles. Label your product with its name, contents, the size of the container, and your name or phone number or website. Store them in a basement or wine cellar at about 45-55°. They will keep until you use or sell them.

 

      MEDICINAL ACTION AND USES. Used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. A lotion made from the infused oil, flower wax and an essential oil is most useful for sprains and wounds, and if you have a hydrosol water distilled from these flowers that is good for inflamed and sore eyes (but only used if kept sterile).

 

INGREDIENTS: Calendula infused (Olive) oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. Olive oil by itself contains the phytonutrient, oleocanthal, which mimics the effect of ibuprofen in reducing inflammation in the body. Squalene and lignans are among the other olive oil components being studied for their possible effects on cancer.

Calendula officinalis (is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain, and as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.

 

USE. Used for dry or sensitive skin, baby care, and also good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers, infuse and macerate in olive oil, heat gently and cool several times removing all condensate that collects on the lid. Then allow the oil to drain into a clean, sterile container. Only the common variety with deep orange color and sticky resin is of medicinal value. The yellow flower can also be used but it does not make as deeply colored infused oil and it seems of ‘lesser’ strength.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available there are classes to teach the making of this wonderful infused oil.

figure 3. Bottles of Jeanne Rose Calendula Infused Oil

 

Medicinal Action and Uses. Calendula infused oil made from fresh flowers and organic olive oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in blends, lotions, and massage.

The flowers also called Marigold are chiefly used as a local remedy. They have a stimulating action and are diaphoretic (makes you sweat) when taken as a warm tea. Given internally, it encourages a natural internal action and prevents suppuration (pus formation as in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus). The usual recipe for herbal infusion is of 1-ounce dried herb to a pint of boiling water, steep for 10-20 minutes and take internally, in doses of one tablespoonful, every hour; and used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. It is useful as an internal tea in chronic ulcer, varicose veins, etc. This infusion was formerly considered to have much value as an aperient (mild laxative) and intestinal cleanser in obstructions in the digestive system and for jaundice.

Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. The hydrosol is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems. The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product.

 

An infusion of the freshly gathered flowers, drunk hot is useful in summer fevers and cold, as it gently promotes perspiration – a decoction of the flowers has been used to treat smallpox and measles. Marigold flowers are very useful for children’s ailments.

The expressed juice of the flower or the dried powdered flowers, snuffed up the nose triggers sneezing and a discharge of mucous from the head. Years ago when I tried to express the juice of fresh flowers, I used a Champion juicer, got only a few drops of juice but used this, diluted by half with water, as nose drops for a client who had a hole in the septum.

The leaves when chewed at first taste gummy and sweet followed by a strong penetrating salty taste. The expressed juice of flowers and leaves, which contains the most of this pungent matter, especially with Rose petals has been given in cases of costiveness (retained feces), where it acts as an aperient and proved very useful for this problem. Since it is gentle, it can be used with children and in small doses for your pets.

The leaves and flowers can be eaten as a salad and also been considered a medicinal culinary herb, useful in skin diseases and swollen lymph nodes of children. Some of the stronger scented Calendula with lots of resin is recommended to remove warts.

 

Using the Moon to Make the Infusion:
Phases of moon

For instance, it is good to start a tincture on a New Moon in a Water sign (Cancer/Scorpio/Pisces).

If you want to weed a garden, or filter/strain your infused oil or Bruise Juice ~ do it in the last quarter leading to the full moon in an Earth sign (Taurus/Virgo/Capricorn).

If you want your blend/infusion to have a strong good scent or to boost the olfactory powers of a scent, make sure you pick the plants when they are ready. When they are ready means at the time when their scent is the best. For instance, Jasmine at night, Tuberose early in the morning or at dark, Chamomile types in the early morning, Roses when the dew is dried but before the sun is high.

Start blends in the New Moon/First Quarter in a Fire sign (Aries/Leo/Sagittarius).

The Llewellyn book on moon signs can be used for off-line reference, and there are online websites that have the phases and astrological signs.

 I am keeping my book, Herbs & Things open in my reading room because I want to be able to reference the formula and what I had to say then.  I already visit various moon lore and weather sites on the Internet for basic charts. When I make Bruise Juice, I pick and start work on a waxing to full moon when the herbs are at their fullest. Let it drain and bottle on a waning moon. For great moon information see — any weather or navy site or go to MoonMenu for a quick moon update.

 Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy • 415-564-6785 or www.JeanneRose.net

Resource:
http://www.thegardenhelper.com/calendulapix.html
The Aromatherapy Book. http://www.jeannerose.net/books
The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet by Jeanne Rose. $24.50 from http://www.jeannerose.net/
 In-person Seminars, courses, and classes by home-study or Distance Learning
Calendula Infused Oil
1 quart = $150 + S&H
8 oz. = $45 + S&H
http://www.JeanneRose.net 

Pictures During the Process of Making Infused Calendula Oil

 

~ JR ~

JUNIPER BERRY EO/HYDROSOL

Many benefits and uses come from the female seed cone that produces Juniper “berries”; the properties including delightful information by Jeanne Rose is fascinating and useful.

 

Juniper Berry Essential Oil/ Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 12/25/16

Common Name/Latin Binomial and Family: Juniper berry, Juniperus communis is in the evergreen or conifer family, Cupressaceae, it is the berry oil, the essential oil that is steam-distilled from the merged scales of the cone, the berries, that we usually just call Juniper oil.
However, there are other Juniper trees of the genus Juniperus that are also commercially used just not in the same way, such as (Juniperus virginiana often called –cedar or pencil Cedar). Do not confuse these two oils.

Name: Juniperus simply means Juniper and communis means common.

Some Other Commonly used Junipers: J. bermudiana L. timber for pencils; J. californica Carr. berries for gin or hydrosol; J. cedrus Webb & berth. In the Canary Island forest; J. chinensis L. ornamental and berries for gin; J. communis L. the common Juniper berries used to flavor gin and liqueurs and eaten with meat, there is a French form has rather sweet berries that I prefer to use to flavor drinks; J. excelsa M, Bieb. used as medicine; J. occidentalis Hook., the wood is used in fencing and berries to flavor local liquor; J. oxycedrus L., the heartwood that gives the parasiticidal oil of Cade through a destructive distillation; J. sabina L., the twigs are medicinal and insecticidal and berries are toxic; and 

J. virginiana L. incorrectly named ‘cedar’ or red cedar and native to North America the wood of which is used to make pencils, making medicinals and wood for insect-proof chests and small pieces placed among clothing, the oil used to scent soap and it has many cultivars.  This oil/hydrosol was profiled in Jeanne-blog.com http://jeanne-blog.com/cedar-wood-virginia/

1-juniper-berries-oregon-copyfig. 1. JR photo of Juniperus occidentalis from Oregon

Countries of Origins: Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer that has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a distribution throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30° N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. Relict populations can be found in the Atlas Mountains of Africa.

 Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Juniper berry organic from Bulgaria; Juniper berry CO2, cultivated and kosher grown in India; and Juniper leaf/branch grown in Slovenia.

Endangered or Not: Common Juniper (Juniperus communis, is threatened or endangered in a number of states. Bermuda Cedar, Bermuda Red Cedar, Bermuda Juniper bermudiana, this species is currently listed as Critically Endangered.

 

General description of Plant habitat and growth:  Evergreen shrub or tree growing up to eighteen feet with narrow, stiff, prickly needles and little brown cones called berries that turn black in the second or third year.  The common Juniper, Juniperus communis, is a native to the Northern Hemisphere.   “…A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially the Juniperus communis, are used as a tasty spice, and also give gin its distinctive flavor.
Juniper berries have been called the only spice derived from the conifers although tar and inner bark from pine trees is sometimes considered a spice as well….” —Wikipedia

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The essential oil is either a CO2 extract or a a steam distillation of the berries (merged scales) and has a very rich, deep aroma. The ripe fruit is dried, crushed, or slightly dried, and then steam distilled or it is carbon dioxide extracted or the leaf and branch is hydro-distilled.
Yield:
   0.2-2.0% for the berry oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics:
Color:  the Juniper berry can be a rich Golden Yellow to a colorless oil; the Juniper berry CO2 is a pale yellow to dark yellow, while the Juniper leaf/branch oil is colorless.
Clarity: Clear
Viscosity: Non-viscous, although I have experienced a few berry oils that were somewhat viscous.
Intensity of Odor: leaf is a 3, CO2 is a 3-4 and the SD berry oil will be 4-5.
[Scale is 1-10 with 10 being the most intense]
Taste: herby, bitter, Astringent

Aroma Assessment: The scent of Juniper berry depends upon terroir. If it is from France it often has a citrus and fruity back note whereas when it is from the USA it has an herbaceous and sometimes mild camphoraceous back note.  The three I photographed and smelled most recently; the leaf/branch oil was quite herby and a conifer needle scent, Juniper berry was woody and herbaceous and the CO2 herby and citrus. But each was different from the other. I suggest that you first purchase samples and choose the one you like the best to use.

img_2700fig. 2. Juniper Oil of leaf and berry – courtesy Eden Botanicals

purple-bar

Properties of the Essential Oil

(General Properties and Uses) of juniper berry and leaf oil: Properties are by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application). By application the properties are antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue, antiparasitic, tonic, and depurative (purifying) and by Ingestion they are diuretic, depurative, and antiseptic; by Inhalation it is tonic, brain tonic, and respiratory expectorant.
General Uses:  It is an expectorant and antiseptic and can be used externally as a cleanser, and in massage oils and cosmetics.  It has been used as a medication for urinary problems, genital warts, itchy vulva or jock itch in the form of a sitz bath.  Juniper berry essential oil can be taken in very small amounts to act as a diuretic for cystitis and to detoxify the body, but a tea of the berries is more highly recommended, especially mixed with Rosemary herb and Fennel seed. Juniper berries, 1 or 2, can be eaten as an aid to jet lag or for ‘change of location’.

I view aromatherapy as a branch of herbalism,
and learning when use of the herb is preferable to use of the essential oil.
This is an important aspect of aromatherapy training.

 

Specific Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP):

  • Application: It is antiseptic and used externally as a cleanser and for problem skin. It may also be diluted and applied for pain relief for arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica or to relieve itchy vulva, jock itch, acne, eczema, and premenstrual bloating. Juniper berry or leaf is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities and is a wonderful addition in an astringent cleanser for the skin it and a wonderful odor and deodorizer in men’s products.
  • Inhalation: to alleviate mental exhaustion, in a blend for asthma, hay fever, and nervous tension.
    •Ingestion:
    Juniper Berry oil may be taken internally, in very small amounts. It helps the body release fluids and is used for obesity, urinary infections, and gout. It is used in tiny amounts as a diuretic for cystitis, to detoxify the body (depurative), and for overindulgence of food. (1 drop/herbal capsule such as Marshmallow root). It is used in the making of Gin and in flavoring meat foods.
  • Emotional Uses or Energetic Uses: Juniper Berry oil is inhaled to aid the memory, and to visualize being guarded from negativity and danger or use in a bath for depleted energy. I quite like this oil as a ‘change of location’ scent — to inhale or to eat a berry when flying and even to alleviate jet lag.
  • Diffuse/Diffusion: Juniper berry oil can be diffused in a blend with other oils that are less intense in scent, such as Rosemary, Lavender, citrus oils. It has a very cleansing effect on the air, is refreshing and helpful for concentration in a work space.
  • Perfumery: I especially prefer the Juniper berry oil from France in perfumery where it works well with citrus scents such as Bergamot and with Lavender and other conifers and when using Juniper berry from the U.S. I use it with base notes such as Galbanum and Oakmoss
  • HYDROSOL Properties and Uses: The USA sample was tested and was largely camphor and terpinene-4-ol with smaller amounts of borneol and other components. This Juniper hydrosol would be wonderful in the bath for aches and pains or as a compress for injuries. European Juniper hydrosol might better be used in facial care and toners and air sprays.
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most of which are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. Also, a hydrosol does not have the same components as does the essential oil, the components are often very different and in very much smaller amounts.
3-juniper-berry-2-yr-old-copyfig. 3. Juniper berries

 

~ FAVORITE RECIPES ~

  • Jeanne’s Favorites Uses of the herb, oil and hydrosol: I use Juniper berries whenever I travel. I just chew a few as sort of an anti-jetlag food, or I chew one to make my breath taste better. For these uses I need to use the sweet Juniper berries that come from France. I also use the Juniper berries (especially the ones from the NW or here in California) as an ingredient in my famous ‘Bruise Juice’. It is remarkable for adding more anti-pain therapeutics to my product. Regarding the essential oil, I add it equally to Sage oil, Basil oil, Cypress oil and Rosemary oil as an application for aching muscles and for temporary external use for pain-relief from sports injuries like painful legs, arms, golf elbow, etc.

 

  • Jeanne Rose Skin Care Formula

For aging skin, dry skin, sensitive skin or acneic skin,
Use a few drops of the following daily as an application before going outside.
Mix all together carefully before using.

6 drops sweet high altitude Lavender
4 drops true Clary Sage from the flowers
1 drop Galbanum
5 drops sweet Juniper berry
32 drops of your favorite carrier or lotion.

.

Jeanne Rose’s Tomato Tales with Juniper Berry: I have used Juniper berry oil, the berry (herb), and hydrosol for as long as I have used anything and have never had an unpleasant or wildly or even a mildly memoristic experience with them that I can remember.  It is one of the easiest herbs and oils to use. In food the berry is delicious particularly with meats and fowl, the oil works great in massage blends to relieve muscle pain and the hydrosol is just a wonderful addition to the bath for skin cleansing.

 

Key Use:  The oil of Edema. [for obesity, urinary infections, skin problems, arthritis, and gout and massage for aching muscles]

Chemical Components: Constituents: Juniper berry essential oil contains 8% resins; 0.4% Juniperene; Pinene and Terpinenes. Monoterpenes (which make up most of the essential oil) alpha- and beta-pinene, sabinene, limonene, terpinene-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, borneol, geraniol, myrcene, camphene, camphor, alpha-eudesmol and many others.

Sesquiterpenes such as beta-caryophyllene, delta-cadinene, Diterpenes, Neolignan glycosides, lignan (podophyllotoxin is present and is toxic to the nerves, gut and liver), tannins, flavonoids, resin in the essential oil include cedrene, alpha-pinene pectin, sabinene, cedrol, myrcene, terpinene-4-ol, limonene, beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, alpha-eudesmol which may inhibit calcium channels and appears to be neuroprotective in a stroke model.

Antifungal compounds are found in the juniper parts such as oidiolactone C. Isocrupressic acid in Juniperus communis has been identified as an active abortifacient compound, Alpha- and beta-cedrene from Juniperus occidentalis have antimicrobial activity.

Historical Uses and Interesting Information: Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and for muscular uses and rheumatism.
Common juniper contains a volatile oil, terpinene-4-ol, which is known to increase kidney action. Common juniper extract, which can be fatal in even fairly small amounts, was used to make gin and as a meat preservative. Common juniper is highly valued as an ornamental plant and is widely cultivated and provides good ground cover even on stony or sandy sites. This species was first cultivated in 1560.

Contraindications: Do not confuse Juniper berry oil with Cade oil from Juniperus oxycedrus or the toxic oil from Juniperus sabina. Juniper berry oil and herb (Juniperus communis) is contraindicated in those patients with reduced renal function.

 

References:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. botANNicals. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/juncom/all.html
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/juniperus-communis.html
fig-4-juniper-berry-jeannerosefig. 4. Jeanne Rose photo of J. communis in Golden Gate Park
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©
fig-5-juniper-illustrationfig. 5. Botanical illustration of Juniper communis

 

 

~ JR ~

Evergreens & Their Similars


Conifers are favorite trees and their essential oils perform in many formulas, therapeutics and blends — they are widely grown and healing to mind and body.

Evergreens & Their Similars

by Jeanne Rose

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea)
Abies balsamea

Cedar, Cypress, Juniper, Fir, Pine & Spruce are all evergreen trees whose bark and needles and sometimes wood and cones produce essential oil. They are divided into two main groups; the Pinaceae and the Cupressaceae, that is, the ones used for their needles and the ones used for their woods.

The needle oils are commonly considered useful for respiratory care and for care of the upper, airy parts of the body and it is often said that this is because they come from tall trees whose leaves or needles are touching the sky.  They have refreshing, mind-clearing fragrances that are strong yet somehow salubrious.

When one begins to take a closer look at the evergreen plants and their essential oils, confusion quickly ensues! Totally different trees have the same common name. And as we talk about the plants and their oils individually, you will become increasingly aware of the importance of being educated and informed as an aromatherapy practitioner as well as the importance of purchasing your essential oils from a source that is educated and informed and willing to share information with you. Correct Latin binomials is increasingly important.

I have tried to make this post as clear and understandable as possible, yet when I speak individually about the oils, please remember, you are not the only one who is confused!  The company that sells you the oil may be confused as well.  I highly recommend that you perform your own research.  Collect the Evergreen plants and oils.  Compare the differences in their leaves, barks and cones.  Collect the Evergreen essential oils from various sources and be sure to use the Latin name when labeling the plants and purchasing the essential oils.  Compare the scents using the Basic 7 Vocabulary of Odor© and make a journal of the information you find.  A project such as this will help you at least to understand the confusion, if not to clear some of it up for you.

We have divided the Evergreen trees into 8 parts and given the general common name to each part. This post will be mostly the Pinaceae and soon, in the future, will be a long post about the other family of Conifers, the Cupressaceae:

Family Pinaceae

I. Pinus Pine
II. Picea Spruce
III. Tsuga Hemlock-Spruce & Pseudotsuga False Hemlock
IV. Abies Fir
V. Cedar true type

Folklore: Native American lore says that when the great mystery gave a gift to each species, the young trees were given a task to stay awake for 7 days and watch over the forest, the trees fell asleep species by species leaving only the young conifers that were so excited that they could not fall asleep. By the 7th night the only trees left awake were the Fir, Pine, Spruce, Cedar, Holly and Laurel. The great mystery was very happy, “What wonderful endurance you have” and gave them the gift of forever remaining green – thus the Evergreens. They were proclaimed the guardians of the forest and given exceptional healing qualities.

Family Cupressaceae

VI. Juniperus Cedar-wood & Juniper
VII. Cupressus Cypress & Chamaecyparis
VIII. Thuja

PINACEAE ~ Atlas Cedarwood EO, Deodar Cedarwood EO, Siberian Fir EO, Balsam  Fir absolute, Balsam Fir EO, Silver Fir EO, Maritime Fir EO, Scotch Fir EO, Sylvestris Fir EO, Pinyon Pine EO, Black Spruce, Douglas-Fir EO •
CUPRESSACEAE ~ Cypress Leaf EO, Blue Cypress  woodEO, Virginia Cedar wood EO, Juniper Leaf EO, Juniper Berry EO, Juniper Berry CO2

Taxonomy of the Conifers

Division: EMBRYOPHYTA SIPHONOGAMA   These are the  (SEED PLANTS)
Subdivision: GYMNOSPERMAE   (ovules naked, resinous wood in concentric rings)
Class: CONIFERAE  & Taxaceae    (cone-bearers), (yew-like)

conifer_cone-pinaceae-copyPinaceae – a conifer cone

Family: Pinaceae  (resinous trees or shrubs, cone scales numerous and woody or thin)
Genera include:
Pinus (Pine)
Larix (Larch or True Tamaracks)
Picea (Spruce)
Tsuga (Hemlock-Spruce)
Pseudotsuga (False Hemlock)
Abies (Firs or Balsam Trees)
Cedrus (True Cedars)

 

Family: Cupressaceae   (resinous trees or shrubs, cone scales are few and spiral or opposite)
Genera include:
Thuja (Arbor vita or “Cedars”)
Chamaecyparis (True Cypress)
Cupressus (True Cypress)
Juniperus (Junipers or “Cedars”)
Sequoia (Redwood and Big Trees)

 

FAMILY PINACEÆ
In group I. we find the Pinus species in the family Pinaceæ.

There is only confusion amongst users of essential oils in that family Pinaceæ includes a variety of trees with interchangeable common names such as: Spruces, Pines, Cedars, the Turpentine pines, and other plants that are often considered Cypress, Juniper or Spruce. Briefly, family Pinaceæ includes:

Pinus – Scotch Pine and others

SprucePicea species such as the Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Black Spruce (Picea mariana)

Hemlocks – Tsuga canadensis and T. heterophylla

False HemlockPseudotsuga douglasii  the Douglas-Fir

Fir –  Abies sibirica the Siberian Fir, Abies balsamea the Balsam Fir, and Abies alba, the Silver Fir

 Cedars – Cedrus atlantica , Atlas Cedarwood

 

coastal-pine-big-sur-jr  Coastal Pine – Big Sur -JeanneRose photo

Group I. Pinus (Pines)

Trees of the Genus Pinus have leaves that are persistent and of two kinds , the primary ones are linear or scale-like, and deciduous.  The secondary ones form the ordinary foliage and are narrowly linear, arising from the axils of the primary leaves in bunches of 1-5 leaf clusters enclosed at the base in a membranous sheath.

Mainly the trees that produce the essential oil called Pine oil are Pinus mugo (Dwarf Pine), Pinus palustris (Long Leaf Pine) and Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Pine).

            Pinus mugo , Dwarf Pine Needle is harvested in the Swiss Alps. It is sturdy and shrub-like and is protected by the Swiss government and is harvested according to particular rules only at certain elevations. This oil has a particularly pungent odor reminiscent of both a bark and needle oil and in fact entire branches including the needles are finely chopped up and thrown into the still for the essential oil. This combination of bark and needle make up an oil that is both airy and grounding. Components of Dwarf Pine Needle include l-a Pinene, b-Pinene, l-Limonene and Sesquiterpenes, Pumiliol, etc.

              In Europe, this plant is used for diseases of the skin and scalp and particularly at healing spas where it is inhaled for ailments of the respiratory organs, including pleurisy and tuberculosis. This is a powerful adjunct in the therapies for all sorts of ear, nose, throat and lung disorders.

            Pinus pinaster the Maritime Pine, contains Mono- and Sesquiterpenes. It is a powerful antiseptic used to disinfect the air locally. Good for chronic bronchitis, chronic cystitis, and anti-inflammatory for the lungs. Can be used externally in massage blends for rheumatism or aching joints. A particular chemotype of Pinus pinaster contains large quantities of terebenthine which is composed of 62% a-Pinene and 27% b-Pinene. This oleo-resin is used as a powerful expectorant, antiseptic, and to oxygenate the air. Indicated for infections of the respiratory system. It is used in hot water for steam inhaling treatments. Mainly used as an aerosol treatment but with possible allergies if used externally.

         Pinus palustris , Long Leaf Pine, Turpentine (See also Terebinth) is a tall, evergreen, up to 150 feet with attractive, reddish-brown, deeply fissured bark with long, stiff needles that grow in pairs. Is used mainly for the distillation of American gum sprits of Turpentine. This is a tall, evergreen tree native to the Southeast United States. The main component is Terpineol. It has been considered a powerful antiseptic spray and disinfectant, especially in veterinary medicine.  It has mainly external use as a massage for arthritis, muscular aches and pains and stiffness, and in the past, natural Turpentine was often inhaled for asthma and bronchitis.  This has been much used in commercial industry to manufacture paint, but has now been largely replaced by synthetic Pine oil (synth. Turpentine).

            Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Pine, Norway Pine is  a tall, evergreen, up to 150 feet with attractive, reddish-brown, deeply fissured bark with long, stiff needles that grow in pairs. The essential oil is produced mainly in the Baltic states. The components are greatly influenced by geographical origin and consist mainly of Monoterpenes, Pinene, some Limonene.  Pinus sylvestris is considered to have hormone-like, cortisone-like qualities. It is indicated for convalescence, inhaled for bronchitis, sinusitis, and asthma. and is used to tone the respiratory system, balance the hypothalamic/pancreas axis as well as the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal). It is a hypertensive, tonic stimulant.

The Difference between Firs and Spruces …
FIRS
= Think about Abies the genus and then A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and common name Fir is for friendly [Abies has needles that are soft to touch and aren’t sticky and needles when pulled leave a Flat scar].
SPRUCE = Picea and the P is for prickly and S is for Spruce is for spiky. [Picea for prickly needles, Peg-like scar when pulling off a needle and Spruce for spiky feel]

The second group of trees of the Pinaceae family are generally called Spruce trees.  Some Spruce trees also have the common name of Fir.

 

picea-spruce-copyPicea spp.

Group II. Picea (Spruce)

Genera Picea leaves are linear, often obtuse or emarginate base of leaves persistent on the branches.  The leaves are needles and are sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous.

            Spruce trees which are of the Genera Picea, family Pinaceæ, are conical trees with linear short 4-sided leaves spreading in all directions, jointed at the base to a short persistent sterigmata, on which they are sessile, falling away in drying, the bare twigs appearing covered with low, truncate projections.  The leaf buds are scaly.  Cones are ovoid to oblong, obtuse, pendulous, their scales numerous, spirally arranged, thin, obtuse, persistent.

            Essential oil of Black Spruce (Picea mariana) has much value in the respiratory system. The components include 55% Monoterpenes, including Camphene, a-Pinene, g-Bornyl acetate, etc. The properties are hormone-like, possibly stimulating the thymus gland and with cortisone-like properties that affect the HPA (hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal) axis. Picea mariana  (Black Spruce) Grows in Quebec, Canada. Components also include Monoterpenes, including a-Pinene and g-3-Carene, and Sesquiterpenes.  Indicated for bronchitis; internal parasites and an antifungal for candida; prostatitis; solar plexus spasms; asthenic conditions; excellent for sudden fatigue or exhaustion.  A general tonic for the entire system and indicated as well for excessive thyroid function. Possibly this oil is extremely valuable inhaled for asthmatics who take corticosteroids.

            Picea alba  (White Spruce)  has the same chemical components as Black Spruce. Both White and Black Spruce contain Tricyclene. Uses of these oils are: included in Cedar blends for technical preparations, room sprays, deodorants.

       Picea excelsa  Norway Spruce. Young twigs and leaves are steam distilled in the Tyrol valley.  Chemical composition is mainly Pinene, Phellandrene and Dipentene, etc.  Norway Spruce has a very fragrant odor and it is used in all sorts of Pine-scented compositions, bath salts, room sprays, etc.

 Picea abies, Norway Spruce 

 Picea glauca, Blue Spruce

 

tsuga-canadensis-jeannerose-photo

Tsuga canadensis

Group III.  … Tsuga (Hemlock-Spruce)
                            Pseudotsuga (False Hemlock)

Tsuga (Hemlocks)    … Leaves of the Genera Tsuga are stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or angular, often appearing 2-ranked. Hemlock-Spruces include Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock), Tsuga heterophylla (the Western Hemlock also called Gray-Fir or Alaskan-Pine) and sometimes the Black-Spruce and White-Spruce. These trees have slender horizontal or drooping branches, flat narrowly linear scattered short-petioled leaves, spreading and appearing 2-ranked, jointed to very short sterigmata and falling away in drying.  The leaf-buds are scaly.  Hemlocks are widely known in North America. These trees are tall evergreens with horizontal branches and finely toothed leaves. The young branches and leaves are steam distilled.  Production is normally in the Northeastern part of United States.

Tsuga canadensis, Common Hemlock

Tsuga Heterophylla, Prince Albert-Fir or Western Hemlock

Pseudotsuga (False Hemlock)… The base of the leaves of trees of the Pseudotsuga Genera are not persistent on the branches.  The leaves often appear 2-ranked, are stalked, flattened, stomatiferous below; winter-buds are pointed, not resinous. I have written about Douglas-Fir at

http://www.jeanne-blog/?s=Douglas+Fir

            Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga douglasii) also (P. Menziesii) is native to the West Coast of the United States and is now grown elsewhere. It is a  tall, attractive evergreen Fir tree, much used in the Christmas tree industry.  If you diffuse this oil in late November and early December you are sure to inspire the “Christmas spirit” in even the most grouchy of scrooges!  It is a wonderful oil to wake up to at that particular time of year.  The leaves are steam distilled to create the essential oil whose components vary considerably. The French oil contains large quantities of ß-Pinene and smaller amounts of Citronellyl acetate and ß-Phellandrene. Douglas Fir essential oil is strongly antiseptic and indicated for respiratory infections. It can be  used as a local disinfectant. This is one of the most lemon-scented of the Firs, with a powerful sweet, fresh, refreshing odor, well-liked as a room refresher or scent in soap blends. http://jeanne-blog.com/?s=Douglas+Fir

              Pseudotsuga taxifolia: Turpentine oil from Pseudotsuga taxifolia. is actually an oleo resin produced in the crevices of the tree trunk. On S-D it produces up to 35% the volatile oil, which is composed of up to 55 % l-a-Pinene, etc. Turpentine is used commercially in technical preparations

 

abies-grandis-foliage2-copyAbies grandis

Group IV. Abies (the True Firs)

In this group we find the common name of Firs from the Family Pinaceæ  and these include a variety of trees called Fir. The Firs are distributed worldwide and are coniferous trees with pyramid shapes. The essential oil is generally steam distilled from small twigs and needles. The base of the leaves of this group of trees is not persistent on the branches.  The leaves often appear 2-ranked but are actually spirally arranged.  The leaves are sessile, flattened and often grooved on the upper side or quadrangular, rarely stomatiferous above and on the upper fertile branches they are often crowded.  The winter-buds are obtuse and resinous.

The Difference between Firs and Spruces …
FIRS
= Think about Abies the genus and then A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and common name Fir is for friendly [Abies has needles that are soft to touch and aren’t sticky and needles when pulled leave a Flat scar].
SPRUCE = Picea and the P is for prickly and S is for Spruce is for spiky. [Picea for prickly needles, Peg-like scar when pulling off a needle and Spruce for spiky feel]

            Turpentine oil is produced from Pseudotsuga taxifolia as well as from Abies balsamea  called Canada Balsam Fir. This product is also a true turpentine because it consists of both resin and volatile oil. Component is principally l-a-Pinene.

            Abies balsamea is Balsam Fir. It contains up to 90% Monoterpenes. It is antiseptic and antispasmodic and is inhaled for the respiratory system.

           Abies siberica  is Balsam Fir and is grown widely in Russia. Its chief constituent, 40%, is l-Bornyl acetate. Its properties are antispasmodic and used for bronchitis and asthma.

            Abies alba, White Fir contains 95% Monoterpenes. It is an antiseptic; inhaled for respiratory problems. In addition, Abies alba produces a cone oil with a very pleasant balsamic odor consisting chiefly of l-Limonene and used as an adjunct in all Pine needle scents.

           Abies sachalinensis, Abies mariana

There are Pine needle oils that are actually Firs.  They  are commonly called Japanese-Pine Needle. They contain mainly l-Limonene and Sesquiterpenes. Primarily used for respiratory inhalations and for scenting of soap.

 

cedrus-deodara-copyCedrus deodara

Group IV. Cedrus (True Cedars)

            The Cedrus Genera has needles arranged singly on growing shoots in tufts often called “whorls”.  There are often 10-20 needles arranged in one tuft.  The Cedrus Genera have upright cones like the Abies, but the cones disintegrate after two years.

             Cedar leaf oils are in general used externally, well diluted for skin conditions and dandruff, fungal infections and hair loss, and inhaled in blends for the respiratory system. Cedar oils are sometimes  contraindicated for people who are prone to high blood pressure and heart problems and should be avoided by people with sensitive skin. This may be because they are confused with other genera with the common name of Cedar. But true Cedar oils are normally not a problem.

          Oil from the wood of Cedrus atlantica, Atlas Cedar, from the Pinaceæ family contains up to 80% Sesquiterpenes and Sesquiterpenols. Its properties are an arterial regenerative and a lymphotonic. It aids in the removal of body fat, and is used externally for cellulite and the retention of fluid in the tissue as well as being indicated for artherosclerosis.  Atlas Cedar is a good oil for the medicine chest because it is used for the respiratory system; a single drop in a half cup water to gargle for sore throat; or with a two drops of Eucalyptus in a steaming bowl of water to reduce nasal and lung congestion.  This would be a good oil to use in a home-made vapor salve, something like “Vicks Vapo-Rub” for relief of lung and nasal congestion.  It can be added to shampoos or facial washes to reduce oily secretions.  It is also used as a fixative in the perfume industry.

        Cedrus deodara , called Himalayan Cedarwood, from the Pinaceæ family contains a quantity of Sesquiterpenes and is very close to Atlas Cedarwood both scent and organoleptic qualities and could be substituted in a number of cases. It regenerates the arterial system,  and, like Atlas is a lymphotonic and is  indicated for cellulite and water retention.

       Both Himalayan and Atlas Cedarwood are considered by some to be contraindicated for children and pregnant women because they are considered neurotoxic and abortive. In some books, this oil is neurotoxic and abortive so should not be used for children and pregnant women. However, I believe that this is incorrect.

 

Confusion in the Name Cedar

cedar-cedar-confusion

            Cedar is a common name used for a variety of plants from both family Pinaceæ and family Cupressaceæ. Here we encounter the confusion that common names create.  There are many types of Cedar trees: true Cedars from the Genus Cedrus and other trees which are actually from other Genera, yet have the common name of Cedar.   True Cedar, of the Genera Cedrus, is from the Pinaceae family.  There are some trees from the Cupessaceæ family which are called Cedars but when you look at their Latin binomials you will see that they are Junipers or Thujas. True Cedars from family Pinaceæ include Atlas Cedarwood, Deodar Cedarwood and Lebanon Cedarwood.  From family Cupressaceæ: Port Orford-Cedar, Hinoki- Cedar, Virginia-Cedar, Texas-Cedar, and others from the Juniper clan of this group of trees.  Remember, the trees called Cedar from the Cupressaceæ family are not true Cedars.  So I recommend, again, remember essential oils by their Latin binomial.  This way, you will know for sure from which plant your oil comes.

         Another point to be aware of when using Cedar oils is whether you are using the oil of the leaf or the wood.  Awareness of the part of the plant the oil is coming from is just as important as awareness of which Cedar the oil is coming from.   If an oil is simply labeled Cedar, how are you to know what this oil is and how it can be used safely?  All essential oils should be labeled with their Latin binomial, common name, country of origin and part of the plant used.  Although if you look at your collection of essential oils at home or in stores, you will see that this is rarely the case.

Source: I am especially fond of the essential oils that are sold by Eden Botanicals. I find them to be of excellent quality and lovely scent. http://www.edenbotanicals.com

 

Bibliography

•Britton, Lord and Hon. Addison Brown • An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Vol. II • (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1970.)
•Franchomme, P. and Pénoël, Docteur D • L’Aromatherapie Exactement • (Limoges, France: Roger Jollois Editeur, 1990.)
•Guenther, Ernest, Ph.D. • The Essential Oils • (Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company 1976) (original edition 1952.) (in VI volumes)
•Rose, Jeanne • The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations • (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 3rd edition, 1994.)
Rose, Jeanne • 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols • (San Francisco, CA: Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy, 3rd edition, 1994
*Sudworth, George B. • Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope • (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1967.)
*Tutin, Heywood, Burgers, Moore, Valentine, Walters and Webb, Editors •  Flora Europea, Vol 4 • (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.)

 

Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.

Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

JR

East Indian Sandalwood EO Profile

Santalum album ~ the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses, from S. album from Australia and India. Specific information and many recipes for use.

 

East Indian Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

 screen-shot-2016-09-21-at-9-25-50-amFigure 1. Santalum album grown in Australia and S. album grown in India

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin ~ Sandalwood or Santal from various species of Santalum.  There are many species, that are currently used and distilled for their essential oil S. album L. — Indian sandalwood, white sandalwood, or chandana (India Indonesia, northern Australia); I examined two, S. album grown in Australia and S. album Rare that was grown in India.

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields: The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is becoming endangered. The heartwood is chipped and steam-distilled sometimes over another plant. Yield is 4-6.5%.

            This is a hemi-parasitic tree and requires one or more host plants by which it obtains nutrition through the roots. The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.

Endangered or not The sandalwood tree has now become endangered due to overharvesting, greatly limiting supply and hence use. This is truly unfortunate. When you consider that in 1957 the world population was 2.8 billion and now it is about 6 billion it is pretty clear that with more people there is more demand for precious essential oils and commodities. I believe that we have to grow more but each of us must use less as each and every one of us is responsible for the damage to the planet by over-exploitation and desire. In regards to the pirates who are cutting ad stealing Sandalwood trees in India, Tony Burfield said in 2004, “The Sandalwood tree is being smuggled out of existence.”

 

Sandalwood Distillation

Step one in the custom distillation of Sandalwood heartwood. First you need a two-day soak in water. Try at least 500 grams. to be distilled in a small 20 liter (21 quarts) still. and distilled 2-3 days’ oil if carried out at a pressure of 30-40 psig, to produce the crude oil. The first 2-5% of “sandalwood terpenes” are rejected and then often redistilled. For those persons interested, distillation for Sandalwood is often considered best in the correct corresponding planetary hours maybe on a waning moon.

sandalwood-soakingFigure 2. Sandalwood soaking in water prior to distillation

 

Aging and Storage of Sandalwood: The wood can be stored indefinitely just as other wood and other essential oils are stored in dark, lightproof, airtight containers, glass preferred. However, that being said, I have some Sandalwood chips I purchased over 40 years ago that I stored in a paper bag in the dark basement that seems just fine with the delicious warm, woody odor intact. I have also pulled out all my old samples and bottles of Sandalwood essential oil, dusty as they are and as old as they are, they are somewhat more viscous but the scent has held up over all these years.

            Sandalwood ages well. The essential oil should be kept in a tightly sealed airtight container, glass, and in a cool, dark place such as a basement that has an ambient temperature of 50-55°. The refrigerator is not the place to store good Sandalwood oil.

 

Organoleptic ~ As a learning aid study the organoleptic qualities of essential oils. This is a method to help assist in describing and determining the quality of the essential oil that you are studying by involving the use of the sense organs for evaluation. These qualities are what you perceive through your senses; that is, what you can see, taste and smell as a degree of intensity. There is more to essential oil than its odor. Santalum album Rare from India (Eden Botanicals) had a very pale yellow tint, was clear, semi-viscous, with an intensity rating of 2 (1-10 with 10 being the most intense) and a oily unctuous taste tending to bitter. S. album Plantation grown in Australia was also a very pale yellow tint, clear, semi-viscous and with an intensity of 2-3, just slightly more intense than the Sandalwood grown in India and also an oily unctuous taste that was bitter.

Aroma Assessment ~ Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of scent training is to develop in common odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.

            I have noticed that Sandalwood Oil does not smell the same as in years past. The scent has changed due to several factors: 1) some product makers are using synthetic or partially synthetic oils and 2) because all botanical products change and alter depending on the season and the year. Try tasting Olive oil from one season to the next.

All the Sandalwoods I examined (10) were smooth and unctuous and were predominantly woody; with subsidiary notes. S. album Rare from India was most evocative of the scent that I knew 50 years ago, woody and floral with hay back note. The S. album plantation grown from Australia was also woody, floral and hay and marine back notes.   

 

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors, hinting at a broader olfactory asymmetry. So if you are lost and wish to get home or wish to know the intensity of a scent, sniff the air with the right side. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left, smell right and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

 

Best method of application for Indian Sandalwood. Personally I use Indian Sandalwood ritually in meditation. For me it is calming and uplifting and helpful in overall well-being. The S. album Rare from India is both stimulating and grounding and I use it in meditation for opening that part of my being that is the seat of power and wisdom. According to the Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the Sandalwood tree.

 

Which Sandalwood is best and which is the most therapeutic? The most therapeutic of these various Sandalwoods is the one that you enjoy more than the others. If you can inhale one with a significant amount of santalol — enjoy its benefits and use the others for application.

 

Collective information:

RECIPES

  • Body Care ~ such as a Sore throat. This is often another unpleasant symptom of a cold or flu, for which gargles are quite effective. For a dry throat that needs soothing, use two drops each of Sandalwood (Santalum album) and Lemon in half a glass of warm water. For sore throat due to coughing up of mucus, use Atlas Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) and Eucalyptus. In each case, continue gargling every few hours.

 

  • Emotional Care ~ For Depression (I can’t do anything, I will never do anything) ~ 10 drops each of Bergamot, Geranium, Grapefruit, Orange peel, Sandalwood and 3 drops of Ylang-Ylang Extra. Mix these together and put into a 1-dram vial. Inhale as needed.

 

  • Hair Care ~ The uncomfortable Scalp itch can be mitigated by massaging oils with a formula of essential oils into the scalp. Use 9 drops each of Black Spruce and Rosemary + 2 drops of Sandalwood (20 drops to 2 oz. of almond oil). Massage into scalp, put on a cap and sleep in it overnight. In the morning you can wash your hair.

 

  • Perfume ~ In perfumery some oils like Sandalwood take days to dry down making them a significant contribution to a long lasting perfume. Here is a scent that I enjoy. It is called Sensual Floral/Wood and is made with 100 ml floral water, with the added essential oils of 40 drops Orange or Clementine, 30 drops Sandalwood, 10 drops Neroli, 10 drops Rose, 6 drops Champa or Ylang, 4 drops other Floral. Use the formula as an after-bath or shower spray, or mist lightly on pillows and sheets. Wonderful as a room spray.

 

  • Skin Care ~ such as a Skin Itch from Chemotherapy

Calophyllum inophyllum 25-30 drops
Chamomile, Roman 5 drops
Rose distilled 2 drops
Rosewood 8 drops
Sandalwood East Indian 8 drops
Add the above to 2 oz. cream or with Calendula Infused Oil and apply as needed.

 

  • Sexual Blend for Men. This is for (premature ejaculation and to balance the autonomic nervous system) and is recommended by Victoria Edwards. Mix together 10 drops Bergamot EO, 2 drops Blue Tansy or Blue Cypress EO, 6 drops Sandalwood EO, 3 drops Lemon EO and 2 oz. (60 ml) carrier oil; Massage on lower body, especially around the groin area and just before sex.

 

  • Sandalwood (literature) is also mentioned in many books such as this quote from Hannibal by Thomas Harris “Here the air was music. Here were pale tears of Frankincense awaiting extracting, yellow Bergamot, Sandalwood, Cinnamon and Mimosa in concert, over the sustaining ground notes of genuine ambergris, civet, castor from the beaver, and essence of the musk deer.”

 

  • Woman’s Oil ~. Use 10 drops of Spikenard and Sandalwood as an inhalant to balance and harmonize your spirit. It is amazing how relaxing and focusing this simple remedy can be and all you need to do is inhale it.

An Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale story ~ I have loved this oil since 1960 and chose it and the Sandalwood fans as a scent. During my pregnancy in 1964 I would use the Sandalwood soap and when Amber was born, I kept at least one of her blankets in a bag with thin Sandalwood wood chips that were the size of a business card to add the scent to the ‘blankies’. Later, in 1969, when I started New Age Creations my skin care company, I used the cut and sifted wood chips with Rose and Clove as a potpourri, sleep pillow and the essential oil in lotions and products for Amber and I. To this day it is a scent that Amber prefers above all others.

 

Safety Considerations for Sandalwood oil: No contraindications, but may cause adverse skin reaction; a maximum use level of 2% is recommended in any product. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

For an in-depth discussion of all the Sandalwood oils please read my blog post
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 

Fig. 11. Sandalwood and oil

 

JR

Hawaiian & New Caledonia Sandalwood

Specific information on Sandalwood from Hawaii, S. paniculatum and S. austrocaledonicum ~ the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses.

Hawaiian & New Caledonia Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

fig-1-sandalwood-hawaii-circleFigure 1.

In 1898, David Malo wrote Hawaiian Antiquities which was written in Hawaiian and published by the Bishop Museum. In this book Malo detailed the culture of the people of Hawaii and the uses of Hawaiian plants. His only comment on Hawaiian Sandalwood is this, “the sandalwood, ili-ahi has a fragrant wood which is of great commercial value at the present time.” Later on in an editor’s comment that Sandalwood was use to impart an agreeable odor to tapa.

         In Gardens of Hawaii by Marie C. Neal, 1948; Sandalwood is mentioned as a valuable source of wood and for essential oil, medicine and incense and that it grew very well in certain areas.

For more information on Sandalwood in general, please see the previous blog post at
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

Endangered:
“In the early 19th century, Santalum paniculatum and three other Hawaiian endemic species of sandalwood were severely over-harvested for the commercial export of their fragrant heartwood. Due to the slow growth of these trees and continued human disturbance, this species is uncommon in the native forests of Hawai`i.” — http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=10201

Hawaiian Sandalwood Oil, Santalum species – Organoleptic Qualities:
organoleptics-hawaiian

— — — — — — — — Santalum paniculatum and Santalum austrocaledonicum
Aroma Assessment:
         They are the same but slightly different. Smell each one, and look at the chart, “Circular Odor Profile (at the end of article) and in particular look at the back notes as this will give you an idea of the difference in the odors. If you have an opportunity, try to smell several Sandalwoods from trustworthy sources (and all are not trustworthy) and then choose your favorite from these and for the purpose that you want. [P.S. I only mention EO’s from a company that I personally trust]

When you inhale for emotional release you might want to use a different EO than the one to use as a deodorant or a perfume ingredient. So try them and choose your favorite.

See the charts at the end of the article for scent comparison.

 Growth: Sandalwoods are a hemi-parasite, entwining their roots with the roots of a host and deriving nourishment in this way.
The EO concentration and quality depends on the age of the tree and where on the tree the heartwood is collected. Heartwood percentage, oil concentration and oil quality were all lower as you go up the tree. Studies are being done continuously on Sandalwood oils and often the concentration of santalol is lower in S. spicatum (Australia) than other species but this is changing due to the collection of seeds from stands that have a higher percentage of santalol.

In Hawaii, Sandalwood grows twice as fast and also comes to maturity more quickly than other Sandalwoods, 20 years instead of 40-50.

Chemistry: Four commercial qualities of Hawaiian sandalwood oil produced from wood of Santalum paniculatum originating from the island of Hawaii (“The Big Island”) were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Main constituents of the oils were (Z)-α-santalol (34.5-40.4%) and (Z)-β-santalol (11.0-16.2%).4  

Commercial Uses: Timber used to make fragrant furniture such as tables or boxes or storage containers or fans, and chips for potpourris especially with dried native flowers or leaves such as maile. Much of the essential oil is shipped out of state to countries such as India or China.

Uses: The properties are anti-inflammatory, lightly anti-bacterial, anti-parasite and for healing.

Therapeutic Uses: Hawaiian Sandalwood is not used exactly the same as Santalum album.  In Hawaii the leaves and bark called `iliahi were used to treat dandruff and hair nits by early Hawaiians. Hawaiian healers are also reported to have used wood shavings in a maceration and application of `iliahi to treat venereal disease and skin sores.

            Application. In skin products using Hawaiian sandalwood oil can help smooth the skin and reduce the look of blemishes and scars. It can be used in hair care for shiny healthy hair.
           Inhalation. The essential oil has been used as an inhalant as a tonic for cardiovascular support and as an ingredient in skin care formulas.

Personal Uses (Tomato Tales and Other Stories): During the time that I have been writing about the Sandalwoods, I have kept a bottle near every place where I work; in the office, in the library, in the perfumery and near my bed. I have been inhaling the luscious odor of Sandalwood from India, Hawaii and Australia. I suffer from heart disease and that seriously compromises my ability to breathe easily. Recently I notice that I am feeling better and actually being more active. I am not saying that inhaling Sandalwood will cure heart disease but I have certainly found out that it makes one feel so much better. Inhaling has also improved the look of my skin.  I will be making it a daily practice to inhale the Hawaiian Sandalwood for my heart and skin, applying the Indian Santalum album on my forehead for relaxation and using the Australian type to massage the heart area. Different ones for different purposes. —JR2016

Sandalwood Information: Please see the article on Sandalwood for other species and their uses at http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 Bibliography:
1.
Aromatic Plant Project Articles. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html
2. http://www.jeanne-blog.com/
3.
http://jonnsaromatherapy.com/pdf/GC-MS_Santalum_spicatum_2007_01.pdf
4.Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Sep; 9(9):1365-8.
Hawaiian sandalwood: oil composition of Santalum paniculatum and comparison with other sandal species. Braun NA, Sim S, Kohlenberg B, Lawrence BM.

Source to purchase oil:
Eden Botanicals and other places of your choosing.

1-paniculatum

Figure 2-1. Odor Assessment of S. paniculatum – Royal Hawaiian

 

 

 

2-sandal-newcale-7
2-2. S. austrocaledonicum from EB

 

 

 


 3-sandal-newcale-ex
Figure 2-3. Odor Assessment of S. austrocaledonicum SD NC, EXtra EB, ,
4-sandal-austr-abs
2-4 S. austrocaledonicum ABS ~ unknown  source

 

 

JR

Australian Sandalwood Profile

Some specific information on the organoleptic quality, aroma assessment and therapeutic uses of Australian Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum.

Australian Sandalwood

By Jeanne Rose

S.spicatum-EB-circle

West Australian Sandalwood Oil, Santalum spicatum, can be a good substitute for Indian Sandalwood. In this era, where we know that Sandalwood oil from India, Santalum album, is an endangered species; it may be time to switch to a new essential oil. West Australian Sandalwood has a similar woody odor, physically a similar effect to Indian Sandalwood oil and can be used in perfumery. It would also help the Australian economy.

For more information on Sandalwood in general, please see the previous blog post at
http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

 

Organoleptic Qualities: It is colorless to pale yellow, clear, semi-viscous oil with a low intensity and a bitter taste. When used in perfumery it has a lovely woody tenacity that holds the perfume together for an extended time.

 Aroma Assessment: I have had the opportunity to smell Australian Sandalwood, S. spicatum from several sources as well as assessing the odor of S. album grown in Australia. These oils are the same with some slight differences. If you look at the Figure 2 you will note that this oil has a Predominant note of Wood with Subsidiary notes of Floral and sweet Hay and the Back notes include Green, Leather, Oily/Fatty, Honey, Amber, and Caramel. The unctuous scent is described as Oily/Fatty. This EO has a bit of a different scent than other S. spicatum.

Another oil I sampled, had a Predominant note of Wood, Subsidiary note of Floral while lacking the slightly sweetness of Hay, with Back notes that included a slight Citrus, Green again, Oily/Fatty and this time a slight Civet scent with Caramel.

Both are the same but slightly different. If you have an opportunity, try to smell several Sandalwoods from trustworthy sources (and all are not trustworthy) and then choose your favorite from these and for the purpose that you want. [p.s.. I only mention EO’s from a company that I personally trust].

Inhalation for emotional release might be a different EO than the one to use as a deodorant or a perfume ingredient. So try them and choose your favorite.

 Growth: Sandalwood trees are a hemi-parasite, entwining their roots with the roots of a host and deriving nourishment in this way. In Australia, S. spicatum main host is Acacia acuminata which will sustain the Sandalwood tree from 15-30 years. It grows in semi-arid areas but land clearing for agriculture and over cultivation, since the 1880s, has greatly reduced the range of the species.

The EO concentration and quality depends on the age of the tree and where on the tree the heartwood is collected. Heartwood percentage, oil concentration and oil quality were all lower further up the tree. Studies are being done continuously and often the concentration of santalol is lower in S. spicatum than other species but this is changing due to the collection of seeds from stands that have a higher percentage of santalol.

Chemistry:
Commercial Australian sandalwood oil produced from Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) A. DC. roots were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Seventy constituents were identified: four monoterpenes, 64 sesquiterpenes and two others were found to our knowledge for the first time in nature.4.

            Constituents of Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A. BC. wood oil Article in Journal of Essential Oil Research 3(6):381-385 · November 1991. DOI: 10.1080/10412905.1991.9697970

            Abstract The chemical composition of the steam-distilled wood oil of Santalum spicatum was investigated by means of GC/MS. The major constituents of the entirely sesquiterpenoid oil were trans, trans-farnesol (31.6%), epi-α-bisabolol (anymol?) (10.7%), α-santalol (9.1%), Z-nuciferol (6.5%), cis-β-santalol (5.4%), cis-lanceol (3.9%) and epi-β-santalol (2.9%).5.

Uses:
Commercial Uses:
The tree is grown as a source of essential oil, much of which is exported, the nuts which are a food crop and timber used to make furniture and boxes and in incense.

Therapeutic Uses:
The common name is fragrant Sandalwood Tree, Santalum spicatum. In a test of many essential oils, Australian Sandalwood Oil demonstrated the greatest degree of anti-microbial efficacy. The bacteriostatic effect of Australian Sandalwood Oil, in relation to Staphylococcus aureus, was 25 times greater than that of Tea Tree Oil and demonstrated the greatest degree of bacteriostatic activity against the yeast Candida albicans. European research confirms that Australian Sandalwood Oil kills bacteria, in vitro, against many gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, (and MRSA or ‘Golden Staph’) and many species of Streptococcus, in addition to the organisms that are responsible for acne, thrush, tinea, Athletes Foot and ringworm. The concentration of oil required to inhibit the growth of all bacteria (except Escherichia coli) was very low, confirming a significant bacteriostatic effect. So it is an excellent ingredient in all skin care formulas where it will also add a fine woody scent.

The organism that is apparent in human body odor, Corynebacterium xerosis is strongly inhibited by  Australian Sandalwood and thus would be useful in deodorant formulas. With all bacteria except the enterobacteria, Sandalwood oil demonstrated significantly greater antimicrobial efficacy than terpinene-4-ol, the main component of Tea tree oil.

I have experimented with this oil and found a simple and easy Deodorant formula. First, I add 5% Blue Cypress to the Sandalwood oil. This deepens the scent and gives it an invisible deeper woody odor. Then I add 95% neutral grape spirits to 5-8% of the essential oils. And don’t worry about the alcohol in the formula. You only use a short spray under each pit (less than a drop), this kills the odor causing bacteria.

 

Formula:
In a 100 ml bottle with a spray top
190 drops of Sandalwood oil
10 drops of Blue Cypress
This is about 6 ml. total

Fill the bottle with 95% neutral grape spirits (do not use vodka unless it is 150°, do not use rubbing alcohol, use only real neutral grain or grape spirits (Everclear works also).
The essential oils are at 6% and may need to be increased up to 10% depending on the level of scent that you want. At 6%, this formula kills the human body odor, leaving little to no odor behind.

Bibliography:
1.Aromatic Plant Project Articles. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html
2.
http://www.jeanne-blog.com/
3.http://jonnsaromatherapy.com/pdf/GC-MS_Santalum_spicatum_2007_01.pdf
4.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254246050_Western_Australian_Sandalwood_Oil_-_New_Constituents_of_Santalum_Spicatum_R_Br_A_DC_Santalaceae
5.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233451280_Constituents_of_Santalum_spicatum_RBr_A_BC_wood_oil

Source to purchase oil:

Eden Botanicals

                                                                                  Sandalwood spicatum-EB-odor

 

Figure 2. Odor Assessment of S. spicatum ~ EB

 

Fig. 1.spicatumFigure 1

For more information on Sandalwood in general, please see the previous blog post at

http://jeanne-blog.com/sandalwood-eo-profile/

JR