Archive | June 2016

Red Cedar, Cedar-wood (Virginia Cedar)

EO Profile • Name of Oil:  Cedar-wood (Virginia Cedar)

by Jeanne Rose 6-30-16

A Profile of Juniper Cedar ~ Confused with a true Cedar, these two plants are physically and chemically unalike. Know them correctly.

Juniper Cedar-EO

Latin Binomial/Botanical Family:   Juniperus virginiana, Family Cupressaceae

This EO is often confused with the true Cedar of the genus Cedrus or confused with Thuja plicata, the Pacific red-cedar . These are physically and chemically unlike and should be known by their correct names, both common and Latin binomials. Red-Cedar or Virginia Cedar contains mainly cedrene while true Cedar contains cedrol and atlantone.

Countries of Origin of Juniperus virginiana: Northeastern North America. Southwest Maine, west to Northern New York, Southern Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, to Southwest North Dakota, south to West Kansas, Oklahoma to Central Texas, and east to Georgia, the most widespread and common juniper in the eastern US. [USDA data].  Juniperus virginiana or Eastern Red-Cedar or Cedar-wood (note the dash that keeps it separate from true Cedars) is an indigenous species native to the eastern North America. Lakota call it Chansha, “redwood” or Hante’. It belongs to the Cupressaceae family and not the Pinaceae family.

General description of plant, habitat & growth: Tree with some needle-like leaves and some with scale-like ones at maturity; females with cones with 3-8 fleshy coalescing scales becoming berry-like. A timber tree or a cultivated ornamental with flavoring and medicinal uses.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods & yield:  The wood chips and sawdust are steam distilled.  Yield: 1.06 to 3.44% based on fresh material weight. [American Journal of  Environmental Science 1 (2): 133-138, 2005]

organoleptic characteristics, J. virginiana

Chemical Components:            Oil from the leaves contains borneol, cadinene, d-limonene, and a-pinene (Guenther, 1948-1952). Hager’s Handbuch adds sabinene, g-terpinene, elemoacetate, 3-carene, myrcene, 4-terpineol, citronellol, elemol, eudesmol, estragole, safrole, methyl eugenol, elemicine, traces of thujene, cymene, and linalool (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). The Cedarwood oil contains ca 80% cedrene, some cedrol and pseudocedrol, and cedrenol. Juniperus virginiana contains the poisonous antitumor compound called podophyllotoxin (Lewis and Elvin-Lewis, 1977). — https://www.hort.purdue.edu/

Juniper cedar oil copyJuniperus virginiana ~ Red Cedar Oil from Eden Botanicals

Historical Uses:   Important local medicine, wood is used for insect-proof chests and Cedar-balls placed among clothes, oil used for scenting soap and in aromatherapy.

Interesting Facts:            “Repellant to insects. Native Americans use American-cedar as medicine and burn it for purification”. Also called the pencil-cedar. The wood is used in furniture as it is rot resistant and the essential oil distilled from the wood chips, twigs and leaves. The pollen is an allergen.

Properties EO (by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application):  Inhalation: Tonic to the respiratory system.  Application:  Arterial regenerative, lymphatic tonic, antiseptic, fungicide, tonic, anti-seborrheic, and regenerative.

          Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP) EO: Ingestion: Urinary infections. Application: It is used for arteriosclerosis, the retention of fluid in the tissue (edema), cellulite reduction, and in skin care for reducing oily secretions.  It is also used for  cleansing, as a general tonic, acne, rheumatism, cystitis, and scalp disorder. Cedarwood is used by application and inhalation for chest infections and asthma. The EO is used as an astringent compress or as an application in skin care or for varicosities of one sort and another.

          Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN):
Inhalation:  Considered to be calming. However, in my experience the odor is so evocative of the traditional cedar chest in which are contained old memories that for me it seems more conducive to reflection. Energetically this EO is often used to ‘clear’ negative energy.

 DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION: Diffuse to clear the air of a musty room or house. Can be blended with citrus and other oils.

BLENDING: This oil can be used in any woodsy scent where a spicy note is desired. Try it with Benzoin, cypress, Frankincense, Galbanum, Juniper berry, Oakmoss, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, vetiver and the like. It has a spicy fixative effect in blends when used in perfumery.

HYDROSOL: The hydrosol of Virginia cedar will help rid your home of ants, even fire ants. Just spray on the walls and around the baseboards or wherever you see ant trails.

Juniper cedar hydrosol copyJuniperus virginiana hydrosol

 

PERFUMERY FORMULA ~ Russian Leather
2 ounces Labdanum absolute
2 ounce Choya Loban (cedarwood based)
1/4th ounce Birch Tar Essential oil
1 ounce Virgina cedar-wood
1/2 ounce Tonka Bean Absolute

Mix these oils together. Succuss vigorously. And let them age for a few weeks. Then dilute or not as you wish. To scent leather goods, place a few drops of the scent on a cotton ball and envelop the ball in a piece of fabric. Then put this in an airtight container with the leather or gloves you wish to scent. Leave for another few weeks and finally, you will have leather or gloves that will have the odor of “Russian Leather”. Umm! Very nice.

 

Key Use: The EO is used as an astringent compress or application in skin care or for varicosities of one sort and another.

Safety Precautions: Be certain of what you are using. Both oils, called Cedar oil are used in repelling vermin in the storage of valuables, but the oil should not directly touch the garments.  Cedrus atlantica is a true cedar, whereas Juniperus virginiana contains mostly Cederene.  Even though they have the same common name, and although they both repel vermin, they are not used identically otherwise.  So, be absolutely certain of which oil you are using.

Do not use on pregnant women. May be sensitizing.

SCIENTIFIC DATA: J Med Food. 2013 Jan;16(1):48-55. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2472. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz. — Tumen I1, Süntar I, Eller FJ, Keleş H, Akkol EK.

Abstract

Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that in the traditional medicines worldwide, several Juniperus species are utilized as anthelmintic*, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, stomachic, antirheumatic, antifungal, and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook. and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz were evaluated for wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities by using in vivo experimental methods. The essential oils were obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method. Linear incision and circular excision wound models were performed for the wound-healing activity assessment. The tissues were also evaluated for the hydroxyproline content as well as histopathologically. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils, the test used was an acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oil of J. occidentalis showed the highest activity on the in vivo biological activity models. Additionally, the oil of J. virginiana was found highly effective in the anti-inflammatory activity method. The experimental data demonstrated that essential oil of J. occidentalis displayed significant wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

*Anthelmintic or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992.

 

Formulas:

JR

Vanilla Profile

Synopsis: Vanilla in all its forms is an essential ingredient in skin care, perfumery, culinary, and emotional needs. Read Jeanne Rose’s profile of this essential plant.

Vanilla ~ The Favored Flavor and Scent

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2-20-16

Jeanne Rose Vanilla GG Park(Photo by Jeanne Rose at the Conservatory in Golden Gate Park)

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Vanilla, Vanilla planifolia

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word vanilla from the Latin ‘vagina’ (sheath) or scissors case and refers to the shape of the pods and ‘planifolia’ means flat leaves.

Family: Orchidaceae. Vanilla is the only species of Orchid that is extracted, distilled or used in aromatherapy or foodstuff.

Countries of Origins: Vanilla is indigenous to Mexico and tropical America. It is now grown in many places including Madagascar and the island of Réunion

Harvest Location: Our Vanilla originates in Madagascar. In 2015, there was a difficult harvest of Vanilla.

Endangered or Not: Vanilla planifolia, the source of Vanilla essence, grows in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India in the Bay of Bengal and classified as a vulnerable species while Vanilla andamanica, a wild relative of commercial Vanilla is considered endangered.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Perennial, herbaceous vine trained to grow in rows and reaches up to 75 feet.

Vanilla-Vanilla-EB via Jeanne Rose
(photo by Jeanne Rose of fresh Vanilla beans)

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Solvent extracted absolute. “The green fruit which looks like a green bean is picked after it spends some time on the vine and is then cured.  This is another one of the plants that has no odor; the odor develops upon drying and curing (See also Orris and Patchouli).  These immature pods are then picked, put on trays, and left to ferment.  When they turn brown, they become extremely fragrant, this fermentation process allows the Vanilla to develop, and the best quality beans accumulate white Vanilla crystals on the bean” 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p.154.

About Other extractions of Vanilla.

Vanilla abs has the best and strongest scent and this dark brown viscous product makes an excellent addition to many perfumes. It is alcohol soluble but portions of the absolute will settle out of the perfume and the perfume will need to be filtered.

Vanilla CO2 This is a creamy substance extracted with carbon dioxide with a lovely Vanilla odor is pale yellow to tan, has a shelf life of about 3 years. This can be used as a flavoring agent as well as in solid perfumes.

Vanilla oleoresin is also available. Arctander describes the scent as rich, sweet, Vanilla without the Tobacco note of the absolute. This is usually used in oil-based scents and not alcohol based scents or products.

Vanilla water-soluble. I was able to get a sample of this some years ago from a supplier in Madagascar. It was very interesting but I prefer to use the others

Organoleptic Characteristics of absolute:

  • Color dark brown with crystals
  • Clarity opaque
  • Viscosity Viscous, the EO/abs begins solidifying at room temperature
  • Intensity of odor 4 on a scale of 1-10

 Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment – The scent is woody floral fruity and spicy. Sometimes the floral note is at the forefront but in my experience, a soft wood scent presents first and then the floral, fruity and spicy.

General Properties Vanilla products are a powerful calmative and relaxant and can be used as an aphrodisiac.

Properties and Uses: Vanilla is used by inhalation and application. Inhaled it is calming, relaxing and soothing to the mind. It is used in many body care products and as a sexual lubricant. Applied in a massage blend it can be an aphrodisiac.

I personally use this substance as an odor for inhaling, relaxation, sweet thoughts of where I have seen it and as a necessary part of most of my perfume bass notes as well as in cooking.

Application/ Skincare. Vanilla CO2 is preferred for skin care and here it is somewhat anti-inflammatory and will help to soothe and calm skin that is irritated.

A Recipe for the Skin
Alter this recipe as you need to suit yourself, you can use a different carrier oil each time you make it.

Maple Sugar/Vanilla Body and Foot scrub
½-cup Maple sugar (can use granulated sugar for a grainier scrub or Turbinado sugar for a nice change)
½-cup fine sea salt
¼-cup or less or more of a combination of favorite carrier oils
1-tablespoon kaolin or china clay (white)
1-tablespoon honey
10 drops each of Vanilla abs or CO2, Lemon and Orange essential oils.

Mix all ingredients in small bowl.  Spoon into jar.  This recipe makes 2-cups + ounces.  The oil will rise to the top, just stir before use.  This is an invigorating scrub so rub gently.  Bath gloves work best for good exfoliation.  Works very well on legs, feet, knees, and elbows.  Not recommended for the face.

Vanilla-Orchid-1

Diffuse/Diffusion: Filtered Vanilla tincture can be used in blends in the diffuser.

I like to make my own Vanilla tincture for use as the fixative in a perfume, a flavoring agent for foods, or in blends that will be alcohol soluble. This is what I do: Take a small container and fill it with chopped Vanilla beans that have been sliced open, the grains scraped out and added and beans chopped. (It is the grains that will have the most odor). Add 95% neutral grape spirits to fill the container. Let this age for a period of time (at least a month) and use the tincture in foods or in alcohol based perfumes. Portions of the Vanilla cannot be extracted with this high-proof alcohol and when added to a perfume blend it will settle out as a dark brown sludge or particles and the tincture of perfume will need to be filtered. As you remove the tincture for use, you can refill the container with more alcohol several more times. The first fraction will be the best however. For best flavor results it is best to use 70-75% grape alcohol.—jeannerose-2000

Emotional/Energetic Use: Vanilla is used to soothe and calm the psyche, and to help with frigidity and sterility.

Key Use: Perfumery and flavoring food.

Chemical Components: Vanillin, ethyl vanillin and coumarin.

Physiochemical Properties:

       Solubility partially soluble in alcohol and carrier oils
Specific Gravity 0.90200 – 1.00200 @ 20 C and 1.15000 to 1.29000 @ 25.00 °C.    Depends on the manufacturer
Optical Rotation -24 – -27 @ 20°C
Refractive Index at 20° 1.42200 – 1.42300 @ 20 C

Comparison of Main Components: Vanilla can be detected in very small quantities – at concentrations of 0.1 parts per million when it is dissolved in water. To show how small changes in chemical structure can influence taste, ethyl vanillin, which has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms than vanillin, is 3-4 times stronger in its vanilla aroma.

Blends Best with: Vanilla adds an exotic note to just about any formula and is mostly used with floral, fruity, woody and spicy scents. It is stunning with Amber, Labdanum and floral scent such as Ylang Ylang. Blends well with all citrus such as Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon, Mandarin, Orange, Tangerine, and woods like Atlas Cedar and Sandalwood and spicy notes such as Frankincense.

Blending with formula. A Favorite Perfume Formula.

8-flowers Perfume – Huit Fleurs
Jasmin abs OR CO2
Lavender SD & abs
Linden abs
Mimosa abs
Neroli SD
Rose abs
Tuberose abs
Vanilla CO2
Ylang-Ylang SD

These can be mixed in any quantity and/or in equal quantities to make a stunning perfume.

Don’t forget to let it age for several weeks before adding an equal quantity of 95% neutral grape spirits. Then let it age again for several weeks. Smell it, sample it. You may want to dilute by half again and age again. The resultant perfume will be 25% pure natural perfume ingredients.

 

HYDROSOL: I think it would be a waste of water to try to distill Vanilla beans. To date there is no hydrosol.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: As flavoring and as an aphrodisiac. Vanilla was used by the Aztecs and indigenous people of Central America to flavor Cocoa; Vanilla was combined with Chilé Pepper and Chocolate to make a tasty drink only fit for the god/kings. It was cultivated for ornamental use.

Interesting Information: The Vanilla plant is so interesting that entire books have been written about it. In 2004 I spent many happy hours reading “Vanilla: The Cultural History of the World’s Favorite Flavor and Fragrance” by Patricia Rain. It is the only plant of the Orchid family used in Aromatherapy.  The plant hasn’t any odor; the odor develops upon drying and curing. Vanilloside breaks down to Vanillin and glucose upon ripening and when cured is the source of Vanilla extract. In Madagascar the anther and stigma have to be pressed together by hand as pollinating bees are absent. Here Vanilla is the only hand-pollinated crop (this was pioneered in 1841 by a 12-year-old slave from Réunion); all West Indies Ocean stock is allegedly from a single cutting in Jardin des Plantes in Paris.

Abstract/Scientific Data: Vanilla–its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties. By Anuradha K1, Shyamala BN, Naidu MM.

Abstract. Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent’s, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.— PMID:24090143 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Please note that most Vanilla flavoring today is not from the Vanilla plant but from wood pulp as a byproduct of paper-making and from coal-tar.

Safety Precautions and Contradictions: Prolonged exposure can be deleterious to the nervous system

Key Use: Flavoring and in Perfumery.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Steffen Arctander. 1960
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 JR

 

 

 

 

 

Clary Sage Essential Oil Profile



Native to Europe and cultivated worldwide, Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a
separate scent profile depending on what is harvested and the terroir. This profile details the many sides
of Clary Sage and how it is used.

Clary flowers_1101 opt(Clary Sage flowers – Jeanne Rose garden 2014)

Clary Sage Synopsis

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Clary Sage, Salvia sclarea

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word salvia comes from the Latin salvus having to do with medicinal properties and health and sclarea from the Latin clarus or clear meaning the leaves and seeds are used medicinally to clear the eye. [It does NOT mean you can use the EO in the eye; it means if there was a bug or something in the eye, the seed was placed in the corner of the eye and exuded a moist gooey substance called a mucilage that would enable the person to remove the seed as well as whatever it was stuck too.]

Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Countries of Origins: It is native to Europe and cultivated worldwide. in the past was found in Southern France, Italy, and Syria, but today is cultivated worldwide – mostly within European regions, including Central Europe, as well as England, Morocco, Russia, and the United States.

Harvest Location: Clary Sage absolute originates in France and Clary Sage EO is from Bulgaria.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Biennial or perennial plant growing up to three feet high with large hairy leaves that only grow to half the height of the plant.  Coming directly off long, thin stems, the lilac-pink flowers rise above the leaves.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Clary Sage must be picked and distilled fresh and with removal of the thick stalk. The flowers and flowering tops are steam distilled. Depending on terroir, climate and weather, the yield is .1-1.0%.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  • Color                           pale yellow green
  • Clarity                         clear
  • Viscosity                     Non-viscous
  • Intensity of odor        4

Bergamot & Amber =2; Rose Geranium = 4; Tea Tree= 6; Cinnamon = 8; Wintergreen & Cloves = 9

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment:Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a separate scent profile.I use a simple Vocabulary of Odor© to describe to describe the odor of essential oils. It is easy to learn and very helpful in the study of these products of distillation. I also have an Advanced Vocabulary of Odor© that is more complex but gives you a snapshot of the scent. So it always surprises me when someone can’t seem to use descriptive words to describe an odor and resorts to poetical uses. Poetry is beautiful but it is not helpful in describing an odor. The Perfume Album by Jessee describes Clary Sage thusly, “It taxes vocabulary and imagination to describe adequately the precise character of the clary sage fragrance. It has been likened to that of ambergris and labdanum…”. “The odor is considered reminiscent of Ambergris (a type of whale excreta)”. I find this description very unhelpful. It really doesn’t do this herb or EO justice.

However, since there are so many different Clary Sage odors due to the many chemotypes or the different terroirs and how it is grown; or whether it is harvested and distilled for leaves or for flowers alone; the variety of scent descriptions is enormous. My favorite Clary Sage odor is one that comes from plants distilled mainly from the flowers; it is citrus, strongly fruity and lightly floral with a distinctive herbaceous back note that is quite spicy.

Clary Sage Abs-EB copyClary Sage Absolute supplied by Eden Botanicals

General Properties: The herb is calmative, relaxant, and soporific. The EO can be calming, aphrodisiac, tonic, nervine, estrogenic, antidepressant astringent, antispasmodic and even grounding.

Uses of Properties:  When used by application in skin care products, Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may also be useful in certain products for muscular fatigue, cramps, and excessive perspiration.  The EO may also be inhaled for menstrual problems, fertility, PMS, menopausal problems, exhaustion, and for reducing epileptic attacks. Only more science and time will tell if these problems can be successfully treated by Clary Sage EO.

For years I primarily used Clary Sage as an inhalant during hot flashes. I alternated with Pink Grapefruit and White Grapefruit.

Application/ Skincare: Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may be used for excessive perspiration.

 

A Recipe by Jeanne Rose for the Skin

FINE SKIN CARE OIL Acne/Pimples.
Make a mixture of the following
• 2 drops Clary Sage
• 2 drops Roman Chamomile or Owyhee
• 1 drop Lantana
• 1 drop Cypress
• 14 drops Almond or Olive oil
Apply directly to the Acne or Pimple after cleansing the skin.

 

Diffuse/Diffusion: Clary Sage EO can be added to most other EO to make a blends depending on your need and what oils you blend together. Diffusion can be used for hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, and a good night’s rest.  It is grounding, relaxing and mildly intoxicating.

Thirty years ago I decided to spend a summer making Clary Sage perfumes. I tried everyone’s recipes and made over a hundred using Clary Sage and Patchouli as the top note and base note with a variety of different odors in between. Up to that time I had not truly appreciated the scent of Clary Sage but grew to love it especially with Labdanum and Vetivert. So I grew it in the garden. Now I notice that the very special pungent odor of Clary Sage EO that I am used too is gone, replaced by a pale shadow of itself. This less intense odor may be preferred by those who make perfume. I suggest to anyone who enjoys Clary Sage EO to make a point of growing several of the chemotypes (sclareol type and other) sometime to really get to know and understand the odor.

Clary Sage Exam of 13 sorts – see how many I studied

Emotional/Energetic Use:  When inhaled Clary Sage is useful to reduce hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, PMS, and for a good night’s rest.  It is grounding and also mildly intoxicating. There are internet sites that state Clary Sage is “energetically attuned to the structure of the eye, connecting the physical eyes with the Third eye.  It expands sensory and psychic powers.”

Key Use: Skin care and female problems related to the reproductive system.

Chemical Components: linalool, linalyl acetate up to 72%, caryophyllene, a-terpineol, geraniol, neryl acetate, sclareol in the sclareol chemotype and germacrene D. There are many chemotypes of Clary Sage and they are rarely identified on the bottles. The farmers who grow Clary Sage for the tobacco crop often have the sclareol type while perfumers want the non-sclareol type.

Physiochemical Properties:
Specific Gravity at 15°/15° ……….
0.900 to 0.910
Optical Rotation ……………………… -11°22’ to -32°38’
Refractive Index ……………………… 1.4613 to 1.4700
Solubility        ………………………… Soluble in some cases in 1 vol. of 80% alcohol, opalescent with more. In most cases, however, soluble in 0.5 vol. of 90% alcohol, clear to turbid with more.      

clary-sage-EO_smEssential oil glands of Clary Sage

Comparison of Main Components: Abstract from Flavour and Fragrance Journal. June 1991, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages fmi–fmi, 109–169. The chemical composition of two essential oil types of Salvia sclarea L. during early and late flowering stages was analyzed. A new chemotype with relatively high citral, geranyl acetate and geraniol content was observed in two small populations growing in northern Israel. Comparison of the new chemotype with a Russian type showed a great difference in composition, scent and organoleptic character between the two oils. The highest amount of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was detected in the Israeli type, at the early flowering stage. The relative quantity of most components of hybrid oils was intermediate between those of the parent plants.

Blends Best with: Clary Sage blends well with Bergamot, Wild Orange, Cypress, Geranium, Jasmine, Lavender and Sandalwood essential oil and is a perfect combination with Labdanum or Patchouli.

Blending with formula: Here is a simple calming massage oil.
Top note – 20 drops of Pink Grapefruit
Heart note – 10 drops of Clary Sage
Base Note – 5 drops Patchouli

Succuss the formula. Then add a carrier oil of your choice up to ½-1 oz. Succuss again. Use.

Clary Sage Hydrosolphoto by Jeanne Rose ~ see Hydrosol Booklet

 HYDROSOL: Clary Sage hydrosol is used for oily skin as an astringent. It can be a facial spray to energize, for PMS and for easing drug withdrawal. I also spray it on sweets as a tasty addition.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Poucher mentions that Salvia sclarea “is pre-eminent as a fixator for any perfume and when added to a perfume at ½ to 1% will within a month smooth out and get rid of “any chemical smell” of your perfume”.  It is invaluable as a blender and fixative in alcoholic perfumes, and particularly in toilet waters —such as traditional eau-de-cologne.

Interesting Information: It is grown in North Carolina for the flavor and fragrance industry. When it is in bloom it fills the field at harvest time and the odor is very strong.  David Peele of Avoca, Inc. laughs when he mentions how people react to the odor, … “People have a concept of what it should smell like,” he said. “We have to laugh when we see them stop on the road and grab a bunch of the flowers. “Then, about a mile down the road, we’ll see the flowers thrown out on the side.”

“The name Salvia is derived from the Latin word for ‘good health’.  In Germany the herb was used with elderflowers as an additive to cheap wine to make it taste like Muscatel.  Also used to flavor vermouths and liqueurs.  In Britain, it was used as a substitute for hops in beer making.  In Jamaica, the plant was blended with coconut to ease scorpion stings.  The seeds were used in many countries to clear conditions of the eye—hence the name ‘clear-eye’”, Essential Aromatherapy, p.126.

Contraindications: There is no evidence that the sclareol of Clary Sage ‘balances the hormones’ and does not seem to have any negative side effects although there are some sources that recommend it not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. For some, Clary Sage is mildly intoxicating.

Safety Precautions: Moderation in use is recommended.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Ingestion of  Essential Oils: I do not recommend the ingestion or injection of essential oils for any reason.

References:

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Jessee, Jill. Perfume Album. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 1951.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

Abstract/Scientific Data:

Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae) By C. Schmiderer1, P. Grassi1, J. Novak1, M. Weber2 and C. Franz1

Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00053.x© 2008 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands Plant Biology Volume pages 433–440, July 2008.

The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialized epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavor. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 JR

 

 

 

Amber Oil Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2/17/16

Synopsis: Amber oil fossilized resin to use in perfumery, fragrant rich and a detailed odor with growth description and chemistry.

 

Amber oil-Eden Botanicalsphoto by Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Amber Oil Fossilized

This is probably Pinus succinifera, L, FamilyPinaceae.

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The name Oleum succini is a name that simply means ‘oil amber’ and is a name given by the Pharmacopeia and not a true Latin binomial.  It can be considered a ‘common name’ that you would recognize in old books.

Family: Pinaceae

Countries of Origins: Native to Europe, Himalayas, China and Siberia naturalized worldwide.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Fossilized Amber Oil is dry distilled and refined from Amber originating in the Himalaya Mountains near China. Mined not cultivated.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time

General description of Plant habitat and growth: The origin of amber is somewhat uncertain; it is believed to be a fossil resin, produced by the hardening of the resinous exudates of largely extinct trees of the Coniferae family. (King’s American Dispensatory, 1898, by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.) EB Amber oil is produced from from fossilized tree resin from 35-million-year old Himalayan fossilized tree resin.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: This is a fossilized tree resin from trees millions of years old produced by dry distillation where the amber resin is processed over high heat until an oily substance is obtained.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  Color: dark brown to red
  Clarity: opaque
  Viscosity: viscous
  Taste: bitter
  Intensity of Odor:

1-10 with  1= lowest

2-3

Bergamot & Amber =2; Rose Geranium = 4; Tea Tree= 6

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: Smoky, resinous, leathery, woody-dry with a hint of green and low intensity but with great tenacity.

General Properties: Emotion uses.

Properties and Uses: This is a very specialized product that as a resin has been used medicinally but as the dry distillation the oily scent product is mainly used by inhalation for calming and uplifting.

Amber rosary beads tied with linen thread

I have used the Amber oil as a general fixative in perfumery and as a low intensity base note in perfume. It lends a sweet quality to men’s cologne and works very well with smoky notes like Labdanum in Chypre perfumes.

Application/ Skincare: I do not see the need to use this lovely product in any skin care formula although it could add something to a skin care odor if you use only 5% in the scent blend and the scent blend is no more than 1.5% of the total. This becomes a most tiny portion of the total.

Diffuse/Diffusion: Do not diffuse

Here is a lovely Perfume with Amber that I call

Amber Love Perfume
Emotional/Energetic Uses – The addition of this oil in a fragrant perfume blend will add an emotional component that is soothing but also uplifting. This is an ancient scent and could be used in meditation. Use only a tiny drop of the diluted Amber on a piece of cotton or cotton swab. Inhale lightly and meditate or do your yoga. Think of your ancient self.

Key Use: Perfumery

Chemical Components: Complex oil consisting of 41% essential oil components and 59% artifacts from the distillation process and the extreme age of the original fossilized resin.

Physiochemical Properties:

Solubility – Soluble in alcohol and recommended to use at 5% or 5 parts Amber oil to 95 parts of 95% neutral grain or grape spirits.

Solubility in water: insoluble

Soluble in fixed oils.

Specific Gravity: 1.011 +/-0.002

Refractive Index: 1.5066 +/- 0.001

Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog) Cadalene, Calamenene-cis, Calamenene-trans, Calacorene, Calamenene-5-hydroxy-cis

Blends Best with: : Angelica, Balsam of Peru, Cedarwood (Cedrus spp.), Champaca, Cinnamon Bark, Cacao, Fir Balsam, Geranium, Jasmine, Labdanum, Liquidambar (Styrax), Nagarmotha, Patchouli, Rose, Sandalwood, Tobacco, Tuberose, Vanilla, Vetiver, Ylang Ylang.

BLENDING with formula – Amber is a pleasant addition to any high end perfumery project especially as a bridge note or in the base not accord. See perfume formula above.

HYDROSOL: None known

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: Amber has been appreciated for its color and beauty in medicine and jewelry since Neolithic times (10,000 BC)

Interesting Information: This is a unique substance that is mined and dry-distilled.

Abstract/Scientific Data: A Brief Exposition of the Science of Mechanical Electricity: Or Electricity Proper; Subsidiary to the Course of Chemical Instruction in the University of Pennsylvania … by Robert Hare, J.G. Auner. 1840

Contradictions: There are many fragrant products called ‘amber’. Most are made from a combination of EO that include Benzoin or Styrax and any number of other scents. Read your label carefully. If it says ‘fragrant oil’ or ‘fragrance’ you can be sure the product is a synthetic version of what you truly want. Eden Botanical amber is the dry distillation of the mineralized amber.

Key Use: In perfumery

Safety Precautions: Do not ingest, do not inhale the vapor. Frequent contact may cause sensitization.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References:

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  North Atlantic Books. 2000:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose .2015 edition. San Francisco, California

 Oil supplied by www.edenbotanicals.com ~ photo by Jeanne Rose

  DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

Do not ingest EO

 

JR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douglas-Fir Essential Oil Profile

Douglas-Fir – EO Profile

Synopsis of Douglas-Fir essential oil/hydrosol profile with formulas, recipes, therapeutic and cosmetic applications.

By Jeanne Rose

Douglas Fir-oil-cone copy

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Douglas-Fir ~ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco aka P. douglasii,

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Douglas-fir is in a separate genus from either the fir or the pine and more closely related to a Spruce. A Fir is of the genus Abies while a Douglas-fir or Oregon-pine is a falsely named tree. In botany the dash shows that the person who is writing about the plant knows that it is not a Fir or a Pine and in fact Douglas-fir is more closely related to a Spruce.

Family: Pinaceae

Countries of Origins: It is native to the West Coast of the United States and is now grown elsewhere

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: France

Endangered or Not: The population is stable and there is little concern with this tree in California.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: In Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, the leaves are spirally arranged, but slightly twisted at the base to lie flattish on either side of the shoot, needle-like, 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) long, green above with no stomata, and with two whitish stomata bands below. Unlike the Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, coast Douglas-fir foliage has a noticeable sweet fruity-resinous scent, particularly if crushed.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Wild-grown and certified organic, the leaves and twigs are distilled, usually from fallen or logged trees. Yield was 1 gallon EO per ton for oven dried branches in one study.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  Color: Colorless
  Clarity: Clear
  Viscosity: Non-viscous
  Taste: Bitter, aromatic, umami
  Intensity of Odor:

 Scale is 1-10 with  1= lowest

5

Properties and Uses: Douglas Fir essential oil is strongly antiseptic and indicated for respiratory infections. It can be used as a local disinfectant. This is one of the most lemon-scented of the ‘Firs’, with a powerful sweet, fresh, refreshing odor, well-liked as a room refresher or scent in soap blends.

Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP):   

Application:  Massage for sore muscles

Ingestion: We do not recommend ingestion of EO; the leaves can be used as tea

Inhalation: For all respiratory problems

Tell us what Jeanne Rose uses this EO as a respiratory inhalant in a process “Progressive Inhalation” for colds and flu and she also used the needles in a tea to flavor other herbs and for colds. Jeanne calls this the “Oil of Clean Air”.

Application/ Skincare. It can be used as a local disinfectant when used in lotions for the skin. This is one of the most lemon-scented of the ‘Firs’, with a powerful sweet, fresh, refreshing odor, well-liked as a room refresher or scent in soap blends. Jeanne loves this oil in soaps and prefers it to many others.

Diffuse/Diffusion: The essential oil is used as a respiratory inhalant to ease breathing; in a home diffused odor to purify the air and in products for a great uplifting odor. If you diffuse this oil in late November and early December, you are sure to inspire the “Christmas spirit” in even the grouchiest of scrooges! It is a wonderful oil to wake up to at that particular time of year.

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO: Jeanne loves this EO for its fragrant air scent and slight citrus odor. She uses it in “Progressive Inhalation” as well as to ‘clean’ the air of her home and to remove ‘negative energy’.

Emotional Use: Refreshing and even slightly stimulating by inhalation.

HYDROSOL: The Douglas-fir hydrosol is organically grown from a USA source. It can be used in any skin care product for its refreshing quality, as a skin toner; and especially nice to be sprayed about a room to refresh the air.

Douglas-Fir hydrosol -optfrom www.edenbotanicals.com
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Key Use: Jeanne Rose calls this the “Oil of Clean Air” in her course for its refreshing healthful qualities.

Chemical Components: ß-Pinene and smaller amounts of Citronellyl acetate and b-Phellandrene. USA grown and distilled Douglas Fir is organically grown and contains terpenes and some limonene giving it a citrus note. “Chemistry of the hydrosol of one sample was mainly 30% monoterpenols, 12% esters, 10% borneol, other alcohols and a small amount of aldehydes and camphor ketones —Harman.”

Physical/chemical Properties: The leaves are steam distilled to create the essential oil whose components vary considerably. The French oil contains large quantities of ß-Pinene and smaller amounts of Citronellyl acetate and b-Phellandrene.

Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog) The main compounds found in Serbian EO were bornyl acetate (34.65 %), camphene (29.82 %), α-pinene (11.65 %) and santene (5.45 %).

Blends Best with: The EO can be blended with any other conifer oil as well as the Mediterranean plants such as Spearmint and rich deep oils such as Spikenard.

Aroma Assessment: Green, herbaceous and citrus.

Historical Uses: Native Americans made much use of Douglas-fir leaves and twigs in medicine.

Key Use: Air freshener and breathing tonic.

Interesting Information/Science Abstract: Dripping pitch from the trunk of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in northern Montana. Conifers such as this ignite like a torch during a fire storm due to the combustible terpene oleoresins.

Abundant resin ducts throughout the trunk and branches of healthy trees is vital to survive freezing winters and to retard the invasion of bark beetle larvae. During prolonged summer drought conditions, stressed trees produce less resin and are more vulnerable to bark beetles. In fall of 2003, this drought stress was especially evident throughout mountainous areas of San Diego County where thousands of pines were dying.

Contradictions: Caution use of conifer oils on children under 5 years.

Safety Precautions: Dilute as needed. No known precautions.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64.

 References:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol, 1st edition, 2015, IAG Botanics
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  North Atlantic Books. 2000:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose .2015 edition. San Francisco, California

 Scientific Data: In 1994 a Comparative Investigation of Douglas Fir Headspace found

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

JR

 

 

 

 

Rose Geranium EOP

Synopsis: A fascinating, informative portrayal of the well-loved and often-used flower oil of the Rose Geranium. Includes the essential oil profile and factual science as well as favorite recipes and perfumes of this refreshing plant by Jeanne Rose.
[ File # csp1013926, License # 2390417 ] Licensed through http://www.canstockphoto.com in accordance with the End User License Agreement (http://www.canstockphoto.com/legal.php) (c) Can Stock Photo Inc. / belokurovPelargonium flowers

Rose Geranium Profile

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Rose Geranium is the common name of the essential oil called Pelargonium graveolens syn. P. asperum or P. roseum L’Hérit.

Family: Pelargoniums belong to the geranium family (Geraniaceae), as does the genus Geranium, which includes cranesbills and herb Robert. ?

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Popularly known as scented geraniums, these plants are actually scented Pelargoniums.  Like the common garden geraniums, they belong to the genus Pelargonium.  The generic name, from the Greek pelargos, “stork”, comes from the notion that the long, narrow seed capsule and flower parts resembled a stork’s bill.  Storksbill is also an old common name.  The word graveolens means ‘heavily scented’.

Countries of Origins: Indigenous to South Africa and grows in Morocco, Madagascar, Egypt, China and California. Unfortunately, at this time only the hydrosol is available from the USA.

History and Growing Conditions: The great part of the world’s supply of Pelargonium oil comes from the island of Reunion (Bourbon), a very fertile island about 400 miles east of Madagascar. The plant was introduced to the island in about 1880. The original plant grown for essential oil production was different from that cultivated today. In about 1900 P. graveolens was introduced from Grasse in France and was a plant that grew larger and bushier, and therefore produced more oil—and the oil was of a sweeter, more rose-like odor. Since Pelargonium changes and develops according to the climate and soil type in which they are grown, the essential oil of Reunion also changed and altered. Reunion oil contains more citronellol than that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. Pelargonium plants like a soil that is neither moist nor dry, a temperate climate with sea moisture (such as occurs in San Francisco) and do not like periods of heavy rain or torrid heat. Cuttings of this plant have been taken throughout the world and various plantings have been started.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: The hydrosol is obtained organically grown from the West coast of the U.S. and the essential oil is cultivated but unsprayed and obtained from South Africa and Egypt.

Endangered or Not: Rose Geranium is an odd plant that changes and develops differently according to climate and soil type where grown. Réunion type oil contains more citronellol that that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. It is generally not considered to be endangered although the original South African type has changed its chemistry somewhat over the last 200 years.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: True Pelargonium oil comes from P. graveolens or P. asperum or a cross of these two. Pelargonium plants readily cross and they change their oil components, quality, and quantity, depending on where grown.  Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil does not come from the garden plants called P. odoratissimum, which is a small trailing plant whose leaves have the odor of nutmeg or green apples, nor does it come from the garden plant called P. fragrans, which is also not suitable for cultivation nor does it come from the genus called Geranium.

Rose_Geranium-Africa via Jeanne Rosea field in Malawi 2014

Description of the Plant: A perennial hairy shrub up to 3-4 feet in height. It is shrubby, erect, branching, hairy, densely leafy; the leaves are triangular, cordate at the base, deeply five-lobed, hairy, grey-green, rose-scented; peduncle, 5-10 flowered; petals, small, pink; upper veined and spotted purple. P. asperum is often considered to be unpleasantly scented with few flowers of pale lilac. The scent is contained in small beads of oil produced in glands at the base of tiny leaf hairs.  Bruising or crushing a leaf breaks the beads and releases their fragrance. There are about 200-280 species of Pelargonium and only a few are distilled. The EO is dependent on where it is grown, on the distiller, on terroir as well as season of the year when distilled. This is one of the most diverse plants for producing an essential oil. I have a box at home of 25 different Rose Geranium distillations with 25 different odors. I have my preferences.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The top third of the plant is cut when it is in flower, up to four times per year, and is steam-distilled to yield the oil and hydrosol. Generally, the heavier stalks are removed prior to distillation. The wood absolutely must be excluded from the distillation process.  The yield of oil varies from 0.1 – 0.2% or up to 0.05 kg per 250 kg of freshly picked material. The amount is higher in the summer cut (August) than the winter cut (late spring). In California where we mostly try to get great quality hydrosol, 200 lbs. of leaf material cut and distilled in August, produced 1 ounce of emerald green essential oil and 50 gallons of hydrosol.

Organoleptic Characteristics of the Essential oil:

  Color: Pale green to yellow depending upon source
  Clarity: Clear
  Viscosity: Non-viscous to semi-viscous depending upon source
  Taste: Bitter, aromatic, umami Remove
  Intensity of Odor:

 Scale is 1-10 with  1= lowest

4-6

Scale is 1-10 with 1= lowest;

An example of scale: Bergamot=2; Rose Geranium (Malawil) = 4; and Peppermint = 8

 Properties and Uses: Skin care: Used externally on acne, bruises, as a tonic astringent application for broken capillaries, burns, couperose or reddened skin, cuts, all types of skin conditions, externally for hemorrhoids, in products for oily or mature skin. It is used externally in massage for cellulite, breast engorgement, edema, or poor circulation.  It is used by inhalation for menopausal symptoms or PMS, nervous tension, or stress. Used extensively in the skin-care industry for all types of cosmetic problems. As an inhalant, the EO is considered to balance the adrenocortical glands. This oil has properties that are considered to be anti-infectious, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal (Spikenard is better), anti-inflammatory, relaxing, and anti-spasmodic. We will reword this as to not make any medical claims.

Application/ Skincare: Used externally on acne, bruises, as a tonic astringent application for broken capillaries, burns, couperose or reddened skin, cuts, all types of skin conditions where its gentle therapeutics will work. Externally in facial steams, lotions, massage oils, baths to treat face and body especially dry to normal and normal to oily skin. Balances all functions of the oil glands. In massage to ease PMS or cramps. A healing and antiseptic EO. Excellent all-purpose essential oils for skin of young to old women, also children. My personal favorite use of this essential oil is simply as an inhalant. It has supported my emotional life for over 75 years from the time my father grew it as a plant until now when I grow it, and distill it for the hydrosol

 My Personal Hair Care
I am quite fond of this essential oil and hydrosol in my hair care. I will take my favorite shampoo of the moment (I usually make my own shampoo) and add 8 drops Rose Geranium and 8 drops of Rosemary verbenone to 8 oz. of shampoo. Mix thoroughly and use. When I use these types of therapeutic shampoos, I will wet the hair thoroughly, put on the shampoo, build a lather and let it sit for 3 minutes to soak into the scalp. Now at 80 years, my hair is still naturally black with only 5% white hair framing my face. I attribute my still dark hair to a lifetime (since 1967) of the above treatment.

Diffuse/Diffusion: Works well by itself or in a blend for emotional issues, or to cleanse the air, and to scent and calm the atmosphere.

I have grown the plants for years, I have harvested and distilled them as well. I have found the correct cultivar and delivered them to dozens of growers in California where they have been particularly well-received and was especially taken with the hydrosol and all of its many uses.

Emotional Use: Geranium: Inhaled it is thought to stimulate the adrenal cortex to reduce symptoms of asthma and menopause and as an aid to stimulate the thyroid for weight loss. Rose Geranium oil is good to treats depression, dejection, fatigue, inertia, confusion and bewilderment, all anxiety states, balances adrenals, balances hormones, has a harmonious effect and calms and refreshes and uplifts the body and psyche.

Hydrosol Use: The hydrosol is excellent as a spray tonic for the skin, to reduce stress, relieve all sorts of menstrual or menopausal symptoms. Used internally by ingestion for the liver and pancreas (with the assistance of a health care provider).

A Hydrosol Story ~ Drinking Rose Geranium oil

By Jeanne Rose

Several years ago I was being televised and interviewed live, in my home, regarding aromatherapy and hydrosols. I had a number of show-and-tell items in front of me and our interview was going along quite nicely. I had a glass full of water and an identical glass full of Rose geranium hydrosol to show that the hydrosol is colorless and clear just like water. I had not as yet mentioned to the interviewer that when I distill I do not remove the small amount of essential oil that is present, so that the glass of hydrosol I was discussing actually had a thin layer of essential oil on it.  During the interview, I reached for the glass of water and took a drink and immediately knew I had made a mistake. With my mouth quite full of the very strong floral hydrosol and essential oil, I could only swallow, inwardly trying not to gag and hoping that Rose Geranium was truly the ‘oil of beauty’ and would not kill me and I continued with the interview all the while exhaling the scent of Rose Geranium. It was a shocking and not planned experience. Later on, I kept an account of my symptoms which were that I got slightly sleepy, my hot flashes diminished and my body and secretions all took on the odor of Rose Geranium and I had a mild stomach ache.

However, please know that I do not recommend drinking essential oils or undiluted hydrosol. These are very powerful products, that will collect in the liver to be metabolized and may cause serious side effects to the organs and the mucous membranes of the body. If ingested, they can also cause extreme harm as they are so concentrated. —JeanneRose 2000

Rose Geranium-hydrosol copy 2

Key Use: Oil of Beauty™

Chemical Components: Our Geranium EO are from South Africa and Egypt, the hydrosol is USA organic.

               Comparison of Main Components that I have tested:

Compound                        California           Bourbon             Egyptian             Chinese

Citronellyl formate            21.78%

citronellol                           34.82 %               22-40 %             30-38 %               45-51%

geraniol                                  6.86 %              14-18 %             16-17%                   5-7 %

Physiochemical Properties — According to Guenther.  The Réunion geranium oil possesses a very strong, heavy rose-like odor, occasionally slightly harsh and minty.  The oil is valued particularly on account of its high citronellol content, which makes the Réunion type of geranium oil the best starting material for the extraction of commercial “rhodinol.”. According to Gildemeister and Hoffman*, the physiochemical properties of the Réunion geranium oils vary within these limits:

Specific Gravity at 15˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.888 to 0.896
Optical Rotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .-7˚ 40’ to -13˚50’
Refractive Index at 20˚. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.461 to 1.468
Acid Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1.5 to 12
Ester Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-78
Ester Content, Calculated as Geranyl Tiglate . . . .21 to 33%
Ester Number after Acetylation. . . . . . . . . .206 to 233
Total Alcohol Content, Calculated as Geraniol.67 to 77.6%
Solubility. Usually clearly soluble in 2 to 3 vol. of 70% alcohol; often separation of paraffin crystals on addition of more alcohol.

Comparison of Main Components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Citronellyl formate, Linaloöl, Terpineol and others yes

Blends Best with: This is one of those chameleon odors that can be used in most blends and work to do its magic. I am particularly fond of this is blends and perfumes where I wish a ‘rosy’ odor but without the true ‘rose’ scent. A fabulous scent. blends well with Lavender, Patchouli, Clove, Rose, Neroli/Orange blossom, Sandalwood, Jasmine, Juniper, Bergamot and other citrus oils perfect

Rose Geranium SILK Perfume:

Your top note will be 30 drops of Tangerine or Yellow Mandarin;

Heart = 10 drops of May Chang
+ 20 drops of Ylang Xtra
+ 25 drops of Rose Geranium is the Heart note;

and the Base note is 7 drops Rose absolute
+ 5 drops Ginger
and 5 drops Oakmoss.

Mix each note separately and succuss, then add together and success; let it sit and age for several weeks before you add your carrier or alcohol. A 25% scent blend and 75% neutral spirits is good. Then let it age again before you use.

Eden Rose Geranium EOEO supplied from Eden Botanicals

Aroma Assessment: This EO is most interesting in that the scent is indicative of the source of the oil. If you purchase EO Rose Geranium from Malawi it will be fresh, green, herbaceous and somewhat floral and vegetative; from Madagascar it is very floral, herbaceous and even a little spicy. Knowing your source country is often preferred for perfumery. Personally, I have samples from all countries and choose the scent specifically for the project at hand.

RoseGeranium-VO-Egypt (002)Advanced Odor Profile of Pelargonium graveolens of leaves & tops EO~JeanneRose
RoseGeranium-VO-So.Afr (002)Advanced Odor Profile of Pelargonium graveolens of leaves & tops of Malawi grown~JeanneRose

Historical Uses: The great part of the world’s supply of Pelargonium oil comes from the island of Reunion (Bourbon), a very fertile island about 400 miles east of Madagascar. The plant was introduced to the island in about 1880. The original plant grown for essential oil production was different from that cultivated today. In about 1900 P. graveolens was introduced from Grasse in France and was a plant that grew larger and more bushy, and therefore produced more oil—and the oil was of a sweeter, more rose-like odor. Since Pelargoniums change and develop according to the climate and soil type in which they are grown, the essential oil of Reunion also changed and altered. Reunion oil contains more citronellol than that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. Pelargonium plants like a soil that is neither moist nor dry, a temperate climate with sea moisture (such as occurs in San Francisco) and do not like periods of heavy rain or torrid heat. Cuttings of this plant have been taken throughout the world and various plantings have been started.    How would this compare to Egyptian and South African? This is the explanation. You get different things from different terroir.

Interesting Information/ Abstract: This plant produces quite different oils depending on the environment, climate, soil, elevation. Take several cuttings of a mother plant and plant each cutting in different parts of the world; within three years, depending on the environmental and ecological conditions you will have as many different oils with varying components as you have different environments.

Contradictions: None (as always do not use to excess)

Safety Precautions: None known. Moderation is always a precaution to use.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 

References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

Bibliography
Clifford, Derek. Pelargoniums. Blandford Press: Great Britain, 1958
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing: Florida, 1950
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Rose Jeanne. The Aromatic Plant Project. World of Aromatherapy Conference Proceedings: California, 1996
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Vincent, G.  [Effect of limiting overall growth potential on the architecture of rose geranium (Pelargonium sp.).]  Effet de la limitation du     potentiel de croissance global sur l’architecture danium Rosat (Pelargonium sp.)Acta Botanica Gallica (1995) 142 (5) 451-461 [Fr, en, 10 ref.] CIRAD-Réunion, Station de la Bretagne, 97487 Saint-Denis Cedex, Réunion.

Scientific Data: http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Brochures/ProGuRosegeranium.pdf

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

JR

Chamomile, Roman Essential Oil Profile

Organoleptic qualities, description, growth, and properties, uses and blends for all sorts of needs.

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2/16

roman_chamomile

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Roman, Tea or Sweet Chamomile. Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (syn. Anthemis nobilis)

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Also called Sweet or Tea Chamomile. Chamae means ‘on the ground’ and melum means honey-like and thus Chamaemelum refers to the scent and that it grows low to the ground.

Family: Asteraceae

Countries of Origins: Native to south and western Europe and the Mediterranean and naturalized worldwide.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Oregon, USA organically grown

Endangered or Not: No

General description of plant habitat and growth: This perennial plant grows 20” with feathery, green leaves, and small white single or double flowers with yellow centers extending from strong stems. It grows along roadsides and damp grassland

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Steam-distilled from fresh flower heads, particularly of a double-flowered form. “The distillation of dried calices—the part left after the petals fall off—produces a pale blue oil which quickly turns to pale yellow and which may not have the same properties as true flower Roman Chamomile herb. Yield: 1.7%

Organoleptic Characteristics:  What  you can see, taste and degree of intensity ~ There is more to essential oil than odor —
There are also the organoleptic qualities color, clarity, viscosity, intensity and even taste.

  • Color                    when fresh it is pale blue that quickly fades palest yellow to colorless
  • Clarity                  Clear
  • Viscosity              Non-viscous (water-like)
  • Intensity of odor 3-4 on a scale of 1-10

Jeanne Rose Chamomile photo bottles

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment – Steffen Arctander has a lovely description of the odor as sweet herbaceous, somewhat fruity-warm and tealeaf-like odor. When charted out on the ‘Advanced Circular Vocabulary of Odor’ the scent of Roman Chamomile is predominating Fruity with a subsidiary note of Herbaceous and several back notes of Floral, Conifer, Woody, Oily-Fatty, Aldehydic and Spicy.  It has a low intensity of 3 and low tenacity as well.

General Properties.  Anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative,antiseptic, anticatarrhal and spasmolytic properties are the main properties. Tea is used traditionally to treat nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and gas. EO is often used today to relieve anxiety or in skin care.

Properties and Uses: Roman Chamomile is used in flavoring liqueurs, as a tea, and especially for hair shampoos (especially blonde hair) and many other cosmetics.; formerly cultivated as a lawn that needed minimum maintenance and good drought tolerance before mowing was simplified through mechanization. It is still mixed with grass that is under heavy pressure such as at Buckingham Palace, London. The scented plant gives off perfume when crushed; seats are planted with it, although there are some who are allergic. Used on the skin, it may also reduce inflammation from cuts. and the flowers are used medicinally as oil to mitigate psoriasis. It is sometimes used to ease the discomfort from eczema and gingivitis (swollen gums) or hemorrhoids. Used in formulas for acne, couperose skin, devitalized or inflamed skin, sensitive skin or moist or sweaty skin. The herb is used to flavor alcoholic beverages such as gin.

Application/ Skincare. This is a wonderful oil to use on tender or delicate skin and in proper dilution can be used on a child’s skin after an insect bite or sunburn. It gives relief for any skin irritation and by inhalation of the product is calming as well. I like the fact that Shirley Price thinks this Chamomile is the best for all uses. I add it to any lotion that I have as an application to my sensitive skin.

Jeanne’s Age Spot Lotion – Measurements are by volume using percentage or drops – Mix carrier oils, mix waters and mix extracts, mix essential oils. Mix all together and then heat gently in a bain-marie. Cool, Bottle. Probably needs to be shaken prior to each use.

Ingredients: Sunflower seed oil 45%, + Cistus or Chamomile hydrosol 20%, Licorice root decoction 10%, Sugar cane or sugar cane alcohol like white rum 5%, Lemon juice 3% + Shea nut butter 5%, beeswax or any solid butter 10%, + Essential Oil Mixture 2% of Roman Chamomile, Lemon oil and Cypress oil. [you may need to experiment yourself with the proportions as I use very specific strengths of Licorice root and beeswax. I always use only totally natural products that are organically grown with no processing.]

Diffuse/Diffusion: This essential oil diffuses quite nicely and can be mixed with any other oil and especially those that contain esters such as Lavender or Petitgrain. Start with a 1•1 mixture of Roman Chamomile to other oil and add to your diffuser. Put the diffuser on a timer • 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Use to to calm people in the room and prepare for sleep.

Tomato Tales ~ A personal Story
I remember many years ago, another boy was visiting my 8-year-old and they were riding skateboards and bikes up and down my flat along the hallway which is only 15-feet long. The noise was intense. Rather than yelling at them to be quiet, I mixed together an equal quantity of sweet Lavender and Roman Chamomile and put it in the diffuser at the entrance near the hall. Within moments the two boys were calm and relaxed, had stopped skateboarding and were working on some project in the bedroom. It was a most efficient calming mechanism.

Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale for nervous tics, asthma, insomnia, headache or depression. When you use a diffuser, make sure that you only use it for 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Do not let it run non-stop. Energetically, use this oil in blends for peace.

          Relaxing & Skin Treatment Formula
½ oz. Calendula infused oil
10 drops sweet Lavender EO
10 drops Bergamot EO
10 drops Roman Chamomile EO
Mix these all together and succuss well. This formula can be used in the evening for dry skin by application and the scent will be useful for sleep and sweet dreams as well.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory.

Chemical Components: Esters of Angelic, Butyric & Tiglic Acids, Bisabolol, and Farnesol. The biological activity of chamomile is mainly due to the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin and essential oil constituents such as α-Bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes. The ester content is very high about 85% and is considered along with Owyhee (Artemisia ludoviciana CT. esters) as the highest in essential oils.  There are several Chamomile chemocultivars.

 Physiochemical Properties:

Solubility in oil and alcohol and insoluble in water. Soluble in 5-10 vol. of 70% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity. Soluble in 1-2 vol. of 80% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity

Specific Gravity @ 20° C 0.880 to 0.930

Optical Rotation —1°0’ to +3°0’

Refractive Index at 20° 1.430 to 1.490

Comparison of Main Components: The main components are esters which account for its fruity scent and gentle nature on the skin.

Blends Best with: Blends seamlessly with many oils such as Bergamot, Lavender, Neroli, Petitgrain, Rose, Sandalwood. Useful in a perfume blend with Bergamot, Grapefruit (30 drops total) as the top note, Rose (20 drops total) as the heart note and Patchouli (5-10 drops total) as base note.

Blending with formula. One of our customers say “I use it in many blends; muscular oils, joint oils, migraine and headache oils and PMS/Woman’s health. I also make body balms, salts, scrubs and massage oils that enhance the pure oil.”

Muscle Aches and Pains-Relaxing

Make a blend of equal quantities of of Roman Chamomile, sweet Basil and Cypress EOs. Take 20 drops and add to 1 ounce of carrier oil. Succuss thoroughly. Use by application.

HYDROSOL: I adore Roman Chamomile hydrosol. I use it in the bath, as a facial toner and to spray my sheets for sleeping. Ann Harman found that in testing Roman Chamomile hydrosol there was 0.0042% of EO in it and the hydrosol was composed of 61 components, mainly sorbic acid, trans-pinocarveol and lesser amounts of ketones, acids and other components.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Cultivated for lawns, for ornament, and for therapeutic infusions.

Interesting Information: Insoluble in glycerin.  “Upon exposure to air and light and on prolonged standing the light blue color of the oil changes first to yellow to green and later to yellow-brown.  They present the highest ester value of all essential oils, from 272 to 293.5”   World of Aromatherapy, p. 203.        Roman Chamomile has a lower concentration of azulenes than Blue/German Chamomile, and it does not stimulate liver regeneration after subcutaneous applicationContradictions: None discussed.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory

Safety Precautions: Possibly not to be used by persons allergic to the Ragweed family.  Non-toxic.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, a pocket guide to essential oils and aromatherapy.  Novato, California:     New World Library, 2003.

 

Scientific Data: Although chamomile is popular, there are not many studies about it. Test tube studies have shown that chamomile can kill bacteria, fungus, and viruses. It also helps relax muscle contractions, particularly in the smooth muscles that make up the intestines. There is an interesting article about both the “German and Roman Chamomile” in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (10; 2011:01-05).

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

Bergamot Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol EO Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 3-3-16

Synopsis of Bergamot Essential Oil ~ A complete description, country of origin, characteristics, skin care, formulas and recipes on how to use this oil

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Bergamot

Citrus x limon (syn. Citrus bergamia (Risso))

Other Common Name/Naming Information:  It also takes its name from an Italian city, that of Bergamo in Lombardy, where the essential oil was originally sold. It is related to French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, of Turkish origin: beg-armudi or beg armut (“prince’s pear” or “prince of pears). The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, and are named for their similar aroma.

Family: Rutaceae

 Countries of Origins: Native of tropical Asia, Bergamot is now extensively cultivated in the southern part of Italy, particularly Reggio di Calabria, Sicily; and Ivory Coast.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Calabria region of Italy.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The small fruit tree 16 feet tall, branches with thorns, flowers white, fruit not edible about 2-4 inches in length is a characteristic of the southern Italian landscape; its small, round fruit is very bitter and is inedible when raw. The fruit looks like a miniature pear-shaped orange. It is a hybrid of bitter Orange and Lemon, a product of cultivation.

citrus_bergamot_orange

Bergamot citrus on the tree

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Bergamot essential oil is obtained from the cold expression of the peel of nearly ripe fruit of the Bergamot tree. Yield up to 9.7% for hydro-distilled and .5-1.5% for cold-pressed or 100 Bergamot fruit yields 85 grams of oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics of Bergamot:

Organo-Bergamot

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: The odor is floral, fruity, slight spicy back note, that is, predominating floral and citrus, subsidiary notes of fruit with a slight spicy back note. When you purchase Bergaptene-free or decolorized Bergamot oil, you begin to lose the rich floral/fruity/citrus odor and it becomes less ‘natural smelling’ and more ‘synthetic smelling’.

Bergamot EO

General Properties: Bergamot is an important ingredient in high end perfumery. Without it many perfumes could not be made. It is calmative, antispasmodic, antidepressant and antiseptic.

Properties and Uses:  Physically Bergamot oil can be used highly diluted as a gargle for sore throat, used to flavor Tobacco and tea; by application it can be used in skin care for skin infections, on cold sores, and inhaled for depression, stress, frustration, anxiety or emotional crisis

 Application/ Skincare. Bergamot is used in a variety of skin care lines, in lotions, creams, bath, salve, unguents and for massage or direct application to a variety of skin conditions; cold sores, acne, skin infections.

Diffuse/Diffusion.  Bergamot is best used in a blend in the diffuser (Lavender or Rosemary are good) to promote relaxation and alleviate stress by stimulating the mind. It helps to resolve your irritable nature and soothe tension and ease sadness.

Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN) Use Bergamot by inhalation while drinking the Earl Grey Tea (bergamot infused); this is both uplifting and calming. Ritually, Bergamot oil is used for success and comfort as it can help clear the mind of depressing recurring thoughts.

 Key Use: ‘The Oil of Anxiety’ and for perfumery.

Chemical Components: The peel oil contains; The chemical composition of Bergamot from Tunisia was obtained by hydrodistillation and fifteen compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).

When cold-pressed, Bergamot oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl and linalyl acetate up to 50%. The ester content changes depending on climate in any year.(375 Essential Oils, p. 49) 30-60% linalyl acetate and 11-22% linaloöl. Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and Bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

linaloollinalool

Bergamot juice contains neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, ponceritin, melitidin, and brutieridin.  Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties.

 Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog): The hydrodistilled was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%). The cold-pressed oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl 11-22% and linalyl acetate up to 30-60%.  Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

Blends Best with: Bergamot’s light refreshing citrus scent makes is a good blending partner for just about any other oil. And its use in the perfume industry bears this out. It is of particular importance in a ‘Chypre’ type blend with rich deep oils like Labdanum, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Frankincense, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetivert.

HYDROSOL: I have not as yet had hydrosol of true Bergamot only of sour Oranges.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: – History is speculative. Possible that the tree was brought to the Canary Islands and found there by Christopher Columbus who brought it to Calabria.

 Interesting Information: a native of tropical Asia, Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is now extensively cultivated in the Southern part of Italy, particularly in the Calabria region. The Italians have used Bergamot in folk medicine for years, in particular for fevers. Legend has it that Christopher Columbus found the tree in the Canary Islands and brought it back to Italy. Bergamot gets its name from Bergamo a town in Italy, where it was originally cultivated.

Fruitcake copy

It can be candied and eaten either in a fruitcake or with bitter Coffee as a sweetmeat as they do in Greece.

Abstract/Scientific Data: “Bergamot is frequently adulterated … when doubtful of purity, the expert should resort to thorough odor and flavor tests, which usually are more indicative of the quality than mere chemical analysis.” — Guenther, The Essential Oils

 Contraindications: Pure Bergamot is photo-sensitizing; we recommend that it be highly diluted (less than 2%) when applied to the skin, or that one of our Bergamot FCF essential oils be used instead. FCF (furanocoumarin-free) is an acronym that indicates the chemical constituent(s) responsible for extreme sensitization of the skin to sunlight has been removed, in the case of Bergamot oil, the specific furanocoumarin being bergaptene.

Key Use: Perfumery, skin care and calming.

 Safety Precautions: Bergamot is known to be one of the most photo toxic essential oils and for this reason should be used with care in sunlight, hot climates and with other ultraviolet light. Photo sensitivity is caused by the presence of furocoumarins, most notably Bergaptene, in this particular essential oil. Apart from this factor, Bergamot is considered to be a relatively non-toxic and non-irritant essential oil. Photosensitizing. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Here is some basic information from the web on this reaction of Bergamot with the sun.

  1. Definition: Berloque Dermatitis is a skin condition in which patients develop a brownish to reddish discoloration of the neck and sometimes the arms due to applying perfume or cologne to the skin. Sometimes the skin first turns red before changing to a brownish color. This condition can persist for years or even be permanent.
  2. Causes: Many perfumes and colognes contain oil of Bergamot, an extract of the peel of a specific orange grown in the South of France and the Calabria district of Italy. When this oil contacts the skin and the skin is exposed to sunlight, the oil of Bergamot causes the skin to discolor. With repeated exposures to sunlight, the discoloration becomes permanent.

Treatment:

  • Cosmetics can work well to cover the area so it is not as noticeable.
  • Patients with Berloque dermatitis should use a daily sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher to help keep the condition from worsening. In addition, perfume should no longer be applied to areas of the skin that get sun exposure.
  • Laser treatment may be an effective treatment in the future. At this time, we do not have this available. You may want to go to a laser center to seek their opinion.
  • Retin-A applied to the involved areas daily will improve this condition.
  • Daily application of soothing gels is a treatment for this problem.

 

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO:

A story about Bergamot Sensitivity, called Berloque Dermatitis
March 11, 2004 – “Ask Jeanne Rose” Question

I need your advice.  I was wearing a strong blend of Bergamot, Rosemary and Geranium on a HOT day this week. I woke up the next day with a big brown-red splotch on my neck. I realize this may take months and months to heal correctly (it’s the Bergamot I think that is so sensitive to sunlight.) I am going on vacation to the beach. Any suggestions as to what to put on my neck NOW that I have burned it? I need something to heal it fast. At least I am an example of what not to do. I am so embarrassed. I forgot to look at the Aromatherapy Studies Course Work. — Thanks, Jeanne,

Answer: Dear K.
Wear a hat. Keep face and neck out of sun. It will only get worse. Use Sea Buckthorn, Calophyllum, and Bruise Juice in this proportion 25•25•50.   Do not use any citrus at all as a scent or deodorant or body wash until it is gone. This brown mark is the reaction of the sun and Bergaptene. Now you know from personal experience what not to do.   In the future, you can put on the citrus as scent on the parts of the body that are covered or put on the scent and stay out of sun for several hours. It is the combination of the application and the immediate sun exposure that does this.

Jeanne Rose

=====

Dear Jeanne,
Thank you for your help with my neck burn, I really appreciate your time and caring. Some notes: I went and got some Calophyllum inophyllum (cold pressed) and filled up the rest of the bottle of Bruise Juice with it. About .25 oz. or 20-25% total. I am applying this in the morning and evening. I am wearing scarf to keep out of sun. I am using titanium 25 sunscreen that is nice, thick, and mostly organic. I notice when the sun/heat gets on the scarf even, the burn mark will start to hurt/sting, than I will apply more of the Sea Buckthorn/Calophyllum/Bruise Juice treatment. (I also have applied a Calendula and Comfrey salve when I didn’t have the other treatment handy). I have an inclination to apply the Calophyllum by itself because it is so soothing. It is like becoming familiar with Calendula infused oil, it works for everything! The mark is now a brown/pink. I am writing down in my journal and taking notes. Thanks again Jeanne, don’t know what I would have done without you -probably cried for days about ruining my neck.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 Do not ingest clause for EO

Jeanne Rose Recipes/Formulas Using Bergamot

Blending and Perfume Formulas:

Summer Breeze Blend

Bergamot – Citrus bergamia – 10 drops
Geranium – Pelargonium graveolens – 5 drops
Lemongrass – Cymbopogon flexuosus – 2 drops
Peppermint – Mentha x piperita – 2 drops

“Summer Breeze” scent has become a hot weather staple around here. We use it to scent bath gel for a cooling shower, or it makes a wonderful detoxifying scrub in Sugar or Salt Glow; in room spritzers for a bright refreshing atmosphere, or to spray in a hot car. I also like to use it as a body spray for a light cologne IF I’m not going to be in the sun. (If I am going to be in the sun, I’ll use Bergaptene-free Bergamot oil).

Bergamot Floral and Smoke ~ a light tempting perfume
Top Note ~
10 drops Pink Grapefruit
10 drops Bergamot BGF

Heart Note ~
5 Drops Jasmine Sambac
5 drops Ylang complete

Base Note ~
2 drops Amber
2 drops Vanilla

Use the residue in the Amber and Vanilla bottle to get your drops. Take the empty ¼ oz. Amber bottle and add neutral grape spirits to half full. Shake it up. Pour that alcohol into the empty ¼ oz. Vanilla abs bottle. Now you have your base note mixed. To this bottle add the rest of the ingredients. Shake the bottle vigorously by succussion. Now just almost fill it with neutral grape spirits. Succuss again. Label the bottle and let it sit on your desk for 2 weeks. Smell it now and again. It should be perfect to you. Your perfume is at about 15%.

 

Consultation Usage ~ I have also used this oil, inhaled, to inhibit anorexia and generally in any blend where I want a bright sassy citrus scent.

Ritual Use ~ I like to add a drop or two to a dollar bill and put it in my wallet. It inhabits my entire purse with a wonderful cheery odor.

 

Skin Care for Normal skin ~
Apply in evening to clean washed face
Bergamot – 15 drops
Rosemary verbenone – 10 drops
Spikenard – 5 drops
Jojoba/Almond oil or lotion to fill 1 oz. = about 2.5% [EO an be reduced by adding more carrier oil]

 

JR