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Roses ~ Grown for Scent

Synopsis: People often do not know which Rose species are used for scent by distillation or by solvent extraction ~ here is a short discussion of the Roses used.

Roses ~ Grown for Scent – Part I of 2

Compiled by Jeanne Rose ~ April 2017

I am often asked about Roses. Why doesn’t that Rose that I grow have any odor? Or why isn’t the correct odor or the odor I smell when I purchase the absolute or the distilled oil in the Rose flower? What Rose can I grow to make scent or to distill? Where can I get Roses for scent?   And I am NOT writing about Roses that smell good or good smelling varietals; I am only talking about the antique Roses, heirloom Roses, species Roses, the real Roses that were used historically and are still used now for distillation or solvent-extraction for scent and perfumery. These are 2 totally different matters.

If you will check any of my books you will find much information on the Roses that are grown for scent. Herbs & Things p. 101; Herbal Body Book p. 118-119; The Aromatherapy Book, p. 128-129; and 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p. 132-134; a long article in my Herbal Studies Course; and so, there is no sense in repeating that information here. We are discussing only heirloom or species Roses that are used for scent.

In order to get a quality essential oil and hydrosol, you must first start with the correct plant, the correct cultivar type of plant and then plant it in the best location in the correct soil, then distil it, analyze the essential oil and if the numbers (GC/MS) are correct for that particular plant, then you can plant this as a crop and be pretty much assured that the essential oil and hydrosol will be a quality product. Each species of plant will have different needs and requirements.
You will also need a three-year plan before you try to market your product.

  1. Know Your Soil.
    2. Location, Location, Location.
    3. Water source and type.
    4. Choose the correct plant that will match the terroir.
    5. Harvest at the correct time.
    6. Harvest the correct part.
    7. Choose a method of distillation and type of equipment that works for your plant.
    8. Choose whether you are distilling for essential oil or hydrosol.
    9. Distil with the art and craft of careful knowledge and many years’ experience.

Here are the species and at the end the likely sources for them.
* #1 Rosa alba (Rosa damascena alba) – White Rose
* #2 Bourbon Rose, R. x bourboniana (Edouard Rose)
* #3 Rosa centifolia – Cabbage Provence rose or Rose de Mai (
confused with #5)
#4 Rosa chinensis viridis or viridiflora Green Rose
(only mentioned because it is interesting)
* #5 Rosa damascena (Rosa damascena forma trigintipetala or Kazanlik Rose
* #6 Rosa gallica officinalis – Apothecary Rose, French Rose or  Rose of Provins (distilled for Rosewater)
#7 Rosa moschata – The English Musk Rose (not often distilled)
#8 Rosa polyantha Mlle. Cecile Bruner (peppery smelling hydrosol)I
#9 Rosa rubiginosa or R. eglanteria
(hip used for Rosehip seed oil

*Those starred are the only Roses that are used commercially for their scent and the ones you should try to obtain.

 

 

#1 Rosa alba (Rosa damascena alba) – White Rose, ‘Alba Semi-Plena’ Rose, PICTURE SOURCE Les Roses, Volume I (1817), by Redouté
ORIGINAL BOTANICAL NAME Rosa alba flore pleno, ORIGINAL FRENCH NAME Rosier blanc ordinaire,
CURRENT BOTANICAL NAME R. alba var. semi-plena, COMMON NAME Alba Semi-Plena,
OTHER NAMES Double White Rose, White Rose of York, CLASS Alba Rose,
ORIGIN Unknown; ancient cultivator, possibly introduced to Britain by the Romans.
FLOWERING Once-flowering; summer,
SCENT Strong, sweet fragrance,
GROWTH Tall shrub, 8-12 feet (2.4-3.6 meters),
AVAILABILITY Still in cultivation
DISTILLATION: Available only rarely, sometimes available in the hydrosol. The scent is strong and sweet and a lovely addition to the perfumery.

 

#2 Bourbon Rose, R. x borboniana, PICTURE SOURCE Les Roses, Volume III (1824) by Redouté
ORIGINAL BOTANICAL NAME
Rosa canina Burboniana, ORIGINAL FRENCH NAME Rosier de L’Ile de Bourbon
CURRENT BOTANICAL NAME R .x borboniana, COMMON NAME Bourbon Rose;
OTHER NAMES Rose Jacques. ‘Rosier de l’Île Bourbon’ is from hips received from the Île Bourbon (= Réunion). The hips were almost certainly originating from ‘Rose Edouard’ which was cultivated there and in Mauritius. The rose cultivated in India as R. borboniana is actually ‘Rose Edouard’.
CLASS Bourbon
ORIGIN Raised, 1821 in the gardens of Neuilly, France, by Monsieur Jacques from seed imported from the Íle de Bourbon (now called Reunion)
FLOWERING Blooms in flushes throughout the season
SCENT Sweetly fragrant
GROWTH Vigorous bushy shrub to a height of several feet (1 meter)
AVAILABILITY Still in cultivation, At upper left is illustration of the Bourbon Rose, R. x borboniana, painted by Pierre-Joseph Redouté, portrait 169 out of 170, Volume III of Les Roses.
EVALUATION: The essential oil content of the varieties of R. damascena varied from 0.037% to 0.051% and that of R. bourboniana was 0.017%. Super jwala recorded the highest oil content (0.051%). A total of 32 components were identified in the different varieties of rose oil. These components constituted 78.1–93.5% of the total rose oil species. The main components of rose oil were citronellol + nerol (16.3–30.1%), geraniol (15.8–29.3%), linalool (0.7–1.9%), rose oxide (0.9–2.6%), phenyl ethyl alcohol (0.1–0.4%), eugenol (0.3–2.2%), nonadecane (7.3–14.7%). The content of citronellol + nerol (30.1%) and geraniol (29.3%) was the highest in Himroz compared with other varieties.

 

#3 Rosa centifolia – Cabbage Provence Rose or Rose de Mai, Cabbage Rose, R. centifolia, PICTURE SOURCE Les Roses, Volume I (1817). The dark green shrub is vigorous and not as open as in some varieties of Damask.
ORIGINAL BOTANICAL NAME Rosa centifolia, ORIGINAL FRENCH NAME Rosier à cent feuilles
CURRENT BOTANICAL NAME R. centifolia, COMMON NAME Cabbage Rose
OTHER NAMES Provence Rose, Holland Rose, Hundred-Petalled Rose, Rose des Peintres
CLASS Centifolia
ORIGIN 16-19th century; Dutch breeders
FLOWERING Once-flowering; summer
SCENT Strong, sweet fragrance
GROWTH Tall shrub, 6-7 feet (1.8-2.1 meters) high
AVAILABILITY Still in cultivation,  At upper left is a picture of the original Cabbage Rose, R. centifolia, painted by Pierre-Joseph Redouté, portrait 002 out of 170, Volume I of Les Roses.

This rose is still alive and well today and can be obtained from specialist rose nurseries. It is a sturdy shrub with a tall, spreading, sometimes sprawling habit covered in large, soft, green leaves and in the summer, pink, very double, cupped flowers.
Redouté and his botanist friend, Thory, describe it as being a shrub some 6-7 feet high ‘studded with a multitude of straight, unequal thorns’. Its flower they describe as ‘rounded in shape and composed of numerous rose-tinted petals, becoming more deeply tinted as they approach the flower’s center’. And the leaves as being arranged in groups of ‘five leaflets, rarely seven’, dark green in color and ‘deeply and almost doubly dentate [serrated]’. They suggest that it is essential to prune the shrub well in February [in their French climate] to keep it ‘very small’ so that it ‘beautifully flowers in the greatest abundance’ that will be achieved later in the growing season. This is a very sweetly perfumed rose, its attar used by the perfume industry.

 

 

#4 Rosa chinensis viridis or viridiflora. The Green Rose.  A species rose from China; the date of discovery is unknown but prior to 1896. It is a green rose and is not distilled but is certainly interesting to have around. I love this Rose and have grown it wherever I can, it is strange and funny looking and wonderful.  It cannot be distilled for essential oil, but if you have enough it can be distilled for a peppery rose hydrosol. This is a good face and body spray.
NAME: Rosa chinensis f. viridiflora (Lavallée) C. K. Schneid. (1905)
COLOR: White, near white or white blend or green
CLASS: China / Bengal, Hybrid China.
ORIGIN: Discovered by John Smith (United States, circa 1827). Introduced in France by Guillot/Roseraies Pierre Guillot in 1855 as ‘Rosa viridiflora’. Nigel Pratt of Tasman Bay Roses says this rose has small, many-petalled flowers of an unusual shape, in shades of dull green and reddish brown. Sangerhausen lists Viridiflora as a Hybrid China and the date as 1856.
FLOWERING: Green.   Average diameter 2″.  Borne mostly solitary, cluster-flowered, in large clusters, rosette bloom form.  Blooms in flushes throughout the season.
SCENT: None / no fragrance or greenish scent.
GROWTH: Medium, upright.  The height of 23″ to 4′ (60 to 120 cm).  Width of 2′ to 3′ (60 to 90 cm). USDA zone 7b through 10b.  Can be used for cut flower, exhibition or garden.  Shade tolerant.  Diploid – has 14 chromosomes.

 

#5 Rosa damascena (Rosa damascena forma trigintipetala or Kazanlik Rose, the original Rose for attar of Rose. • Kazanlik (Bulgarian Rose). Grown extensively in Bulgaria and Turkey; this Rose can be confused with the R. centifolia as they look very much alike but originated from different areas and it may also be the centifolia Rose but just from another area. It is distilled and solvent extracted for Rose scent. The valley is famous for its rose-growing industry which have been cultivated there for centuries, and which produces 85% of the world’s rose oil. The center of the rose oil industry is Kazanlik, while other towns of importance include Karlovo, Sopot, Kalofer and Pavel banya. Each year, festivals are held celebrating roses and rose oil. The picking season lasts from May to June.
Also called ROSA CENTIFOLIA TRIGINTIPETALA is the Kazanlik, known Prior to 1850 and Perhaps the most sought after of Damask roses, ‘Kazanlik’ or ‘Trigintipetala’ is grown in quantity in Bulgaria, a country which still exports a great deal of the world’s rose attar. The flowers are deep pink, with thirty petals arranged in a somewhat shaggy halo around golden stamens.
NAME: R. gallica var. damascena f. trigintipetala Synonym, Trendaphil;
AVERAGE RATING: EXCELLENT-.  Deep pink Damask., COLOR: Pink, white undertones, ages to lighter.
ORIGIN: Registration name: Kazanlik. Bred by Unknown origin (before 1612). Damasks are related to Gallicas. Summer damasks are crosses between R. gallica and R. phoenicea and autumn damasks between R. gallica and R. moschata. Recent research in Japan indicates that both summer and autumn damask roses originated with (R. moschata X R. gallica) X R. fedtschenkoana. Gene, Vol. 259, Issues 1-2, 23 December 2000, Pages 53-59. Introduced in Germany by Dr. Georg Dieck in 1889 as ‘Rosa damascena var. trigintipetala’ Damask.
FLOWERING: 30 petals.  Average diameter 2″.  Medium, double (17-25 petals), in small clusters bloom form.  Occasional repeat later in the season.  Small, glandular sepals, leafy sepals, buds.  Armed with thorns/prickles, bushy, well-branched.  Light green foliage.  7 leaflets.
SCENT:
Strong, eponymous centifolia fragrance.
GROWTH:  Height of 5′ to 8′ (150 to 245 cm).  Width of 4′ to 6′ (120 to 185 cm). USDA zone 4b through 9b.  Vigorous.  Prune lightly directly after flowering is finished.  This rose blooms on old wood so be careful how you prune.  Bulgaria (Kazanlik region), Turkey (Sparta region).
VARIES
INFORMATION:  – see references, ‘Kazanlik’ seems to be the same Damask-type which is also cultivated in Isparta/Turkey and Isfahan/Iran. Perhaps the most mysterious of the old rose groups; attempts have been made to track down the probable parentage of the Damasks (see above), but the suggestions seem implausible. The name refers to Damascus in the Middle East, where it was once believed these roses originated. We do know that they have been used for centuries in the production of attar or oil of roses; their fragrance is strong, and today it is the scent most often associated with roses. For potpourri, few roses are more valued than the Damasks aka Damask Rose.

 

#6 Rosa gallica officinalis – Apothecary Rose, French Rose or Rose of Provins
PICTURE SOURCE Les Roses, Volume I (1817)
ORIGINAL BOTANICAL NAME Rosa Gallica officinalis, ORIGINAL FRENCH NAME Rosier de Provins ordinaire
CURRENT BOTANICAL NAME R. gallica var. officinalis, COMMON NAME Apothecary’s Rose
OTHER NAMES Common Provins Rose, Red Rose of Lancaster, Old Red Damask, Medicine Rose.
CLASS Gallica
ORIGIN Sport from R. gallica, ancient origins
FLOWERING Once-flowering; spring/summer
SCENT Strong fragrance
GROWTH Shrub 3 feet (0.9 meters)
AVAILABILITY Still in cultivation
MORE INFO: Large, semi-double 3-4″ blooms (petals 12-18) of light red, opening to show a golden center, produced profusely on a nicely formed once blooming plant with grey-green foliage. Fragrant and shade tolerant. One of the antiquities of the Rose world. Used for medicinal purposes in Medieval times.
PERSONAL INFORMATION: This is one of my most favorite Roses. It produces lots of flowers even in poor growing conditions, it distils well for a lovely hydrosol and the petals have many uses in medicine; tea as a mild laxative, petals in jam, hips later in jam or syrups, petals infused in oil for creams and lotions and many other uses. This ancient rose is recorded as being in cultivation in the 800’s. (It was used as a medicine and perfume in the court of Charlemagne in the ninth century A.D.). Its petals were noted to retain their fragrance even when dried and powdered and for this reason, it remains the rose of choice for potpourris. It was also cultivated for its medicinal values. It is also commonly known as the “Apothecary’s Rose” and, more rarely, referred to as the “Old Red Damask” and “Rose of Provins”. They are heavy bloomers and most are very fragrant. Their compact size makes them suited for small gardens. Although Gallicas perform best in zones 4 to 8 where they go dormant naturally, they may also flower very well in zone 9 to 10 if you induce dormancy. Don’t fertilize them after the 1st of August. Remove all leaves left on the plant in December and for this effort, you will be rewarded with an abundance of beautiful blooms that your friends will enjoy each spring.

 

#7 Rosa moschata – The English Musk Rose is ancient and will grow 10-15 feet. It blooms once per year and the scent is heavenly pungent and fresh. The blooms can be picked for baths and to distill for hydrosol.
ORIGIN: Rosa moschata (musk rose) is a species of rose long in cultivation. Its wild origins are uncertain but are suspected to lie in the western Himalayas.
FORM…R. moschata is a shrub (to 3 m.) with single white 5 cm flowers in a loose cyme or corymb, blooming on new growth from late spring until late autumn in warm climates, or from late summer onwards in cool-summer climates. The flowers have a characteristic “musky” scent, emanating from the stamens, which is also found in some of its descendants. The prickles/thorns on the stems are straight or slightly curved and have a broad base. The light- or greyish-green leaves have 5 to 7 ovate leaflets with small teeth; the veins are sometimes pubescent and the rachis possesses prickles. The stipules are narrow with spreading, free tips. Small, ovate fruits called hips are borne, turning orange-red in autumn. The variety ‘Plena’ bears semi-double flowers, and a form with study name “Temple Musk”, found in the United States, bears more fully double flowers.
CONFUSION: This species has historically been confused with Rosa brunonii, a closely related, tall-climbing species from the Himalayas that bears flowers in late spring and which possesses a similar, musky scent. They can be distinguished in gardens by their season of flowering and by their differing growth habits.
CULTIVATION: It has been contended that no truly wild examples of the musk rose have been found, though it is recorded in cultivation as least as far back as the 16th century. It is important in cultivation as a parent to several groups of cultivated roses, notably the damask rose and the Noisette group, and is valued for its scent and for its unusually long season of bloom among rose species.
PERSONAL USE: I was able to grow this lovely Rose when I first moved to my house in San Francisco, before the neighbors planted a Redwood one one side and on the other side Eucalypts.  My Musk Rose entranced the neighborhood with its scent in the spring but the growing shade of the neighbor trees and the new foundation on my house which stopped good drainage of the soil slowly diminished my Rose until she was no more.

 

#8 Rosa polyantha Mlle. ‘Mlle. Cécile Brünner’
CECILE BRUNER, MADEMOISELLE CECILE BRUNER, FROM 1880; IT IS A POLYANTHA.
GROWTH: It has delicate, small, soft pink, sweetheart buds and blooms.    30 petals on a 2.5-inch flower and a sweet spicy fragrance. Almost thornless, shade tolerant and a cold climate rose bush.  Disease-free light green foliage. Height   2′-4′ with a mild peppery fragrance.
GARDEN: The sweetheart rose is a real sweetheart in the garden. While designated for the bush form, this nickname can easily be applied as well to its ‘Mlle. Cecile Brunner, climbing’ form. Pick the flowers for baths and to distil for a peppery hydrosol.
PRUNING: THIS well-known rose is an aggressive climber, but heavy pruning is considered a necessity. However, I have found that in San Francisco, if you prune too much you won’t get many flowers the next year as they bloom, on old wood. If you’d like these demure blooms on a more manageable shrub, Mademoiselle Cécile Brunner, bush form, the climber’s parent, reaches 4-5 ft.

 

#9 Rosa rubiginosa or R. eglanteria
NAMING:
Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet briar or Eglantine Rose; syn. R. eglanteria) is a species of rose native to Europe and western Asia. The name ‘eglantine’ derives from Latin aculeatus (thorny), by way of old French aiglant. ‘Sweet’ refers to the apple fragrance of the foliage, while ‘briar’ (also sometimes ‘brier’) is an old Anglo-Saxon word for any thorny shrub.
GROWTH:  It is a dense deciduous shrub 2–3 m high and across, with the stems bearing numerous hooked prickles/thorns. The foliage has a strong apple-like fragrance. The leaves are pinnate, 5–9 cm long, with 5-9 rounded to oval leaflets with a serrated margin, and numerous glandular hairs. The flowers are 1.8–3 cm diameter, the five petals being pink with a white base, and the numerous stamens yellow; the flowers are produced in clusters of 2-7 together, from late spring to mid-summer. The fruit is a globose to oblong red hip 1–2 cm diameter.
CULTIVATION AND USES: In addition to its pink flowers, it is valued for the scent of the leaves, and the hips that form after the flowers and persist well into the winter. Graham Thomas recommends that it should be planted on the south or west side of the garden so that the fragrance of wild apples will be brought into the garden on warm, moist winds.
In Tunisia, natural flower water is produced from its flowers. In Chile and Argentina, where it is known as “Rosa Mosqueta”, it can be found in the wild around the Andes range and is also cultivated to produce hips for marmalades and cosmetic products.

 

Roses discussed above.
#1 Rosa alba (Rosa damascena alba) – White Rose
#2 Bourbon Rose, R. x borboniana
#3 Rosa centifolia – Cabbage Provence rose or Rose de Mai

#4 Rosa chinensis viridis or viridiflora
#5 Rosa damascena (Rosa damascena forma trigintipetala or Kazanlik Rose)
#6 Rosa gallica officinalis – Apothecary Rose, French Rose or Rose of Provins
#7 Rosa moschata – The English Musk Rose
#8 Rosa polyantha Mlle. Cecile Bruner
#9 Rosa rubiginosa or R. eglanteria

 

Sources: I am giving you these sources from the USA and must admit that I have had a difficult time to contact any of them. I have e-mailed with no response, called with no callback. So, I wish you the best of luck and hope if you do get any of the old heritage Roses from any of these companies, you will let me know. Also, there are very good sources in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, so investigate those areas as well.  ~

Please let me know of any success story.  aromaticplant@yahoo.com

B&B Nursery & Propagators, 2578 County Road I, Willows, CA 95988, ph./fax 530-934-2676, (951) 926-1134; http://www.bandbnursery.com

Cydney Wade, Rose Petals Nursery, 16918 SW 15th Ave., Newberry, Florida 32669, US, License# 48009500,
Phone number: 352-215-6399, roses@rosepetalsnursery.com

Flowering Shrub Farm in 40 Voorheesville Ave, Voorheesville, NY 12186.azaleahs@capital.net, www.floweringshrubfarm.com/roses.htm … I heard good things about this company but have not been able to contact. Phone: 518-526-9978 try this number.

 http://www.heirloomroses.com/ (be careful as the names are confusing), only order the original antique rose not a namesake. 24062 Riverside Drive Northeast, St. Paul, OR 97137, (800) 820-0465

https://www.antiqueroseemporium.com/  This is one of the best sources for some of the authentic heirloom Roses for the distillation of scent. Antique Rose Emporium, PH. 800-441-0002, 979-836-9051 Customer Service, 979-836-0928.  9300 Lueckemeyer Rd., Brenham, TX 77833

Rogue Valley Roses, PO Box 116, Phoenix OR 97535, info@roguevalleyroses.com, Phone (541) 535-1307. Seems to carry several kinds of ‘Kazanlik’ roses and the Autumn Damask and others. [or is the address 2368 Terri Dr., Medford, OR 97504?], Phone: (541) 535-1307

Roses of Yesterday and Today, 802 Browns Valley Road, Watsonville, CA 95076, (831) 728-1901, http://www.rosesofyesterday.com/contact.html

 Vintage Gardens, 4130 Gravenstein Hwy. North 
Sebastopol, CA 95472 (the gardens and Roses are still here but apparently being overgrown with blackberry and abandoned but aided by the Friends of Vintage Roses). (707) 829-2035, curator@thefriendsofvintageroses.org

HYDROSOL: PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Wikipedia has many resources for this information. See taxonomy, botany, and the individual Roses.

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©
 muskal
Hand carved container for Rose Oil
.

 

 

 

~ JR ~

ROSEMARY. Chemotypes and Hydrosol

Synopsis: There is much to know about Rosemary, an ancient herb in use for thousands of years;
antiaging and protective of memory; Jeanne Rose explains it all.

 

Rosemary Essential Oil and Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ March 2017

10 Rosemary ~ depending on Origin and Chemotype

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly called Rosemary.
Family: Labiatae (Lamiaceae)

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The mint family Lamiaceae includes many other herbs. The name “rosemary” derives from the Latin for “dew” (ros) and “sea” (marinus), or “dew of the sea” The plant is also sometimes called anthos, from an ancient Greek word meaning “flower”.

Countries of Origins: This is a Mediterranean plant, a cultivated ornamental and an herb traded from southern to northern Europe since the 13th century. It now grows easily in many countries and the herb/EO is traded from Tunisia, Morocco and northwards.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Morocco, Italy and Spain.
http://www.edenbotanicals.com/

Endangered or Not: Not threatened. This is an introduced plant to the United States and grows well in many areas.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to hemlock needles. It thrives in limey soil. It is drought tolerant surviving a severe lack of water for lengthy periods. Forms range from upright to trailing; the upright forms can reach 1.5 m (5 ft.) tall, rarely 2 m (6 ft. 7 in). The leaves are evergreen, 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) long and 2–5 mm broad, green above, and white below, with dense, short, woolly hair. The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates; flowers are white, pink, purple or deep blue. Rosemary also has a tendency to flower outside its normal flowering season; it has been known to flower as late as early December, and as early as mid-February. Rosemary has a fibrous root system. There are various varieties and forms of Rosemary and the oil of various geographic origin possess various physiochemical properties (chemistry), scent and taste. Terroir is important in growing Rosemary and variations are caused by soil, climate, altitude, sunlight exposure and the season of harvesting.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields:  The leaves, tops and flowers are steam distilled and CO2 extracted.
Yield: The yield can vary from .4 to .7% but is usually in the range of 1.0-2.0%.

Distillation: Rosemary, Lemon Balm, Lemon Verbena, various Artemisia are plants that live in poor soils and are “stressed” by sun or poor soil and then produce more oil, as the oils are generated by the plants for its protection and to attract pollinators. The quality of the distillation process depends on several factors.  If the plant is processed fresh, right after cutting, you will get the best hydrosol and good essential oil. If you allow the plant to dry, (clover-dry), say overnight in the field, you will get less and very poor hydrosol but since you can put more plant matter in the still you will get more oil in quantity.

Copper is important is important in the still as it removes the yeast and sulfur from the plants during the distillation process via the copper ions.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

#1 – #4 courtesy of Eden Botanicals.


Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: 
These are all slightly different and good ones to purchase as small samples, so that you can choose your favorite. Remember to “waft don’t draft” the scent, that is, wave the bottle back and forth under your nose taking in small scents from the left side and then from the right (waft) rather than sticking the bottle under your nose and inhaling deeply (draft).
1.
Rosemary CT camphor is the strongest odor of the 7 and has a typical camphoraceous (mild mothball odor) with herbal and green notes.
2. The odor of Rosemary Cineol wild is true to the plant, refreshing herbal, fruity and green.
3. For me, the Rosemary cineol organic is one that I do not prefer. It is herbal and fresh and green but has a barnyard back note that is disconcerting.
4. Rosemary cineol from Italy is a bit more intense than the others but such a perfect odor, herbal fruity and green and just the one you might pick for your favorite herbal perfumes.
5. Rosemary pinene organic is just what you might think it is with a green-like conifer needle odor, herbaceous and somewhat fruity.  Excellent to use as one of your inhalants when you have a cold or flu.
6. Rosemary verbenone from the USA is herbal and very fruity while the one from Corsica is less fruity. Both are good to use in a skin care regime as the verbenone is appealing as a skin-care addition.
7.  Rosemary CO2 has the true herbal scent of the Rosemary that is grown in the fog — herbal, spicy and fruity, mild and delicious. It is used as an antioxidant as it contains 9-14% carnosic acid.

Learn to Smell and Detect Odor: Limbic system is the seat of memory and learning. Smell from left nostril and then to right nostril. The right nostril (right brain-creative) is important in detecting and evaluating the intensity of odor, and this hints at a broad olfactory asymmetry and the left nostril (left brain or logical) is for smelling location or place.

First Smell and 2nd Smell. Lurking in the olfactory epithelium, among the mucus-exuding cells, are cells that are part of the system that innervates the face (trigeminal nerve).  It is suspected that pungent and putrid molecules penetrate them, interact with their proteins, and stimulate them to fire.  Thus, there are two types of olfaction: first smell, the ordinary type for specific odors, and second smell for nonspecific pungency and putridity.”

There is also left brain and right brain smell-ability. Left brain smells location (maybe via logical use of EMG waves) while right brain smells intensity. The closer you get – the more intense the odor.

 

General Properties: Antiaging, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, slightly Astringent and Stimulating.

            Properties and Uses: Aside from boosting prospective memory by inhalation or application, Rosemary EO had a number of health benefits. For instance, it is used massage and in bathing as it has antiseptic, antioxidant and astringent properties. Similarly, the essential oil used in massage oil could also ease muscle and rheumatism pain and improve poor circulation It can also help skin that is dry and mature to produce more natural oils of its own when used in skin care. Likewise, in shampoo the herb and EO can help people who are losing hair and have problems with dandruff to grow more hair and have less dandruff.    For those who experience lung congestion or sore throat, they could either add Rosemary to a vapor balm or inhale it in the treatment called sequential inhalation for relief of this. Inhaled it could also aid in digestion and improve appetite.

Application/ Skincare (formula at end) Rosemary can also help in getting rid of canker sores. And historically, Rosemary has been used to stimulate hair growth. There is one well-known study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), who massaged their scalps with a combination of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Lavender (high elevation), Rosemary (unknown chemotype) and Thyme every day for 7 months experienced significant hair regrowth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. But the study was not well designed, and it is impossible to say whether Rosemary caused the hair growth or it was the combination of oils.

 

Diffuse/Diffusion: new research suggests that by inhalation it may potentially improve learning and memory in the wake of age-related decline. A study from 2012 suggested that rosemary oil may boost brain performance.

 

Emotional/Energetic Use: This essential oil can also boost a person’s energy and stimulate his nervous system. Worwood says that Rosemary “strengthens and restores character and is used for energy, to uplift, to instill confidence, clarity and structure, to become more aware. It counteracts learning and memory difficulties, nervous exhaustion and the overworked and overburdened brain”. Cunningham says use Rosemary “in an Energy, Exorcism or Healing Bath”. Jeanne Rose says “use it in baths and shampoos as it is anti-aging and will keep your skin healthy and your hair bright”.

Key Use: Oil of Stimulation and Anti-Aging and the Herb of Remembrance

 

Chemical Components: Major components of this essential oil are 1,8-cineole (a.k.a. eucalyptol), 16% α-pinene, and 12% borneol.
There are differences in the essential oil of Rosemary found during various parts of its cycle; the chemistry changes depending upon if it was tested prior to flowering, during flowering or at the end of flowering. In 1986 (I am sure more recently) Tucker studied different cultivars (CV) of Rosemary in the U.S. and they were lab distilled. There are many studies of Rosemary and one should be sure they look at when and where and what time of year it was distilled.

Camphor type was highest from Yugoslavia and at full flowering but also from various spots in the United States (time of year not discussed); Cineol type was highest from Tunisia and at full flower; Pinene type was 24-50% after flowering; Verbenone type was highest, 13%, in a Rosemary grown in fog near Monterey, CA.

In 1963, Schwenker and Klöhn compared the chemical composition of essential oils of Rosemary of French and Spanish origins and that of a freshly distilled oil.  The percentage of 1,8-cineole varied from 15.9 -49.2%, a-pinene varied 10.4 to 22.7%, and an unknown ketone (verbenone) from trace to 15.5%.  It was highest in the fresh distilled oil. In 1967, Crabalona isolated and identified methyl jasmonate in a sample of Tunisian oil of Rosemary.

Karawya analyzed a sample of Egyptian rosemary oil, that had a different chemical composition. Granger et al examined the a-pinene and verbenone contents of a number of oils from wild growing Rosmarinus officinalis from France and a single cultivated type of Algerian origin.  They found that a-pinene varied 7.5 to 27% and verbenone from 1-29%.  The cultivated Algerian strain had the highest percentages of both these compounds. A comparison by Granger (1973) of commercial Rosemary oils from Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece reveled variations in the major components of the oil.

Spanish oils contain much more camphor.  Oils from Morocco, Tunisia and Italy much more 1,8-cineole.
            Verbenone is a terpene, to be specific a bicyclic ketone terpene. It was first identified in 1967 and specific California Rosemary has been found to have up to 6.3% verbenone (analyzed by Tucker).  It is the primary constituent of the oil of Spanish verbena, hence its name; it is also found in the oil of Rosemary and Frankincense. It is nearly insoluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. Verbenone can be readily prepared synthetically by the oxidation of the more common terpene α-pinene. Verbenone can then be converted into chrysanthenone through a photochemical rearrangement reaction:

In ROSEMARY – COMMINUTE the pinene type of Rosemary and it will convert to VERBENONE. Because of its pleasant aroma, verbenone (or essential oils high in verbenone content) are used in perfumery, aromatherapy, herbal teas, spices, and herbal remedies. The L-isomer is used as a cough suppressant under the name of levo-verbenone. Verbenone may also have antimicrobial properties. Verbenone CO2-6 is extracted in Spain and is used in skin care or for great Rosemary Garlic bread. Inhale and apply.

Physiochemical Properties of Rosemary oil changes due to terroir. But specific gravity is normally around 0.9 and is soluble in 1 vol. of 90% alcohol.

Rosmarinus officinalis var. prostratus CT cineole ~ photo by Jeanne Rose

Comparison of Main Components:

Main Biochemical ConstituentsRosmarinus officinalis has several chemotypes and uses:

Borneol type1 -Helps overcome fatigue and infections, and is a heart tonic. Inhale and apply. From France.
Camphor type2 -A vein decongestant, mucolytic, cardiac tonic and diuretic. Inhale and apply. From Croatia or Spain.
Cineol type3 -For lung congestion, cystitis and chronic fatigue. Inhale and apply. From Morocco/US/France.
Limonene type – Limonene has anti- cancer effects. Limonene increases the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. This Rosemary type is both gently stimulating and quietly anti-cancer. Inhale and apply.  From France
Pinene/Cineol- type4 (R. pyramidalis) –Respiratory applications, specific for ear and sinus problems. Inhale and apply. France.
Verbenone type (2 types, one from France5 and one from USA6)—The scent is herbaceous, fruity, and green. Mucolytic, sinus infections, antispasmodic, and helps balance the endocrine and nervous systems. For oily or regenerative skin care, but contains some say, potentially hazardous ketones. Inhale and apply. U.S. type can be taken internally for CFS.

____________________________________

Comminuting pinene type of Rosemary will cause the bioconversion of alpha-pinene to verbenone. [Some plants need to be distilled fresh, some have to be dried, some semi-dried first, some need to be comminuted, that is, cut into smaller pieces, some need to soak for some hours before distillation. Each plant has different distillation parameter requirements.] Comminuting Rosemary CT pinene changes it to Rosemary CT verbenone.

Blends Well With: Basil, Bergamot and other citrus oils, Cedarwood, Cinnamon, Citronella, Elemi, Frankincense, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Labdanum, Lavandin, Lavender, Lemongrass, Lime, Mandarin, Melissa, Myrtle, Orange, Oregano, Peppermint, Petitgrain, Tangerine, Thyme. “…finds extensive use in perfumery for citrus colognes, Lavender waters, fougères (fern), pine needle fragrances, Oriental perfumes (blends excellently with Olibanum [Frankincense] and spice oils!)…”.—Arctander

 

HYDROSOL:

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Hydrosol – the Anti-aging hydrosol.
This should be picked and distilled in full flower or just before full flower. At this time the hydrosol will be sweet while later it will be very camphoraceous.  This hydrosol is stimulating both by external application and internal use.  This is the rejuvenating and ‘holding back old age’ hydrosol. It should be taken a teaspoon at a time in a glass of water as a tonic drink, bathed in, used in shampoo or skin care; in other words, submerse yourself in Rosemary herb tea, Rosemary herb and hydrosol baths, Rosemary essential oil inhalations.  The herbal extract and essential oil (and why not the hydrosol) shows some powerful uses in diminishing the effects of Alzheimer’s. It is stimulating and when distilled averages 5.5 pH ± .1
The average hydrosol yield is 1 lb. of plant material in and 1-2 lbs. (2 cups to 1 quart) of hydrosol out. Sometimes I get 3 lb. of plant material in and up to 3-4-quart hydrosol out. (One gallon of distilled water weighs approximately 8.32 lbs.

The hydrosol is added to the bath — Rosemary can be absorbed into the skin and so when added to the bath adds its unique anti-aging qualities. Use about a cup/bath. If you can also use the Rosemary herbal infusion. Slightly stimulating, very comforting, Rosemary hydrosol is a fine tonic addition.

The hydrosol of Rosemary verbenone can be taken internally as a tonic drink. It is very tasty. 1 tsp. in 8 oz. of water, taken two or three times for day can be used as a gentle treatment for Candida or liver dysfunction. It can also be drunk as stimulating beverage. Add ½ -1 teaspoon to a glass of ginger ale or to sweetened carbonated water. You can also add it to any tea, black or green. Rosemary in all its forms is considered antioxidant and anti-aging.

Rosemary CT. verbenone essential oil has a fine scent, is considered to have multiple uses. Verbenone is the name of a relatively new ketone that has found to be very anti-fungal. It occurs in Frankincense and the two essential oils together are a new potent weapon against fungus. While Frankincense and Rosemary verbenone essential oils with the addition of Tea Tree essential oil can be used as a direct anti-fungal agent against athlete’s foot and other fungus infections, it is only the Rosemary verbenone that can be taken internally against Candida. This oil is also a fine inhalant for Stress Relief especially when blended with Bergamot. The essential oil is gentle enough for skin-care and can be added in a .5% mixture and used in skin-care products. The EO is potent and has multiple uses as does the hydrosol.

Verbenone is a precious part of some Rosemary Essential oils and hydrosols and in order to produce more verbenone, you may pick pinene type Rosemary and comminute (break up) the leaves (needles) and then distill it. “Comminuting the pinene type of Rosemary causes the bioconversion of alpha pinene to verbenone”
You can get a fine quality blue Rosemary from Eatwell Farms, and Rosemary hydrosol from Prima Fleur and Eden Botanicals.

            PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.


HERBAL USES: The herb is aromatic and tasty and is used as a condiment in cooking primarily in European dishes and sauces and especially France and Italy. The tea is not only a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, but also it can be used to treat indigestion. A study from 2010 recommended adding extract of the herb to beef while cooking to reduce cancer-causing agents that can form during cooking.   Rosemary has been used and written about for several hundreds of years. “The leaves laid under a pillow will do away with bad dreams and evil spirits and smelling the leaves keeps you young or leaves ground to powder and used on the body make you light and merry. An infusion used on the hair prevents baldness and keeps the hair color. The wood is used to make lutes (I have seen a plant that was 8 inches in diameter), and if burned into charcoal and used as a tooth powder keeps the teeth healthy (in 1969 I made tooth powder this way and had no tooth problems until I stopped using it). Drinking the hydrosol does away with any body evil.”

Prima Fleur Essential oils

 

Some Jeanne Rose’s Formulas & Recipes with this EO and Herb:

Rosemary Hair Oil from New Age Creations
Pure essential oil of Rosemary makes an excellent hair conditioner. I made it with 1 oz. of Rosemary oil mixed with ½ oz. oil Basil and ½ oz. Oil of Lavender: A few drops brushed into the hair every day will condition and gloss it. The best way to use it is to put a few drops on your hair brush and brush your hair every morning or every night. Always brush from roots to ends and use a quality hair brush — my favorite is a Mason-Pearson brush. — Jeanne Rose Herbal Body Book

Rosemary Shampoo
Jim Duke mentions that Rosemary shampoo is anti-Alzheimer’s and that Rosemary components are lipophilic can be absorbed through the skin, that it is a CNS STIMULANTS because of the cineol, camphor and borneol.

Rosemary Blend to skin care
Mix together in any amount you like EO of, sweet Orange, Atlas Cedar, Mandarin or Tangerine and Rosemary. In a massage oil this is uplifting and antidepressant and neutralizes odor and in hand lotion it is soothing.

Rosemary Ninon Bath Herbs
This is one of the first herbal baths that I ever made. I found the formula and made it in 1969, wrote it up for my book, Herbs & Things and have used it ever since. It was #1 in my New Age Creations formulary.
“Ninon de Lenclos, properly Anne de Lanclos, was born in 1620 and died eighty-five years later after having lived an exciting and scandalous life as a French courtesan, epicurean, and confidante to such literate men as Molière and Scarron and to the famous libertins of the period. She was forcefully retired to a nunnery, finally released, wrote La Coquette Vengée, retired from love (though she almost committed incest with her grandson at the age of seventy), and in her will left one thousand francs to Voltaire. She was a celebrated beauty. Her body retained its youthful curves; her skin remained moist and smooth for all of her eighty-five years. Her beauty secrets were many and varied but the one she felt to be most important was her daily herbal Bath:” …

1 handful each of dried or fresh Lavender flowers, Rosemary, Mint, crushed Comfrey root, and Thyme.
Pour a quart of boiling water over the mixture, cover, and steep for 22 minutes.
Pour the entire contents into your bathtub and soak for at least 22 minutes.
For a nice variation, add 1 handful of Rosebuds

Rosemary Bath
Relaxing in an EO bath, oh my
It is really better than pie?
Rosemary bubbles in
Cleanses out the sin
And my skin is as sweet as the sky. —JeanneRose ~ January2015

 

Jeanne Rose Tomato Tales ~ Rosemary

Going to the Wine Taste
Years ago probably around 1980, I enjoyed going to wine tastes here in the city. I especially liked old vine Zinfandel. I am a writer of herbs, essential oils and scents and stay home to work and often don’t realize how strong an odor I carry with me after a day in 10,000 odors. And I was also in love with Rosemary anything. Wonderful herbaceous, smelly delicious Rosemary. I took Rosemary herbal baths, Rosemary herbal facial steams, I used my New Age Creations Hair Growth Shampoo-Rosemary and Rosemary Hair Oil and had been for years; I used Rosemary oil in massage oils and in some of the perfumes I made, and I even used Rosemary infusion as a rinse in my laundry. So it was not surprising that my home and me in it smelled like a very pungent combination of Rosemary and other herbs. [And Rosemary motto is “Remember Me”]
There was one day in May when the weather was particularly pleasant and warm and all the city scent was rising and strong. A wine taste was being held in the afternoon on Union Street, a particularly ‘yuppie’ part of town, and I had just shampooed my hair with my Rosemary Herbal Hair Growth Shampoo, and bathed in my Rosemary Milk Bath, had a slight cramp and had rubbed Rosemary oil on my lower abdominal area and was feeling refreshed and well. As I walked into the place, I noticed all the wine bottles and glasses and walked over feeling especially good. Then the murmur started “what is that smell?” and “phew what is that?” and “where is the pizza?”, etc.
Ohmygod ~ I knew it was me. But now I did not know what to do? Should I slink out thereby letting everyone else know it was me or do I join in the discussion and casually say “oh that pizza smells good” and look around for it? Actually I think I remember grabbing a glass of wine, drinking it and walking out but I can say now that I never went back to that particular place for a wine taste.

 

Historical Uses: Rosemary has a long herbal history as a mental stimulant and physical tonic.    Greek scholars placed Rosemary wreaths on their heads to increase their power of concentration before exams. Gerard writes of Rosemary in his “Herbal” (1597): “If a garland thereof be put upon the head, it comforteth the brain, the memory, the inward senses, and comforteth the heart and maketh it merry.” The distilled spirit of Rosemary was used in the legendary “Hungary water”, named for Queen Elizabeth of Hungary (1370). It is said to have transformed her from a paralytic, chronically ill princess into a healthy, vibrant ruler.

Rosemary has also been used in the past to ward off evil, to offer protection from the plague, and as a gift symbolizing long lasting love and enduring friendship.

 

Interesting Information: Rosemary benefits abound — www.JeanneRose.net/courses.html
Rosemary adds flavor to many foods, and now new research suggests that by inhalation it may potentially improve learning and memory in the wake of age-related decline. A study from 2012 suggested that Rosemary oil may boost brain performance. The herbal tea is not only a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, but also it can be used to treat indigestion. A study from 2010 recommended adding extract of the herb to beef while cooking to reduce cancer-causing agents that can form during cooking.
It was mentioned in most of the ancient herbals of Greece and Rome.  The Ancient Egyptians are thought to have either grown or imported Rosemary as it has been found in the wrappings of mummies, perhaps a symbolic offering or simply because they knew of its preservative properties. The ancient Greeks attributed a mind stimulating effect to Rosemary, an action which the oil, herb tea and herbal extract are still used for today.
Students used to entwine it in their hair for its reputed brain stimulating effects.  And – today studies in universities have shown that it DOES increase memory!        Rosemary sprigs were used as an insect deterrent in clothes chests.         The Romans used infusions of Rosemary for stimulating the heart and circulation.  Interesting is that they also used it for treating depression.  Additional uses were treating coughs and lung ailments.
Rosemary (fresh and dried) has been widely used in cooking and as food flavorings. Before refrigeration, foods containing Rosemary kept longer due to its acknowledged anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties.

 

Rosemary Limerick
Rosemary applied is antiaging
Makes me want to read books engaging
My skin now soft and a’dew
All bright and so new
And all those books made me paging.
—JeanneRose 2015

Rosemary Limerick —JeanneRose 2015
Rosemary so good and so pure
It makes you want to use it to cure.
Rub on your head
Remember your bed
Memories will come that’s for sure.

 

Scientific Data:The antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the SFE extracts were confirmed. With regard to antibacterial activity, the oils are more active against Gram-positive, than Gram-negative, bacteria, as evidenced by the lower MIC values for the former. Rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction were shown to be promising with regard to their in-corporation into various foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutiproducts for which a natural aroma, color, and antioxidant/antimicrobial additive is desired. These properties are also needed by the food industry in order to find possible alternatives to synthetic preservatives. Further studies are necessary to investigate the incorporation of extracts into appropriate food formulations, and evaluate flavor, chemical changes and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in the whole food system.”— Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) – a study of the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide. From Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos ISSN  0101-2601.

 

Contraindications: While writing this article I was able to confirm that Rosemary is indeed stimulating and that inhaling the odor too much or too long will set your heart racing.

 

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Cunningham, Scott. The Magic of Incense, Oils & Brews. Llewellyn Publications. 1988
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California.
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)

 

Safety Precautions: Do not use Rosemary herb or EO in excess. Because some is good it does not mean that more is better. While examining Rosemary oil for this article and for the organoleptic qualities, I noticed I had to spread out my examinations over five days, examining only 3 Rosemary types per day. I have heart issues and if I did more, my heart would begin to race. So yet it is stimulating and so caution is wise when blending or using Rosemary.

Safety Precautions: Do not use Rosemary herb or EO in excess. Because some is good it does not mean that more is better. While examining Rosemary oil for this article and for the organoleptic qualities, I noticed I had to spread out my examinations over five days, examining only 3 Rosemary types per day. I have heart issues and if I did more, my heart would begin to race. So yet it is stimulating and so caution is wise when blending or using Rosemary.

 

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
 Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally. Essential oils can come from many sources including areas that are heavily farmed and/or sprayed with toxic pesticides and defoliants.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

Rosmarinus officinalis – the tall type and the prostratus

 

 

 

 

~ JR ~

 

Patchouli EO & Hydrosol

Synopsis: A well-known essential oil with both physical and emotional properties and a fascinating history of use on many continents.

 

Patchouli Essential Oil and Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ February 2017

Patchouli Oils from Eden Botanicals

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Patchouli or Patchouly is from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

Family: Lamiaceae

 Other Common Name/Naming Information: The name patchouli comes from a Tamil word, paccilai, meaning “green leaf”. An alternate common name seen in some older references is pucha-pat. The name Pogostemon means Pogo or bearded and stemon or stamen of a flower and is sometimes described as meaning “bearded thread”. In Greek this refers to the hairy middles of the four stamens.

Countries of Origins: Grows in tropical areas, 80% of Patchouli oil is produced in Sumatra. Eden Botanicals sources Patchouli EO from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. It grows well in Hawaii, particularly Kauai but is more seasonal there.

 Endangered or Not: Some Cautions. Patchouli is believed to be safe and not endangered. Avoid wild gathering. Please grow your own herbs in your own garden.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The genus Pogostemon consists of some 30 or 40 species of shrubs, sub-shrubs, and herbaceous plants native to tropical Asia. Characteristics of the genus include flowers in whorls in the upper leaf axils; a tubular, five-toothed calyx; a tubular corolla with four nearly equal lobes, and one style with two stigmas. The fruits are four seed-like nutlets. It loves rain but the water has to drain away. It prefers open sunny areas and can be intermixed with corn or Palm trees to improve the thickness of the leaf and deter leginess of the stem. The leaves are known to accumulate essential oil in the glandular trichomes. It thrives in a damp, warm climate with even rainfalls. It exhausts the soil and needs new fertile ground regularly. It flourishes in low altitudes and slightly moist soil that is properly drained. Propagated by stem cuttings planted during the rainy season and protected against too much sunshine and weeds.

Patchouly plants ~ Patchouli leaves cured prior to distillation

 

 Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The leaves are picked the top leaves preferred. A stalk 10 inches long and about 1/8 in. thick with attached leaves is considered good distillation material. After cutting this is laid out to dry on a hard surface and turned frequently to promote even drying. Drying may take 3 days. Press dry leaves into bales immediately. Aging these bales may improve odor. Do let them ferment or mold. But aged leaves do slightly ferment and will yield more oil – but this is not preferred. They were originally steam-distilled in iron pots but now more often in stainless steel. When steam-distilled the essential oil is medium brown to dark brown.  However, with the change to stainless steel stills, often the color of the essential oil is much more pale brown – golden.

The yield is about 3.5%.

            Distillation: This is one of the few plants that is best dried before distillation. Thus you will not get a true hydrosol (with cellular water intact). Arctander states that to get a good yield of Patchouli, the cell walls need to rupture prior to the distillation. This can be done by light fermentation (not to mold), by scalding with superheated steam (like blanching a vegetable), or by stacking the dried leaves and thus ‘curing’ them. My suggestion to those who can grow Patchouly is to take a trip to a Patchouli distillery and watch and learn and then to try and do it yourself. Also, the original distillation was done in iron vessels which yielded a dark and richly scented oil. With copper or stainless steel distillation you will obtain less intense but possibly as tenacious an odor. There is more information on Distillation in Guenther’s The Essential Oil on page 563 of volume III.

In a recent FB post Ramakant Harlalka showed pictures of Patchouli distillation as said, “Patchouli distillation is art, science & technology. Here heat & mass transfer which are core area of Chemical engineering plays important role in cost & quality optimizations. There are few pictures on steam distillation where distillation vessel acts like bio reactor apart taking out oil from leaf. Pretreatments of fresh leaf and digestion of same in vessel through controlled heat makes constituents of Patchouli oil where minor components (《1%) makes unique amber odor of oil.”

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: Three terpenoids Germacrene, Patchoulol or patchouli alcohol, Norpatchoulenol found in patchouli oil are responsible for the typical patchouli scent. Tenacity is one of the virtues of Patchouli oil but often its intensity (strength of odor) is low. The odor in quality Patchouli is floral, fruity, green herbaceous and spicy and more fully described as “possessing an extremely rich, sweet-herbaceous, aromatic-spicy and woody-balsamic odor with a wine-like presence.” At dry-down this same oil will retain a particularly sweet woody floral odor. It will not get tar-like. I suggest that you take a class from someone who has old (20 years old) Patchouli to really get an idea of what its odor is as much of what is sold now is very unpleasant.

 

General Properties: The herb is anti-insecticide, herb and oil are considered anti-dandruff and leech-repellent.

Via Inhalation:  Nervine, anti-depressant, calmative. aphrodisiac, tonic and skin decongesting.

Via Application: Cytophylactic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, antitoxic, and astringent.

Via Perfumery: It is of low intensity, but high tenacity and very useful as a base note and with great fixative quality.

 

Properties and Uses: Patchouli is said to cure apathy, ease confusion and indecision, heal dry skin, be healthful for the endocrine glands, be a nerve stimulant, can be seductive or aphrodisiac, for some it is stimulant, and historically it is rejuvenating.

            EO Ingestion: Constipation, uterine tonic, and to eliminate toxins. (see warning) * It was once used as a flavoring agent in ‘Sen-Sen’ type of breath freshener with a licorice taste (these were small hard pieces of candy that was sucked to camouflage the breath-smell of alcohol or tobacco).

            EO Application: In skin care products, it is used on dry, old, or wrinkled skin.  It is rejuvenating, restorative, and invigorating to the skin.  It is used as a fixative and has much value in perfumery.  It is also useful for fungal infections, bacterial infections, dandruff, as an insect repellent, on insect bites, dermatitis, athlete’s foot, ringworm, parasites, and some use it in skin care to help eliminate skin toxins.

 

Energetic/Emotional Uses by Application or Inhalation: Inhaled Patchouli historically has been used to give peace of mind, relieve confusion, and be grounding. When inhaled Patchouli is used in ritual or emotionally to cure apathy, and indecision, as a seductive agent, and for grounding and in a positive ritual — to invigorate, become lucid and reasonable.
Diffuse/Diffusion: This essential oil mixes well with many oils to produce fragrant diffusions. With its sweet herbaceous and aromatically spicy odor it works with Cedarwoods, citrus oils, Clary Sage, Lavender, Rose Geranium, Sandalwood, Vetiver, and more. Think ahead of what your outcome will be and blend oils to suit the outcome.

 

Key Use: Oil of Warmth and Age©

 

Herbal Usage: Patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is also widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, the herb is used to treat colds, fevers, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. See Jeanne Rose Herbs & Things.

 

Jeanne Rose’s Tomato Tales

Experience with this EO: Back in 1966, I lived in Big Sur as well as having a small apartment in Berkeley. In 1967, I lived in Big Sur but also in San Francisco while being involved in the rock ‘n roll world as a coutourière. In both Big Sur and San Francisco, Patchouli was the big ‘in’ thing as a deodorant. However, shaving under the arms was also ‘out’. So, personally, I found the odor of Patchouli to be retched and repugnant and it became personally inextricably linked in my mind to sweaty stinking hairy armpits and pushy-shove’y stoned fans. I disliked it then and disliked it for 30 years after and refused to use it in my work. But I had kept a 4-ounce bottle that I had purchased from Nature’s Herb Company and it lay unused until one-day I wanted to make a classic perfume. I pulled out the old Patchouli and smelled it and discovered its fragrant, rich, earthy odor — and found it ‘pleasant’. I still have some of that bottle for reference and realized that I hated Patchouli not for its odor but because of people smell who didn’t bathe enough and were using the odor to camouflage their own.  It took me more years to really enjoy using it and now I depend on it in many a formula.

When I queried Monica Miller about Patchouli (as she had done a study of it a few years ago), she said, “I love it (Patchouli) as an ingredient in deodorant, it’s the oil that works best for me and it’s not at all about covering odor it really kills the bacteria that cause odor. But you know that. I just made an awesome massage oil with honeysuckle, patchouli, lavender, arnica. The patchouli is so sexy and musky in the blend.” I completely disagree with the information that Patchouli kills the bacteria that causes underarm odor but I am willing to defer to her assessment.

P.S. If you have never smelled Patchouli on an unwashed armpit, I strongly suggest that you avoid this as you would a plague. Use it diluted with other essential oils, use it in massage, use it in dilution, use it as you will.  Also, do not equate the nasty synthetic patchouli with the real one, buy a Patchouli that you enjoy and put some of it away for the future. This oil ages well.

 

FORMULAS by Application, Massage and Skincare

Patchouli Green Bath (from New Age Creations, 1970)
3 oz. Patchouly, dried
3 oz. Orange leaf or Savory, dried
3 oz. Vetivert root, dried and C&S
2 oz. Linden flower/leaf, dried
2 oz. Strawberry or berry leaf, dried
2 oz. Comfrey or Parsley leaf, dried

Patchouly is commonly used for its rejuvenating effect on the senses. Orange leaf sharpens the awareness, Vetivert is a tonic stimulant, Linden in the bath cools the head and soothes restlessness, Strawberry eases aches and pains in the hips and is mildly astringent, Comfrey and Parsley are healing and rejuvenative.  Mix all together. Take a large handful (1/2 oz.) and place in pot with 1 qt. of water. Bring to simmer for 10 minutes and strain the solution into the tub.
Take the moist herbs, wrap in washcloth and use to exfoliate your skin.
Soak in the herbal waters at least 20 minutes.
All in all, one of the best formulas from my early skin care company New Age Creations.

More bath formulas are in my Herbal Body Book.

 

Soap Used as a bug repellent:

When I queried people in the herbal/EO world about their uses for Patchouli, I got a few responses about Patchouli oil being a bug repellent and a deodorant. Jacqueline Alberti gave me this formula for making soap using a melt and pour base with 7.5 ml of dark Indonesian Patchouli per pound of the base. She said, “I find when I use the EO (Patchouli) in soap the mosquitoes don’t bother me even 8 or 10 hours after showering”.

 

Psoriasis Formula

In a Seaweed (Fucoidan) based lotion add 5-10% mixture of Patchouli, Vetiver and Calophyllum inophyllum, Tamanu, from Madagascar. — Sheila Jacaman

 

Blends Best with: Patchouli blends best with many other essential oils and absolutes including Basil, Bergamot, most Citrus, Geranium Rose, Juniper, Labdanum, Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Sandalwood, and Rose.

 

BLENDING with formula. In perfumery use Patchouli in thoughtful amounts as a base note. Elizabeth Lind says, “Patchouli and Oak Moss are my favorite base notes, smells like the forest floor of the Santa Cruz Mountains.”

 

Three Patchouli Perfumery Formulas

#1 Brown Sugar Formula can be composed of various amounts of these essential oils: Lemon, Neroli,
Patchouli, Tangerine. Of course you know that there could be thousands of variations depending of where the ingredients were grown, how grown, pressed or distilled but these main ingredients combined is the essence of brown sugar that is sweet and fortifying but also uplifting and refreshing. Use this formula as an inhalant or in blends — for aftershave, astringent tonics, face wash or a sweet massage. Start by mixing 1 drop of each ingredient, succussing, waiting and building up the formula one drop at a time.

 

#2 Chypre (sheep ra) The word “chypre” derives from the island of Cyprus which is located in the Mediterranean. It was for many centuries the meeting point of the East and West (Turkey and Greece) for the trade of aromatic materials. During the 1800’s it became famous for the production of perfumes that contained and combined the Mediterranean essences of citrus, floral pomades, and Labdanum with the resins and gums of Arabia, such as Styrax, Frankincense, Opopanax and Myrrh.  Animal products were also traded such as civet from the civet cat of Ethiopia and musk from the musk deer from the Himalayas. These animal products were and are some of the worlds’ most valued perfume commodities.

Originally, the word chypre would have been used to describe a style of perfumery associated with the island of Cyprus. Today, however, it refers rather more specifically to a group of perfumes whose origins can be traced back to the great Chypre by Coty that was created in 1917. Truly an Art Deco scent. Today, these scents are no longer much in fashion, but we can make a Chypre scent to experience those perfumes that existed 100 years ago. [Read Natural Botanical Perfumery by Jeanne Rose for more information about Chypre and many more Chypre formulas.

            Chypre is a fragrance family – a complex of moss mixed with woods, flowers or fruit odors. A Chypre fragrance contains “Oakmoss absolute”, Bergamot and often Labdanum and Patchouli. Mix the following together, succuss, let the blend sit quietly for a few weeks to integrate and become a true synergy where no one scent is dominant over another but all are mixed to make a brand-new odor.

CHYPRE #2 –Patchouli
Top Note
15 Bergamot CP

Heart Note
18 Sandalwood Australia or Hawaii SD
6 Rosa bourbonia ABS

 Bridge Note
3 Oakmoss ABS
3 Labdanum ABS

 Base Note
15 Patchouli SD

 

#3 The Dark Green Woods
Salvia sclarea flowers                      4 drops = top note
Citrus paradisi var. white peel       3 drops = heart note
Citrus x limon var. bergamot peel 2 drops = heart note
Cupressus sempervirens leaves     3 drops = bridge note
Pogostemon cablin leaves               5 drops = base note
Mix together and succuss. Let sit for a week and then add up to 45 drops of carrier or alcohol as a diluent. Succuss again. Let sit for a week. Use as a perfume. This will be 25% perfume ingredients.

All these ingredients available in small sizes from Eden Botanicals.

 

HYDROSOL: This is one of the few plants that is best dried before distillation. Thus you will not get a true hydrosol (with cellular water intact). Patchouli hydrosol can be used as a hair spray for a temporary solution from the static in curly hair! I’m sure any hydrosol would be nice, but there is something about patchouli —Christina Smith

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

 Patchouly Oils over 44 years time

Historical Uses: Patchouli has a lovely history. The scent was introduced into Europe from Asia via the odor of the cashmere shawls. The Patchouli plant leaves had been used to protect cashmere shawls from insect predation. From about 1775 high quality cashmere shawls had begun to find their way to France and England. They were brought by travelers, explorers and military personnel as well as members of the East India Company, who brought them back as presents. François Bernier, a friend of Moliere and Cyrano de Bergerac was the first European of the modern era to see and describe the traditional cashmere shawl. The Cashmere shawl became the rage and great sums of money were spent to obtain them. Then the hunt was on to identify the odor of the shawls and the plants that made the odor. Once this had happened perfumers sought the plant, distilled it for the scent and this scent made its way into the perfume bottles of the era and thus onto the people of that time.

 Interesting Information: “Possibly originated in Malaysia although the word apparently comes from the south Indian Tamil language, patch, meaning ‘green’, and ilai meaning ‘leaf’. Patchouli means bearded stamen…375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols, p. 21. Patchouli herb is used for scenting carpets, shawls and woven materials, and for perfuming ink and sealing wax, as well as for perfume and medicine. Wrapping fabrics in Patchouli herb has been a practice for a thousand years.  Patchouli oil benefits from long storage and definitely improves with age. Old Patchouli (10 years and more old) smells sweeter and better than newly distilled Patchouli.

 Chemical Components: Patchouli is a very complex odor with three terpenoids making up the primary scent but also with dozens of other chemical components.
These three terpenoids Germacrene, Patchoulol or patchouli alcohol, Norpatchoulenol, found in patchouli oil are responsible for the typical patchouli scent.  In one study 41 compounds were separated, 28 of which (92.9% of the total oil) were identified. There are several GC/MS on line that can be looked at.

 Physiochemical Properties: There are many examples of the physical and chemical properties of Patchouly online and in Guenthers’ book, The Essential Oils. They vary by where the plant is grown and processed and distilled. Here is one from a European distillation.           

Specific Gravity …………. 0.975 to 0.987
Optical Rotation ……….. —54°0’ to —65°30’
Refractive Index at 20°.   1.5099 to 1.5111
Solubility at 20°  ………..  Soluble in 0.5 vol. and more of 90% alcohol

Abstract/Scientific Data: There is an extensive article about Patchouli online, called “Review — A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance by Mallappa Kumara Swamy and Uma Rani Sinniah.”

 Contraindications: The Material Safety Data Sheet, or MSDS, for Patchouli oil indicates it is hazardous if ingested. If the oil is swallowed, contact Poison Control immediately. As with any oil-based material, do not induce vomiting as the oil could enter the victim’s lungs during vomiting. However, once was widely used as a flavorant in oriental-style flavorings.

 References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Chakrapani. P, et al • Phytochemical, Pharmacological importance of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth) an aromatic medicinal plant •Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 21(2), Jul –Aug 2013; nᵒ 02, 7-15
Jessee, Jill. Perfume Album. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 1951.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California.
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)

 

Safety Precautions:
Patch Test:
 If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
            Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
*Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally. Essential oils can come from many sources including areas that are heavily farmed and/or sprayed with toxic pesticides and defoliants.
Patchouli flowers, south-facing, 410 feet elevation, photo by Willie Shook, Kilauea, Hawaii, 1-12-17
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

~ JR ~

 

 

 

Cypress and Blue Cypress EO

Understand the difference between these two different genus of the Cupressaceae family of Evergreen/Conifers and then use them for their best traits.

 Cypress and Blue Cypress

Herbal Use, Essential Oil and Hydrosols

Jeanne Rose – January 2017

 

Conifer/Evergreen ~ Don’t confuse even the conifers with the evergreen. Conifer is a term meaning cone-bearer and has to do with reproduction while evergreen means a plant that is always green and has to do with the nature of the plant. Most conifers are evergreen but not all (Ex: Larch). Not all evergreens are conifers (Ex: Ivy). However, in this article we will assume that you know the difference.

Common Name/Latin Name: The Coniferae are the Conifers now known as Pinopsida. Yes, those botanists drive us crazy with their name changes. That is why you must know your plants by their Latin binomial and not just common name. How many times do you hear the word Cypress when the person actually means blue Cypress referring to the beautiful color of the essential oil of a particular plant. Blue Cypress is Callitris intratropica and Cypress generally refers only to Cupressus sempervirens. As you read on you will see the vast difference between these two related conifer trees.

Chart 1. Taxonomy

Naming: The word cypress is derived from an Old French word cipres, which was imported from the Latin word cypressus and this word was Latinized from a Greek word Kyparisso.

             Australian Blue Cypress Oil Northern Cypress Pine
Callitris intratropica R. T. Baker & H. G. Smith. The blue Cypress, Callitris intratropica is from the Greek word calli or beautiful and treis or three, alluding to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves i.e. scales and intratropica within the tropics.

Countries of Origin: Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens this tree, the pencil-pine or Italian Cypress, is from Southern Europe, Libya or SW Asia.  Eden Botanicals organically grown Cypress branches and leaves are steam-distilled in France.
Callitris intratropica, the so-called Blue Cypress because of the color of the essential oil; is native to Australia and grows in the Northern Territory (including Melville and Bathurst, Indian and other islands), the Kimberly region of Western Australia and, Cape York to Bowen in Queensland. Its range of altitude is from near sea level up to 900 meters. The tree usually grows in open forest but also found in heath forest, vine thickets, monsoon forest and on rain forest edges. Callitris intratropica is a medium to large sized tree, from 15 to 45 meters in height. The timber is very aromatic, resistant to termites and is known in modern times by aboriginals of Arnhem Land as “Kerosene Tree” because of its flammability, and “Mosquito and Sand fly tree” because of its effect on repelling these insects while being burnt and is mainly used in the wet season.

fig. 1. Blue Cypress ~ Callitris intratropica – photo by Jeanne Rose©

Other Named Cypress: There are many Genus of trees that are given this common name ‘Cypress’. They include trees the genera of Widdringtonia, Taxodium, Callitropsis, Callitris, Chamaecyparis, Fitzroya and more. It can be very confusing. Some Cypress trees are even called Cypress-Pine. However, our main concern in this short profile is the genus Callitris and Cupressus and specifically the species called sempervirens.

Endangered: Callitris intratropica can live for over 200 years, although the population has declined significantly since European settlement, because of over exploitation and the change in fire regimes and the introduction of grasses that burn with a greater intensity than the native grasses.
Some of the world’s ancient populations of Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, have declined in Europe and Iran due to overpopulation and war. Cypress trees can live a very long time such as the longest living Cypress, the Sarv-e-Abarkooh in Iran’s Yazd Province, whose age is estimated to be approximately 4,000 years.

Storage: All the blue-colored oils are likely to oxidize in time due to the azulenes and they should be kept cool. Since Blue Cypress is a somewhat viscous oil and comes from the bark and wood, do not freeze but keep in the fridge, probably in the door section. It will get more viscous but the colder air of the fridge will delay any deterioration and the essential oil will last longer. Just remember to bring it out of the fridge several hours before you are going to use the oil so that it warms up some. With the blue oils you must be very careful and conscious of their color. If it is oxidizing, it will go from a beautiful blue to green and eventually to brown. If brown put it down and do not use for therapy or medicinal use. This is why you must always check the organoleptic qualities of your essential oils – there is much to be learned by their color, clarity, viscosity and intensity.

Cypress oil from Cupressus sempervirens should be handled the way most conifers are and that is

Keep in a cool dry place and replace every year or so.”

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted:

            The Cypress leaves and young branches are steam-distilled for the essential oil. Cypress used to be used in distilleries as staves to hold mash ferments to make alcohol before the invention of stainless steel and now used sometimes to scent the alcohol. Commonly seen throughout New Mexico, the Mediterranean Cypress is also known as the “drama tree” because of its tendency to bend with even the slightest of breezes. It is also the traditional wood used for Italian harpsichords.
Yield: 1.3-1.5%

The Blue Cypress, “The essential oil of Blue Cypress, Callitris intratropica, is composed of a considerable proportion of rather unique lactones like callitrin (I), callitrisin (II) and columellarin (III). “During the investigation of the volatiles obtained by hydrodistillation of the wood of this Cupressaceae species it was noticed that the oil yield increases with distillation time while the oil composition is shifted more and more towards the high boiling components. Both the method of production and oil are patented.”   “Clear oil is produced if the heartwood is distilled by itself, containing clear azulene compounds, which requires a separate National Industry Chemical Assessment to produce and is not covered by the registered Chemical abstract number.”
Yield: Yield is hard to ascertain as the numbers vary and parts of the distillation style is patented.

 fig. 2. Cupressus sempervirens • 2nd oldest tree in the world ~ Sarv-e-Abar, Yazd Province, Iran

 Organoleptics:
Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens is almost colorless to pale-gold, clear, non-viscous, intensity of 5 (scale is 1-10) and the taste is bitter and astringent.

Australian Blue Cypress Oil is a vivid and pure cobalt-blue colored oil (see fig. 1), opaque, viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5 on a scale of 1-10).  The taste is bitter. Turns green when oxidized. “…The oil was widely promoted in the essential oils and aromatherapy professions a decade past, and can be steam distilled from the powdered heartwood when a colorless oil is obtained according to Webb (2001) (other sources say pale lemon-green oil), but when this oil is reacted with natural resinous compounds in the bark & cambium, a cobalt blue oil containing guaiazulene is obtained – presumably the secret process referred to by Domio…” in the article written by Cropwatch.

fig. 3. Cypress & Blue Cypress from Eden Botanicals

             There are two other species of Callitris that are used for essential oil. See this link for Australian Essential Oils. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html

Australian Victorian Emerald Cypress Oil, Coastal Cypress Pine, Callitris columellaris F. Muell. The essential oil is a beautiful emerald green color, clear like green water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominantly fruity, woody sustaining note and green/vegetal and floral back notes. Bitter taste.

Australian Jade Cypress Oil, White Cypress Pine, Callitris glaucophylla (syn. Callitris glauca) The essential oil is a pleasant jade-green color, clear like greenish water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominant green/vegetal and woody, sustaining notes of herbaceous and a floral back note. Bitter taste.

 

Aroma Assessment:
Cypress (C. sempervirens) has a wood predominating note, sustaining notes of green and herbaceous and a spicy back note.

Australian Blue Cypress Oil (C. intratropica) scent is predominating wood, with vegetal sustaining notes and back notes of herbs and floral.

 

Properties of the EO, Hydrosol and Herb

General Properties and Uses: Both of these ‘Cypress’ oils are used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant.
Cypress is stimulating and warming and antiseptic and also known for its very durable, scented wood, used most famously for the doors of St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City of Rome.
Blue Cypress is mainly analgesic, insect repellent, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral.
In cosmetics these two ‘Cypress oils’ are used as astringent, for firming, to reduce oil in the hair or skin and in shampoo to reduce dandruff,

Specific Uses of Herb and Oil

 Application ~ Australian blue cypress EO also contains eudesmol’s known for their anti-viral properties hence its reputation among aroma-therapists for the topical treatment of warts and cold sores (it has not worked well for me in this regard). It is used externally in men’s cosmetic products and in lotions for skin irritation, diaper rash and muscle aches and pains. This is a superb ‘first-aid’ oil and can be mixed with Tea Tree for this purpose. Both Blue Cypress and Cypress work particularly well in blends for aching muscles and joints.

Cypress is great in skin and hair care products for oily skin, and sweaty palms and feet. It works well at reducing overactive sweat and oil glands. It may be used in massage oils for rheumatism, aching muscles, abdominal cramps, circulation problems in blends with Lemon and Juniper berry oil for varicose veins and even hemorrhoids and for fluid retention and cellulite.

  • Inhalation ~ Cypress is a wonderful oil used for respiratory issues and congestion in a blend with other oils such as Eucalyptus and Blue Cypress not so much.
  • Ingestion ~ I would not use either of these oils internally, although the diluted Cypress hydrosol can be gargled for coughing or sore throat.

 

  • Emotional uses ~ Cypress oil is inhaled for nervousness, tension and grief and is thought to promote comfort and strength.
  • Diffusion ~ Mix either of these oils in blends for diffusion, particularly for cleansing the air and uplifting the psyche. Make blends that suit you as they work well with other conifer oils, Rosemary or Lavender Oil and some of the other Mediterranean oils such as Cistus.
  • Perfumery and other ~ Cypress EO it is anti-aging and as fragrance in perfume. Blue Cypress EO can be used as a base note in many perfumes or particularly men’s colognes and scents. Use it where the other essential oils have no color so that the beautiful blue of the Blue Cypress shines through.
fig. 4.  Blue Cypress and Cypress showing the beautiful color
  • Hydrosol Properties and Uses ~ There is a Cypress hydrosol coming from France and it is considered to be cleansing and detoxifying and a good toning addition to a skincare facial spray. Samara Botane sells a hydrosol from the leaves and branches of Callitris intratropica that is preserved with alcohol and is said to have many uses. Personally, I have not as yet experienced either a Cypress or a Blue Cypress hydrosol.
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most of which are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. Also, a hydrosol does not have the same components as does the essential oil, the components are often very different and in very much smaller amounts.
  • Herbal Uses ~ Any of the conifer needles including Cypress and Blue Cypress can be used in infusion form in the bath for aching muscles or simply to cleanse the skin and provide a natural sort of deodorant for the body. I have on occasion used the branch tips in tea for its forward coniferous taste and especially for respiratory distress.

 

fig. 5. CypressCupressus sempervirens

 

FAVORITE RECIPES

  • Perfume

 

Chart 2. Lush Perfume

 

  • Skincare ~

CYPRESS SHAVING BALM

Using a premade shave lotion or thin cream or make one with Lavender hydrosol, Calendula extract, Oat protein, aloe gel, and glycerin, and then scent it with Cupressus sempervirens (Cypress) oil, Lemon oil, Cananga odorata (Ylang Ylang) oil, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Niaouli) oil and preserve it with vitamin E and Rosemary extract. The scent should be at no more than 2-5% of the total.

  • Hair Care ~ Make an infusion with the needles and branch tips of either of these Cypress types, add to your shampoo and shampoo as normal, especially for oily scalp or dandruff. The EO can also be added to the conditioner to provide extra therapeutic action.
  • Body Care ~ The ancient use is that the decoction of wood of Cypress is an ‘excellent footbath against the feet stinking with perspiration’.

 

Personal Formulas

  • Formula for Hemorrhoids & Varicose Veins ~ Varicose Veins and hemorrhoids are pretty much considered the same if treated by an herbalist. And Cypress oil is a good oil to use. Here is a favorite formula that various people have commented upon. Mainly, that it makes them and their hemorrhoids smell good.

30 drops (1 ml) Cypress, +
30 drops high linalool Lavender, +
30 drops Lemon

Put into a 1-oz. glass bottle.  Succuss and mix completely.  Then fill with either Calendula infused oil or Jeanne Rose Bruise Juice 90% + St. Johnswort oil at 10%. Mix together. Apply regularly to the hemorrhoids/spider Veins/varicose veins by applying with gentle massage from bottom to top (from your extremities to your heart. — from 1-20-10

  • Energetic Use ~ Heart or Base note is Cypress, and depending on your ingredients can be used for broken veins, astringent, oily skin, rejuvenating, wrinkles and in spiritual/energetic use to inhale for loss of friends and for smoothing transitions and for indecision, and to soothe an irritable spirit.

 

COLLECTIVE INFORMATION:

The genus Cupressus, whose taxonomy has been reviewed eight times during the last 80 years, includes to date twenty-five species of evergreen plants diffused in the Mediterranean area, in the Sahara, in northern-western America, in central China. There is just a lovely article about this Mediterranean Cypress at http://www.photomazza.com/?Cupressus-sempervirens

 

Key Use: Cypress is the Oil of Astringency while Blue Cypress is like Tea Tree the Other Oil of First-Aid.

 

Chemistry and History ~ Cupressus sempervirens L. is a medicinal plant. The dried leaves of this plant are used as an emmenagogue and for stomach pain as well as for diabetes. Its dried fruit decoction is used for inflammation treatment, toothache, and laryngitis and also as a contraceptive, astringent, and antiphrastic (?) drug. The dried seed of this tree has been used for wounds, ulcers, bruises, sores, pimples, pustules, skin eruptions, and erysipelas. Cupressus sempervirens essential oil is used externally for headache, colds, cough, and bronchitis. Studies on phytochemical compounds of Cupressus sempervirens L. revealed that it contains active constituents such as flavonoids (cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, and myricitrin), phenolic compounds (anthocyanidin, catechins flavones, flavonols and isoflavones, tannins, and catechol), and essential oils (EO). It has been demonstrated that the principal’s active from Cupressus sempervirens L. display antiseptic, aromatherapeutic, astringent, balsamic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Cupressus sempervirens L. antimicrobial activity has been reported in several studies.” —https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/538929/

GC/MS analyses of the cones of Cypress showed up to 50% a-pinene, and many other terpenes as well as a-cedrol and other alcohols.

Chart 3. Blue Cypress Chemistry

Contraindications: Do not confuse Cypress oil with Blue Cypress oil or the oils from other Cypress-like trees. Blue Cypress is only licensed for cosmetics while Cypress has many uses.

 

References & Bibliography:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. botANNicals. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://cropwatch.org.uk/Blue%20Cypress%20oil%20further%20updated.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callitris
http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-bioactive-compounds/volume/11/issue/2/page/73/
http://www.australianbluecypress.com.au/about-blue-cypress
http://www.photomazza.com/?Cupressus-sempervirens
http://www.australianbluecypress.com.au/about-blue-cypress
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Rose, Jeanne. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/Australian_Essential_Oils.html

 

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

fig 6. Blue Cypress herbarium sample

 

 

 ~ JR ~

 

 

Calendula ~ When and How to Make infused oils

Jeanne Rose going to go back to herbal and gardening and perfumery basics of tincturing, infusing, weeding, blending with moon lore, and plant knowledge to make even better infused medicinal oils.

 

CALENDULA INFUSED OIL

Jeanne Rose ~ circa 1972

Kingdom is Plantae
Order is Asterales
Family is Asteraceae
Tribe is Calenduleae
Genus is Calendula – referring to the first day of the month or here the long growing period.
species is C. officinalis – originally meaning used medicinally. The Pot Marigold “my thoughts are with you”

 

Contents: fresh Calendula flowers & Virgin Olive oil
figure 1. Calendula infused oil

MAKE CALENDULA INFUSED OIL VS Calendula Hydrosol
           “I know that some will disagree with me on this subject but I strongly feel that distilling Calendula flowers is a waste of botanical product. Calendula Hydrosol is obtained from freshly picked Calendula flowers and distilled in a copper still. It produces a green and vegetative smelling hydrosol. It seems a waste of good Calendula flowers.” My suggestion is to not distil it but to infuse the fresh flowers in good-quality Olive Oil for an infused oil. This can be used in all skin care lotions. It works to smooth and soothe the skin, to heal small eruptions or sores. It makes a perfect infused oil. You use less resources when you infuse or macerate than when you distil.

When you distil the Calendula you will use (waste) up to 30 POUNDS of flowers (250 flowers per pound or 7500 flowers in 30 lbs.) to make ONLY 3 Gallons of hydrosol + all the water wasted going through the condenser. Though the hydrosol of Calendula is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems, The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product, it is a serious waste of plant material.  When you distil for hydrosol you have to also think of the environmental impact of your work and the value of the water used.

Yes, there are some water-soluble compounds in the flowers but we can use the flowers more efficiently as a tea or compress. With the Calendula infused oil, you use 1 lb. of resin covered flowers to 1 gallon of good Olive oil. Nothing is wasted. I make my freshly picked Calendula infused oil from fresh flowers and not dried – it is a fantastic product.”

Sometimes an herbal product is a better choice of a product to use than a distilled product.

 

 Parts of Calendula Used. The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.
Calendula Leaves – Gather these in dry weather, in the morning, after the sun has dried the dew — for tea. They can also be dried for tea. The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed.

Calendula Flowers – The flowers are picked when they are covered with the resin and then used and if they will be dried, it needs to be done quickly in the shade, in a good current of warm air. They can be hung in mesh bags from tree limbs or spread out on sheets of paper, without touching each other. If they are dried and the flowers have been touching they will become discolored. Another method of drying is to spread them on screens in a warm dry attic or over a stairway. This has been described extensively in The Herbal Studies Course, chapters 31 and 33.   
          The flowers and leaves are used for distillation and only the flowers for infused oil.

Calendula resin: When you pick Calendula, your fingers will be sticky from the resinous bracts which form the green base of the flower head. This resin is an important part of Calendula’s healing and is a good indicator of strength. If you are buying Calendula, make sure you purchase the bright yellow or orange flowers which is a good barometer of its freshness and medicinal quality. If picking fresh flowers, the stickier (with resin) the better. The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex. This is particularly common among the Cichorioideae).

 

Calendula Chemistry. The German herbal medicine manufacturer, Dr. Theiss, registered ‘Rinathei’ in 1998 for its own exclusive production use. This variety is claimed to be rich in faradiol triterpenoids believed to be most responsible for calendula’s anti-inflammatory activity. Intriguingly, a readily available dwarf ornamental variety, ‘Calypso Orange,’ is also rich in faradiols, having the highest content of 10 cultivars tested, as much as a third more than ‘Erfurter Orangefarbi.
The petals and pollen contain triterpenoid esters (an anti-inflammatory) and the carotenoids flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (antioxidants, and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids, mostly lutein (80%) and zeaxanthin (5%), and beta-carotene. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics, presumably due to the presence of compounds such as saponins, resins, and essential oils.

figure 2. fresh Calendula flower

 Calendula infused oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book and refer to pages 249-250.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available Jeanne Rose teaches both courses and classes making this wonderful infused oil for massage, blending or perfumery.
I do not recommend sun infusion ~ I AM NOT a proponent of letting something sit in oil for 4-6 weeks, hot during the day and cooler at night, as this is a perfect way to create spoilage. I use the hot maceration method and get my perfect Calendula oil or St. Johnswort Oil in about 2-3 days.

 

TO MAKE INFUSED OIL: To make this product use The Aromatherapy Book or the Aromatherapy Studies Course and read up on it. Use 1 lb. of fresh flowers to 1 gallon of organically grown Olive oil. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers when they are ready and covered in resin; pick them in the morning when the dew is dry but the sun not yet high and infuse and macerate them slowly over a series of days in organically-grown Olive oil, heating gently but not boiling, cooling, heating and cooling until the flowers have exuded (sweated) their liquid moisture. Keep heating and cooling until the pot lid no longer collects the condensation, pouring off the condensate and drying the inside of the lid. During hot weather, this might be done in a day but here in San Francisco it takes about 3 days. Cool, and allow the oil to drain into a clean container.

         When pouring off the condensate, remember to not pour it back into the oil, but into a separate container. This liquid can be considered a perfect hydrosol of Calendula as it is the natural exudate from the flowers. Collect it and then use it as a facial tonic within the next three days.

After the oil has taken on the deep orange color of the flowers, (2-4 days of warm maceration), let it cool enough to pour into a glass jar. Use a funnel lined with a mesh bag and pour the oil through the bag into the jar. The mesh bag collects any stray bits of plant material. It is not necessary to use a filter or filter paper as that just adds another dimension to the product and does not remove any bacteria or yeast. If you have made the oil correctly it will be yeast and mold-free for up to a year and the filter paper doesn’t filter only makes a mess.

Now you will have to be patient and let the finished Calendula Infused Oil sit for a day or two and settle. Any liquid that may be left will drop to the bottom of the jar and the oil decanted into a clean container. If the oil is cloudy, however, you will have to heat it gently one more time to remove the fluid. My Calendula Infused oil is golden yellow-orange and clear and will stay pure for up to a year or more.

At this point, pour your oil into sterile quart or 8-oz. bottles. Label your product with its name, contents, the size of the container, and your name or phone number or website. Store them in a basement or wine cellar at about 45-55°. They will keep until you use or sell them.

 

      MEDICINAL ACTION AND USES. Used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. A lotion made from the infused oil, flower wax and an essential oil is most useful for sprains and wounds, and if you have a hydrosol water distilled from these flowers that is good for inflamed and sore eyes (but only used if kept sterile).

 

INGREDIENTS: Calendula infused (Olive) oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. Olive oil by itself contains the phytonutrient, oleocanthal, which mimics the effect of ibuprofen in reducing inflammation in the body. Squalene and lignans are among the other olive oil components being studied for their possible effects on cancer.

Calendula officinalis (is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain, and as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.

 

USE. Used for dry or sensitive skin, baby care, and also good carrier oil used in aromatherapy massage. Essentially, you have to get freshly picked flowers, infuse and macerate in olive oil, heat gently and cool several times removing all condensate that collects on the lid. Then allow the oil to drain into a clean, sterile container. Only the common variety with deep orange color and sticky resin is of medicinal value. The yellow flower can also be used but it does not make as deeply colored infused oil and it seems of ‘lesser’ strength.  Calendula Infused Oil is a wonderful product to have on hand. During the summer when the flowers are available there are classes to teach the making of this wonderful infused oil.

figure 3. Bottles of Jeanne Rose Calendula Infused Oil

 

Medicinal Action and Uses. Calendula infused oil made from fresh flowers and organic olive oil is a wonderful product to nourish dry skin. It also makes good carrier oil used in blends, lotions, and massage.

The flowers also called Marigold are chiefly used as a local remedy. They have a stimulating action and are diaphoretic (makes you sweat) when taken as a warm tea. Given internally, it encourages a natural internal action and prevents suppuration (pus formation as in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus). The usual recipe for herbal infusion is of 1-ounce dried herb to a pint of boiling water, steep for 10-20 minutes and take internally, in doses of one tablespoonful, every hour; and used externally as a local application for sores, pus’y wounds, pimples or irritation. It is useful as an internal tea in chronic ulcer, varicose veins, etc. This infusion was formerly considered to have much value as an aperient (mild laxative) and intestinal cleanser in obstructions in the digestive system and for jaundice.

Fresh Marigold flower is a useful remedy for the pain and swelling caused by the sting of a wasp or bee when rubbed on the affected area. The hydrosol is made from fresh flowers and is being used in new ways to combat old problems. The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet details these uses and gives sources where you can purchase this new product.

 

An infusion of the freshly gathered flowers, drunk hot is useful in summer fevers and cold, as it gently promotes perspiration – a decoction of the flowers has been used to treat smallpox and measles. Marigold flowers are very useful for children’s ailments.

The expressed juice of the flower or the dried powdered flowers, snuffed up the nose triggers sneezing and a discharge of mucous from the head. Years ago when I tried to express the juice of fresh flowers, I used a Champion juicer, got only a few drops of juice but used this, diluted by half with water, as nose drops for a client who had a hole in the septum.

The leaves when chewed at first taste gummy and sweet followed by a strong penetrating salty taste. The expressed juice of flowers and leaves, which contains the most of this pungent matter, especially with Rose petals has been given in cases of costiveness (retained feces), where it acts as an aperient and proved very useful for this problem. Since it is gentle, it can be used with children and in small doses for your pets.

The leaves and flowers can be eaten as a salad and also been considered a medicinal culinary herb, useful in skin diseases and swollen lymph nodes of children. Some of the stronger scented Calendula with lots of resin is recommended to remove warts.

 

Using the Moon to Make the Infusion:
Phases of moon

For instance, it is good to start a tincture on a New Moon in a Water sign (Cancer/Scorpio/Pisces).

If you want to weed a garden, or filter/strain your infused oil or Bruise Juice ~ do it in the last quarter leading to the full moon in an Earth sign (Taurus/Virgo/Capricorn).

If you want your blend/infusion to have a strong good scent or to boost the olfactory powers of a scent, make sure you pick the plants when they are ready. When they are ready means at the time when their scent is the best. For instance, Jasmine at night, Tuberose early in the morning or at dark, Chamomile types in the early morning, Roses when the dew is dried but before the sun is high.

Start blends in the New Moon/First Quarter in a Fire sign (Aries/Leo/Sagittarius).

The Llewellyn book on moon signs can be used for off-line reference, and there are online websites that have the phases and astrological signs.

 I am keeping my book, Herbs & Things open in my reading room because I want to be able to reference the formula and what I had to say then.  I already visit various moon lore and weather sites on the Internet for basic charts. When I make Bruise Juice, I pick and start work on a waxing to full moon when the herbs are at their fullest. Let it drain and bottle on a waning moon. For great moon information see — http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneDay.html or go to MoonMenu for a quick moon update.

 Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy • 415-564-6785 or www.JeanneRose.net

Resource:
http://www.thegardenhelper.com/calendulapix.html
The Aromatherapy Book. http://www.jeannerose.net/books
The Hydrosol and Aromatic Waters Booklet by Jeanne Rose. $24.50 from http://www.jeannerose.net/
 In-person Seminars, courses and classes by home-study or Distance Learning
Calendula Infused Oil
1 quart = $150 + S&H
8 oz. = $45 + S&H
http://www.JeanneRose.net 

Pictures During the Process of Making Infused Calendula Oil

 

~ JR ~

JUNIPER BERRY EO/HYDROSOL

Many benefits and uses come from the female seed cone that produces Juniper “berries”; the properties including delightful information by Jeanne Rose is fascinating and useful.

 

Juniper Berry Essential Oil/ Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 12/25/16

Common Name/Latin Binomial and Family: Juniper berry, Juniperus communis is in the evergreen or conifer family, Cupressaceae, it is the berry oil, the essential oil that is steam-distilled from the merged scales of the cone, the berries, that we usually just call Juniper oil.
However, there are other Juniper trees of the genus Juniperus that are also commercially used just not in the same way, such as (Juniperus virginiana often called –cedar or pencil Cedar). Do not confuse these two oils.

Name: Juniperus simply means Juniper and communis means common.

Some Other Commonly used Junipers: J. bermudiana L. timber for pencils; J. californica Carr. berries for gin or hydrosol; J. cedrus Webb & berth. In the Canary Island forest; J. chinensis L. ornamental and berries for gin; J. communis L. the common Juniper berries used to flavor gin and liqueurs and eaten with meat, there is a French form has rather sweet berries that I prefer to use to flavor drinks; J. excelsa M, Bieb. used as medicine; J. occidentalis Hook., the wood is used in fencing and berries to flavor local liquor; J. oxycedrus L., the heartwood that gives the parasiticidal oil of Cade through a destructive distillation; J. sabina L., the twigs are medicinal and insecticidal and berries are toxic; and 

J. virginiana L. incorrectly named ‘cedar’ or red cedar and native to North America the wood of which is used to make pencils, making medicinals and wood for insect-proof chests and small pieces placed among clothing, the oil used to scent soap and it has many cultivars.  This oil/hydrosol was profiled in Jeanne-blog.com http://jeanne-blog.com/cedar-wood-virginia/

1-juniper-berries-oregon-copyfig. 1. JR photo of Juniperus occidentalis from Oregon

Countries of Origins: Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer that has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a distribution throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30° N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. Relict populations can be found in the Atlas Mountains of Africa.

 Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Juniper berry organic from Bulgaria; Juniper berry CO2, cultivated and kosher grown in India; and Juniper leaf/branch grown in Slovenia.

Endangered or Not: Common Juniper (Juniperus communis, is threatened or endangered in a number of states. Bermuda Cedar, Bermuda Red Cedar, Bermuda Juniper bermudiana, this species is currently listed as Critically Endangered.

 

General description of Plant habitat and growth:  Evergreen shrub or tree growing up to eighteen feet with narrow, stiff, prickly needles and little brown cones called berries that turn black in the second or third year.  The common Juniper, Juniperus communis, is a native to the Northern Hemisphere.   “…A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially the Juniperus communis, are used as a tasty spice, and also give gin its distinctive flavor.
Juniper berries have been called the only spice derived from the conifers although tar and inner bark from pine trees is sometimes considered a spice as well….” —Wikipedia

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The essential oil is either a CO2 extract or a a steam distillation of the berries (merged scales) and has a very rich, deep aroma. The ripe fruit is dried, crushed, or slightly dried, and then steam distilled or it is carbon dioxide extracted or the leaf and branch is hydro-distilled.
Yield:
   0.2-2.0% for the berry oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics:
Color:  the Juniper berry can be a rich Golden Yellow to a colorless oil; the Juniper berry CO2 is a pale yellow to dark yellow, while the Juniper leaf/branch oil is colorless.
Clarity: Clear
Viscosity: Non-viscous, although I have experienced a few berry oils that were somewhat viscous.
Intensity of Odor: leaf is a 3, CO2 is a 3-4 and the SD berry oil will be 4-5.
[Scale is 1-10 with 10 being the most intense]
Taste: herby, bitter, Astringent

Aroma Assessment: The scent of Juniper berry depends upon terroir. If it is from France it often has a citrus and fruity back note whereas when it is from the USA it has an herbaceous and sometimes mild camphoraceous back note.  The three I photographed and smelled most recently; the leaf/branch oil was quite herby and a conifer needle scent, Juniper berry was woody and herbaceous and the CO2 herby and citrus. But each was different from the other. I suggest that you first purchase samples and choose the one you like the best to use.

img_2700fig. 2. Juniper Oil of leaf and berry – courtesy Eden Botanicals

purple-bar

Properties of the Essential Oil

(General Properties and Uses) of juniper berry and leaf oil: Properties are by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application). By application the properties are antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue, antiparasitic, tonic, and depurative (purifying) and by Ingestion they are diuretic, depurative, and antiseptic; by Inhalation it is tonic, brain tonic, and respiratory expectorant.
General Uses:  It is an expectorant and antiseptic and can be used externally as a cleanser, and in massage oils and cosmetics.  It has been used as a medication for urinary problems, genital warts, itchy vulva or jock itch in the form of a sitz bath.  Juniper berry essential oil can be taken in very small amounts to act as a diuretic for cystitis and to detoxify the body, but a tea of the berries is more highly recommended, especially mixed with Rosemary herb and Fennel seed. Juniper berries, 1 or 2, can be eaten as an aid to jet lag or for ‘change of location’.

I view aromatherapy as a branch of herbalism,
and learning when use of the herb is preferable to use of the essential oil.
This is an important aspect of aromatherapy training.

 

Specific Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP):

  • Application: It is antiseptic and used externally as a cleanser and for problem skin. It may also be diluted and applied for pain relief for arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica or to relieve itchy vulva, jock itch, acne, eczema, and premenstrual bloating. Juniper berry or leaf is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities and is a wonderful addition in an astringent cleanser for the skin it and a wonderful odor and deodorizer in men’s products.
  • Inhalation: to alleviate mental exhaustion, in a blend for asthma, hay fever, and nervous tension.
    •Ingestion:
    Juniper Berry oil may be taken internally, in very small amounts. It helps the body release fluids and is used for obesity, urinary infections, and gout. It is used in tiny amounts as a diuretic for cystitis, to detoxify the body (depurative), and for overindulgence of food. (1 drop/herbal capsule such as Marshmallow root). It is used in the making of Gin and in flavoring meat foods.
  • Emotional Uses or Energetic Uses: Juniper Berry oil is inhaled to aid the memory, and to visualize being guarded from negativity and danger or use in a bath for depleted energy. I quite like this oil as a ‘change of location’ scent — to inhale or to eat a berry when flying and even to alleviate jet lag.
  • Diffuse/Diffusion: Juniper berry oil can be diffused in a blend with other oils that are less intense in scent, such as Rosemary, Lavender, citrus oils. It has a very cleansing effect on the air, is refreshing and helpful for concentration in a work space.
  • Perfumery: I especially prefer the Juniper berry oil from France in perfumery where it works well with citrus scents such as Bergamot and with Lavender and other conifers and when using Juniper berry from the U.S. I use it with base notes such as Galbanum and Oakmoss
  • HYDROSOL Properties and Uses: The USA sample was tested and was largely camphor and terpinene-4-ol with smaller amounts of borneol and other components. This Juniper hydrosol would be wonderful in the bath for aches and pains or as a compress for injuries. European Juniper hydrosol might better be used in facial care and toners and air sprays.
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most of which are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. Also, a hydrosol does not have the same components as does the essential oil, the components are often very different and in very much smaller amounts.
3-juniper-berry-2-yr-old-copyfig. 3. Juniper berries

 

~ FAVORITE RECIPES ~

  • Jeanne’s Favorites Uses of the herb, oil and hydrosol: I use Juniper berries whenever I travel. I just chew a few as sort of an anti-jetlag food, or I chew one to make my breath taste better. For these uses I need to use the sweet Juniper berries that come from France. I also use the Juniper berries (especially the ones from the NW or here in California) as an ingredient in my famous ‘Bruise Juice’. It is remarkable for adding more anti-pain therapeutics to my product. Regarding the essential oil, I add it equally to Sage oil, Basil oil, Cypress oil and Rosemary oil as an application for aching muscles and for temporary external use for pain-relief from sports injuries like painful legs, arms, golf elbow, etc.

 

  • Jeanne Rose Skin Care Formula

For aging skin, dry skin, sensitive skin or acneic skin,
Use a few drops of the following daily as an application before going outside.
Mix all together carefully before using.

6 drops sweet high altitude Lavender
4 drops true Clary Sage from the flowers
1 drop Galbanum
5 drops sweet Juniper berry
32 drops of your favorite carrier or lotion.

.

Jeanne Rose’s Tomato Tales with Juniper Berry: I have used Juniper berry oil, the berry (herb), and hydrosol for as long as I have used anything and have never had an unpleasant or wildly or even a mildly memoristic experience with them that I can remember.  It is one of the easiest herbs and oils to use. In food the berry is delicious particularly with meats and fowl, the oil works great in massage blends to relieve muscle pain and the hydrosol is just a wonderful addition to the bath for skin cleansing.

 

Key Use:  The oil of Edema. [for obesity, urinary infections, skin problems, arthritis, and gout and massage for aching muscles]

Chemical Components: Constituents: Juniper berry essential oil contains 8% resins; 0.4% Juniperene; Pinene and Terpinenes. Monoterpenes (which make up most of the essential oil) alpha- and beta-pinene, sabinene, limonene, terpinene-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, borneol, geraniol, myrcene, camphene, camphor, alpha-eudesmol and many others.

Sesquiterpenes such as beta-caryophyllene, delta-cadinene, Diterpenes, Neolignan glycosides, lignan (podophyllotoxin is present and is toxic to the nerves, gut and liver), tannins, flavonoids, resin in the essential oil include cedrene, alpha-pinene pectin, sabinene, cedrol, myrcene, terpinene-4-ol, limonene, beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, alpha-eudesmol which may inhibit calcium channels and appears to be neuroprotective in a stroke model.

Antifungal compounds are found in the juniper parts such as oidiolactone C. Isocrupressic acid in Juniperus communis has been identified as an active abortifacient compound, Alpha- and beta-cedrene from Juniperus occidentalis have antimicrobial activity.

Historical Uses and Interesting Information: Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and for muscular uses and rheumatism.
Common juniper contains a volatile oil, terpinene-4-ol, which is known to increase kidney action. Common juniper extract, which can be fatal in even fairly small amounts, was used to make gin and as a meat preservative. Common juniper is highly valued as an ornamental plant and is widely cultivated and provides good ground cover even on stony or sandy sites. This species was first cultivated in 1560.

Contraindications: Do not confuse Juniper berry oil with Cade oil from Juniperus oxycedrus or the toxic oil from Juniperus sabina. Juniper berry oil and herb (Juniperus communis) is contraindicated in those patients with reduced renal function.

 

References:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. botANNicals. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/juncom/all.html
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/juniperus-communis.html
fig-4-juniper-berry-jeannerosefig. 4. Jeanne Rose photo of J. communis in Golden Gate Park
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©
fig-5-juniper-illustrationfig. 5. Botanical illustration of Juniper communis

 

 

~ JR ~

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

            There is so much information available on this plant, that this short blog post will only highlight what I find to be some of the interesting aspects of Frankincense. When searching for information ignore sites that want to sell you any sort of product. Instead check under words like ‘Frankincense taxonomy’ or ‘science of Frankincense’ or ‘smithsonian.gov or ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or the theplantlist.com, or ‘frankincense gc/ms or the same main leads using its Latin name Boswellia.
frankincense-x5fig. 1 Essential oils courtesy of Eden Botanicals

Frankincense ~ Fabulous Ancient Remedy

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin:

            Name. George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood who lived from 1832-1917 named the Olibanum or Frankincense plant, Boswellia carterii, aka B. carteri. The Latin binomial of one of the species of Frankincense was named after James Boswell [companion and biographer of Samuel Johnson] and the word ‘carterii’ after Professor H.J. Carter who described the Egyptian mummies and made the first scientific collection of specimens from Arabian frankincense in 1846. … “Dr. H. J. Carter was surgeon in an East Indian company survey ship, the H.M.S. Palinurus which was surveying the south Arabian coast”.  He studied a branch of Frankincense tree thought to be a species similar to the Indian variety of Frankincense, B. serrata.  Later work showed that Dr. Carter had actually been looking at B. sacra. The tree originally found by Carter was named after him by Birdwood and called B. carterii now called B. sacra.  Even later studies showed that in all probability the tree found by Carter and named by Birdwood was of Somali origin. There are at least 17 species of Boswellia and they are very difficult to distinguish. The family name is Burseraceae and includes the genus of Myrrh, Olibanum and Elemi. The name Olibanum is derived from the Arabic word al luban or the milk, which refers to the milky exudate of the trees that is the resin.
Country. These trees grow in Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa, including Somalia and Ethiopia.

 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields:
Botany.
Frankincense (Boswellia carterii) comes from a small tree native to North Africa (Somalia) and some Arab countries. When the bark of the tree is damaged it exudes a white emulsion, the oleo-gum-resin that is white and milky. When this emulsion comes into contact with air it slowly hardens and congeals into tears and drops that are whitish – amber or burnt orange in color about ½ to 1 ½  inches in diameter. It is this emulsion or resin that is picked from the ground or off of the bark and that is steam distilled to produce the pure essential oil of Frankincense, also known as Olibanum. The resin comes from the schizogenous gum-oleo-resin reservoirs within the plant. It is now also CO2 extracted.
Yield from steam-distillation is 3-6%

 

History:  There are very few essential herbs (plants used for medicine or body care or aroma) available that have a longer and more distinguished history than Cinnamon, Frankincense, Galbanum, Labdanum, Myrrh, and Storax.  These have all been known and used since ancient times and all are mentioned more than once in the Bible as well as other historical texts. For about 400 + years we have had their essential oils as well. We have already discussed Myrrh in the November blog. This resin that was known around the world for thousands of years simply as ‘incense’, and has been in use by mankind since antiquity is Frankincense.

This resin that was known around the world for thousands of years simply as ‘incense’, and has been in use by mankind since antiquity is Frankincense. The word Olibanum comes from the Arabic al-luban and means ‘the milk’ — the true incense.  The word Frankincense comes from the old French word fraunk-encens and means the true or real incense.

fig-2-frankincense-tears-al-luban-copyfig. 2. al luban ~ the milk

         The historical use of Frankincense is in spiritual and religious rituals. It is one of the oldest herbs/resins used for this purpose. Rising smoke from burning resins was a means of communicating from the ancient peoples to the gods, and Frankincense was burned on hot coals for this purpose as well as for its healing properties and fragrance. Frankincense was considered a very sacred gift. It was also used in embalming.

In ancient times Frankincense was bought and sold everywhere. Arabia was the largest exporter and its trees produced the best quality Frankincense. In Babylon, every year 57,200 pounds of Frankincense was burned. In Assyria at the annual feast of the god Baal, nearly 60 tons of Frankincense was used. When Herod was buried, 5,000 slaves preceded the funeral procession carrying urns of the burning resin. At his wife’s funeral in 65 AD, Nero burned all the Frankincense produced by Arabia in one year. [He needed to expiate his sins as what is not generally known is that he had beat his pregnant wife to death].

The story most people are familiar with is that of the three holy kings who presented what they considered the most precious gifts to the Son of God at Bethlehem: gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh.

The smoke of Frankincense fills churches and sacred spaces to this day as well as the ritual areas of many people. From this burning incense a fragrance issues that “that floats on an invisible thread to heaven to attract the attention of the Gods”.  For it is on fragrance that the gods feed and it is fragrance that they desire.
         Dr. Michael Stoddord discovered that Frankincense contains a substance similar to sexual hormones, which awaken sexual desire. Reports for the Academy of Science in Leipzig, Germany claim that when Frankincense is burned the chemical tetrahydrocannabinol is produced. This substance is thought to expand the subconscious. Inhalation of Frankincense slows and deepens the breath and is calming and relaxing.

 

Aroma Assessment/Organoleptics: The Frankincense oil that I have from 1972 is deep golden in color, clear, very viscous with a deep intensity of scent and a fragrance that is rich, spicy, balsamic, agreeable, with a citrus or lemon back note. It has a bitter aromatic taste. The Frankincense from 2003 is much paler gold in color, clear, not viscous, with a lighter smoother but not as richly pleasing an odor. Currently, I have five samples of Frankincense and they are colorless to very pale yellow, clear, non-viscous, not intense with a bitter taste. This vast difference from golden yellow – colorless and viscous – non-viscous and intensely fragrant to not intense has happened in the last 10 years. Why? I cannot answer.

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors, hinting at a broader olfactory asymmetry. So if you are lost and wish to get home or wish to know the intensity of a scent, sniff the air with the right side. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left for scent, smell right for intensity and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

Best methods of application:
Application: The use of the essential oil of Frankincense has expanded beyond spiritual use. It is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic properties. It is useful in lotions, salves, soaps and oils and indicated for acne, skin problems, and boils. Frankincense essential oil benefits the skin by keeping it healthy and preventing wrinkling and aging.
Ingestion: Frankincense resin can be partially dissolved in water and this water is drunk for the boswellic acid that is helpful in clearing disease.
Inhalation: Used by inhalation in a diffuser, Frankincense is beneficial in treating bronchitis, excessive mucus, colds, and coughs. It is indicated for excessive mucous, as an inhalant treatment for asthma, inhaled and massaged to stimulate the immune system and for nervous depression.
Perfumery: Frankincense is a useful addition to aromatherapy blends and potpourri, where it serves to fix the scent and acts as a base note. It is of particular value in perfume blends of the Oriental style, because it rounds out and gives alluring tones that are particularly difficult to identify as to the source.
Properties: In addition, Franchomme and Pénoël suggest that the properties are anti-catarrh, expectorant, cicatrizing, immuno-stimulating and anti-depressant.

frankincense treefig. 3. Trygve Harris in front of an Omani Frankincense tree. 2011

Hydrosol: I have had the pleasure to experience the hydrosol of Frankincense that was distilled by Jack Chaitman. It was very refreshing with an herbal citrus scent. This was mixed with Rosemary hydrosol 50•50 and used as a facial spray. With Rosemary hydrosol, the combination is soothing to the skin and anti-aging. If you choose to use the resin instead, soaked in water, then the fluid diluted, filtered — this can be used as a facial or body spray as well.

 Endangered or not: Frankincense is considered to be threatened and/or endangered due to heavy usage, people moving into the Frankincense areas and by over-tapping. Dutch and Ethiopian researchers studying populations of the trees in northern Ethiopia found that as many as 7% of the trees are dying each year and that it could be gone within 50 years.

 Safety Precautions: There are no known contra-indications. However, I recommend that you dilute before using and a patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin. There is more risk of harm if using oxidized oil. See p. 64 The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations for the test.

 Storage: Store the EO in glass in a cool dark place, but not in the fridge or freezer. The resinous oil may harden after a time but can be diluted with a bit of alcohol, and it will slowly soften and liquefy after a few days. Frankincense is considered slowly soluble in 3.5 to 6 vol. of 90% alcohol, sometimes with slight turbidity.

 

Chemistry: Chemistry of the Essential Oil. The chemical components of Frankincense include 1-a-pinene, dipentene, Phellandrene, cadinene, camphene, olibanol, and various resins. Olibanol is considered to be in reality a mixture of verbenone, verbenol, and some other terpene alcohols, including most likely d-borneol. According to Blumann and Schulz “olibanol” is C26H44O.
Physicochemical Properties from Guenther.
Specific Gravity at 15°………….0.872 to 0.892
Optical Rotation.………………….The oils distilled prior to 1903 were levorotatory, up to —17°; since then they are dextrorotatory, up to +35°. The cause of this change is not clear.
Refractive Index at 20°………1.471 to 1.482
Solubility.…………………………Soluble in 3.5 to 6 vol. of 90% alcohol, sometimes with slight turbidity.

 Only four resins have been laboratory tested to have Boswellic acid in them; Boswellia papyrifera, B. sacra/carterii, and B. serrata.

Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(12):1100-16. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Ammon HP1. Author information
Abstract ~ Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases.

Collective information: Frankincense was widely used for medicinal purposes to treat skin disease, nervous system imbalances and digestive disruption, and was listed as a medicinal and aromatic plant in the ancient Egyptian record, Ebers Papyrus. Like Myrrh, the oil was used in ancient times for embalming, as well as beautifying rituals, including using the charred resin for kohl eyeliner. But Frankincense is perhaps best known for its calming and sedative effects on the mind and central nervous system, making it ideal for meditation. The smoke of the burning incense is also used to cleanse the body of critters and smells — you can see this as a painting on the cover of my book, The World of Aromatherapy or in Massachusetts at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown as Fumée d’AmberGris, 1880 by John Singer Sargent.
               Menninger describes Frankincense tree as looking like a ‘decomposing corpse’ with its stiff branches, scanty leaves and trunk color of a peculiar blotchy color. He goes on to say that the flowers are few, red and with an odor that is not always pleasant.

 

 Christmas Season Essential Oils and Herbs


christmas-ribbonFRANKINCENSE:
(Boswellia spp.)  Fam. Burseraceae. The true incense. A much favored incense for churches and other places of spiritual ritual.  The essential oil calms and awakens higher consciousness.  It is useful in coping with grief, soothes the mind and emotions.  It is useful for respiratory conditions, is warming, in body care products for aging skin.  A very spiritual, ancient odor.

GALBANUM: (Ferula galbaniflua) Fam. Apiaceae. This deep aroma that resonates of green and vegetative, represents the element of air.  It is grounding, uplifting, and balancing.  Applied externally in skin care it rejuvenates aging skin; it is used as a fixative in perfumery and aromatherapy.

GIFTS OF THE MAGI: A mixture of Frankincense, the true incense (Olibanum, from the Arabic word, ‘the milk’) and Myrrh with the golden color of the true Cedar. [See above and below]

MYRRH: (Commiphora molmol) Fam. Burseraceae. Inhale to calm fears about the future.  Smells hot but cools the air and the emotions. Antiseptic to the lungs, good for problems of the throat or for arthritis. Possible wound treatment. A luxury infused oil for 5000 years when it was used in cosmetics and perfumery. Revitalizes the skin, especially for aged and wrinkled skin.  Inhaled to regulate the body secretions, as an astringent and antiseptic to the lungs, to stimulate 6th and 7th chakra. Vibrates in blue to indigo.
Mix these EO’s together in any combination and you will have a rich, deeply scented combination of oils to use in meditation, celebration or any use that pleases you. If you are using the herbs, that is, the resins, mix them as well in any combination and burn over charcoal to have a lovely incense for ritual use. Don’t worry! Be content with your life.

Recipes 

~ More Ideas ~

  • Perfume/Cologne ~ Oriental Perfume @ 25% or l6 % if including the water.
    5 drops of each of Frankincense, Patchouli and Ylang-Ylang plus
    4 drops each of Rose abs, Sandalwood of your choice and
    2 drops Coriander seed.
    Mix together by succussion and let age for 2 weeks. Then add 75 drops of 95% alcohol and age again. Add 50 drops distilled water. Shake before using.

 

  • Spiritual Uses: Meditation and calming is what Frankincense is known for. The resin is burned and inhaled in the Catholic Church and other rituals, the essential oil is applied to the pulse points prior to meditation or prayer and I use it in this fashion when I walk the labyrinth.
    Menninger states that the incense burned in the Catholic Church is a mixture of 66% Frankincense, 27% Styrax benzoin, 7% Liquidamber orientalis and this distinctive scent burns visible but without excessive clouding.

 

  • Inhalation for colds, relaxing, healing ~ Diffuser Blend
    Varying amounts of Juniper berry, Frankincense resin, and Bergamot peel. Because the resin will get sticky and dry out you must always clean your diffuser with alcohol after each use.

 

  • Skincare ~ Anti-Aging Skin Formula
    30 drops each of Frankincense resin, Lavender flower from high altitude, & Rosemary verbenone. Blend and add to 2 oz. any carrier oil + 2 oz. Calophyllum and ½ tsp. Vitamin E oil. Apply daily to the skin or scalp and massage in gently.

 

  • Haircare ~ Condition scalp (with substitution it may cure alopecia
    30% Rosemary verbenone
    25% Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica)
    20% Rose Absolute (any kind)
    20% ancient Frankincense (your favorite)
    To the blend add 5% (or more) of 95% grape spirits
    Smells resinous and sharp. The Rose absolute scent may be completely lost. But it does condition the scalp and get rid of any lingering yeast. Mix the oils together, add to the grape spirits. When needed, shake the bottle and add a dab to the scalp, massage into scalp. This will also help cure alopecia if you substitute Thyme linaloöl for the Rose absolute.

 

  • Body ~ Detoxifying Bath Blend
    30 drops Juniper berry or Cypress needle/twig oil
    20 drops Frankincense resin
    20 drops Bergamot peel oil
    Blended and added to 4 oz. carrier oil and ½ tsp. Vitamin E oil. Rub no more than 1 oz.  all over your body after bath or shower.

 

fig-4-frankincense-biospherefig. 4. Frankincense in the Biosphere
  • Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tales: In 2003 I was asked to teach a class at the Biosphere in Tucson, AZ. On our initial tour through this rather amazing place, I saw the Frankincense tree that had been a gift from a Saudi prince. It wasn’t as leafy as it is now, but none-the-less it was growing in the desert atmosphere. What an amazing tree. I had been collecting resin, essential oil and information on this Biblical plant since 1970. And here it was for me to see. The class was a wonderful success and the tour a wealth of information.

 

  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: People want to drink Frankincense for the boswellic acid that is considered a cancer ‘cure’. It is really easy to make. Remember that the essential oil does not have the boswellic acid, it is in the resin. Simply take a small handful of the resin, place in a beaker, add 300 ml of water, let it soak for 2 days, transfer the milky solution to a new container, refrigerate. Drink 1-2 ounce per day. Repeat. Dry out the residue that is in the beaker and burn as incense.
  • Only four resins have been laboratory tested to have Boswellic acid in them; Boswellia papyrifera, B. sacra/carterii, and B. serrata.
fig-5-frankincense-resin-waterfig. 5. Frankincense water to drink

 

 

Bibliography:
Franchomme & Pénoël. l’aromatherapie exactement. Jollois, 1990.
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. vol. IV, pages 352-356. Krieger Publ. Malabar, FL 1972
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=frankincense
Karydas, Rita C. Based on a paper, Frankincense. 2001
Langenheim, Jean H. Plant Resins. Timber Press, Portland. 2003. This is the best book on the subject
Menninger, Edwin. Fantastic Trees. Timber Press, Oregon. 1967, 1995.
Plants of Dhofar. Publ. Adviser for Conservation of the Environment. Sultanate of Oman. 1988.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog Ltd. Berkeley, CA. 1999
—————. The Aromatherapy Book.  North Atlantic Books. 1992.
Sellar, Wanda & M. Watt. Frankincense & Myrrh. C.W. Daniel. 1996.
Wildwood, Christine. Creative AromatherapyThorsons. 1993

 

fig-6-2011-pathetic-frankincense-treefig. 6. Poor pathetic example of the Frankincense tree that I tried to grow in a pot. 2011.

 

 

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.

 

 

fig-7-gatheringfig. 7. Gathering of Frankincense
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

 

~ JR ~

Myrrh EO & CO2

myrrh-named

Myrrh EO and CO2 ~ Essential Information

 

Oleo-gum-resin is a term that describes Myrrh. An Oleo-gum-resin is a solid plant exudation (as asafetida or myrrh) consisting of a mixture of volatile oil, gum, and resin. It describes oleo (meaning oily or fatty in nature or look), gum (partly soluble in water), resin (partly or wholly soluble in alcohol).  Therefore, an oleo-gum-resin has a nature that is partly soluble in water and partially soluble in alcohol and looks oily and is partly soluble in oil.  That is, it consists mainly of oil, gum and resin. Examples are:  Myrrh, Frankincense, and Opopanax.

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin:  Myrrh gum is commonly harvested from the species Commiphora myrrha, from the family Burseraceae, which is native to Yemen, Somalia, Eritrea, and eastern Ethiopia. Another commonly used name, Commiphora molmol, is now considered a synonym of Commiphora myrrha. Several other species yield bdellium and Indian myrrh.

I personally examined and will discuss Myrrh from my old collection from 1972 and three modern ones that I enjoyed from Eden Botanicals:  Myrrh CO2, (C myrrha select extract wild-grown from Somalia); Myrrh, Somalia (C. myrrha wild-grown, SD*); and organic Myrrh, Somalia (C. myrrha wild-grown and certified organic, SD*) and the herbal uses of Myrrh products. There are several species of Myrrh.
*SD = steam-distilled.

 Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields: Myrrh from Somalia and Ethiopia is obtained from “tears” of resin exuding from incisions made in the bark of a small tree of the Burseraceae family that is native to Yemen, Somalia and eastern parts of Ethiopia.  The CO2 is extracted by supercritical fluid extraction with natural carbon dioxide. It takes 11 to 16 kilos of raw material to yield 1 kilo of product.
When soil, elevation, temperature, and rainfall conditions are conducive, testing the viscosity and stickiness of freshly exposed sap predicts the resulting resin’s quality.
In perfumery, Myrrh is a rich deep base note adding woody, balsamic scent properties. It is also a fixative, and extends the scent qualities of any other oils with which it is combined.

 

Organoleptics and Aroma Assessment.
Color – pale yellow to deeper yellow for the CO2
Clarity – Clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity – 3 for Myrrh organic of Somalia and 4 for Myrrh CO2.
Taste – bitter, astringent

 Aroma: The three bottles of modern Myrrh I examined were all quite similar in odor. The CO2 had a deeper yellow color than the steam-distillates but were all clear, non-viscous, of low intensity in scent and bitter to taste.          This was most surprising to me as my experience from 1970 to just a few years ago is that Myrrh essential oil was always dark golden, clear, viscous, and intense. Regarding the resin itself I was able to compare a piece from 1993 to what I have recently purchased and they certainly look and smell the same so I cannot explain the change of color and odor of the essential oil.

myrrh-colors-1972-1990

Best method of application or what do you use Myrrh for? Myrrh herb has been used to treat many conditions and is said to strengthen the immune system, fight viruses and bacterial infections, and act as an anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal. The essential oil has been used in extract or diluted with alcohol to use as a mouth wash or added to spiritual blends. However, in my experience, using a bit of the resin dissolved in alcohol then water added is a more environmentally conscious way to use this possibly threatened product.

Herbal Use or Incense: The resin lumps are used in incense and medicine. The wood is chewed as a water source. The incense is easy to use, simply place a piece on charcoal and burn or it can be blended with other resins to make a fragrant combination or a meditative blend.
The oleo-resin of C. mukul from the trunk (Guggul) is important in local medicine for arthritis, to reduce blood cholesterol, for obesity and acne.

 Hydrosol: The only Myrrh hydrosol I have tried is the Myrrh water from Enfleurage in New York. They mention that it is personally distilled by Trygve, in their Omani Distillery in Somalia and select only the quality that is up to the owner’s standards. She says, “We do not separate our Myrrh oil from the water, and so we offer an ultra-high content Myrrh hydrosol. This makes it especially suited for therapeutic use, as it sprays on easily and can also be incorporated into formulations during the water-phase.”  Myrrh is known for its antimicrobial properties and efficacy for all types of skin problems.

Endangered or not: It is very difficult to determine if the common Myrrh tree is endangered. But Arghya Gardens in Florida says it is and are helping to propagate and distribute these historically significant trees including C. mollis, C myrrha, and C. neglecta.  And because of its use in traditional medicine, C. wightii has been overharvested in much of its habitat, thus has been listed on the IUCN Red List of threatened species. Several efforts are in place to address this situation.  A grassroots conservation movement, led by IUCN associate Vineet Soni, has been started to educate guggul or guggal growers and harvesters in safe, sustainable harvesting methods.

 Safety Precautions: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

 Storage: Store your resin or EO of Myrrh in a light-proof container. Do not store in the fridge or freezer.
Not as sensitive as some EO and will last many years pretty much whatever you do. However, since it is a resin, long storage sometimes thickens the EO and you will need to add alcohol to thin it. It is slowly soluble in alcohol meaning it may take a few days.

~ ~ ~

Collective and Interesting information: The Legend of Myrrha. Myrrha falls in love with her father and tricks him into sexual intercourse. After discovering her identity, Cinyras draws his sword and pursues Myrrha. She flees across Arabia and, after nine months, turns to the gods for help. They take pity on her and transform her into a Myrrh-tree. While in plant form, Myrrha gives birth to Adonis. According to legend, the aromatic exudation of the Myrrh-tree are Myrrha’s tears.
In the Old Testament, in the story of Joseph and his relatives, relates that Joseph had been cast into a well, when there appeared “a company of Ishmaelites from Gilead, bearing spices Balm, and Myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.”

            What I found really interesting is that “The Plant Book” suggests that Myrrh is mosquito pollinated at night.

 Recipes for Using Myrrh:

  • Perfume: Myrrh acts as a fixative or base note in perfumery and if you like the odor that is the best way to use it. As a base note it should be no more than 10-15% of the total blend and as a fixative no more than 5%. There are many perfumes that contain Myrrh as a balsamic note. Personally, I have used it as an application for an enhanced spiritual feeling as I walk the labyrinth.
  •           For Spiritual Exaltation: Make a formula of equal parts of Myrrh, Frankincense, Patchouli and Vetivert. Succuss these together and let the blend age for a week before using. Apply a bit of the oil on your wrists or forehead and base of throat before meditation.

 Skincare: There are many places that have formulas for using Myrrh for skin care, since it is not my favorite odor, I don’t use it in this way and use it only as resin incense or resin tincture for the mouth.

 Body and your teeth: There is a great old recipe for Myrrh Tooth Tincture (see Atkinson, p 322) from 1919 as follows:
Cloves • ¼ oz. by weight
Mace • pinch
Myrrh • ¼ oz. by weight
Rhatany root* • ¼ oz. by weight
Alcohol • 6 oz.
Mix the herbs together, add the alcohol, let it sit for a while, up to a week or more, strain off the liquid tincture and use small amounts to rinse the mouth, mixed with water for a daily rinse.

            * (Krameria lappacea – Rhatany – The biological action of Rhatany is caused by the astringent rhataniatannic acid, which is similar to tannic acid. When finely powdered, the dried roots furnished a frequent constituent of tooth powders. Infusions have been used as a gargle, a lozenge, especially when mixed with cocaine, as a local hemostatic and remedy for diarrhea.)

             There are recipes for using Myrrh in my books, such as p. 181 of Herbs & Things for a flavored mouthwash.

  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: Myrrh is about 50% soluble in water. So take a small amount of Myrrh gum, add water, let it dissolve for 24 hours or more and then use the water as mouthwash and dry the residue and burn as incense. This is a more environmentally friendly way to use this resin.

myrrh-water

 

Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale of Myrrh: Twenty years ago, I had a very competent secretary that loved Myrrh and would use Myrrh EO or burn Myrrh in the room when she was using my computer. I realized at that time that Myrrh was not my favorite odor and she knew that as well. So whenever I walked into the computer room and it smelled of Myrrh I would promptly leave. Years later, I found a whole file of her personal love letters on my computer and I realized that she would use Myrrh to drive me out so that she could write her personal things. It makes me laugh now.

 Bibliography:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural OriginA
Askinson, George. Perfumes and Cosmetics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1919
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils.
Mabberley, D.J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, Third Edition 2015
Menninger, Edwin. Fantastic Trees
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book
The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary.
Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

~ JR ~

Pines EO~Hydrosol

Synopsis: Pine profile with hydrosol, origin, storage, organoleptic and chemistry as well as collective information and aroma assessment. Formulas include perfume, skin care, hair care and stories.

 scots-pine-needles

Pine Needle Profile

Scotch Pine and Piñon Pine – Hydrosol

 

See these other blog posts for the Conifer Needles.
http://jeanne-blog.com/evergreens-their-similars/  •  http://jeanne-blog.com/firs-profile-and-hydrosol/

http://jeanne-blog.com/black-spruce-profile-hydrosol/  •  http://jeanne-blog.com/?s=Douglas+Fir

 

Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin:

            Scots pine or Scotch pine is from the evergreen coniferous tree correctly called Pinus sylvestris. It is native to Eurasia but is now grown in multiple areas.
Pine, Piñon or Pinyon Pine is a native tree of the southwest area of USA and northern Mexico There are several species of this tree but mainly Pinus edulis is the one that is used for its essential oil.

pinyon-pine-gum-copyPinon Pine gum

 Endangered or not: Some species of Pinyon Pine are considered endangered due to over-harvesting for nuts and wood. In regards to Scots pine, it is of least concern.

 Safety Precautions: Use these oils moderately in your blends and perfumes. Remember that the conifer needle oils contain alpha- and beta-pinene and have been known to cause sensitivity and skin irritation in some.

Storage: Keep in a cool dry place and replace every year or so.

2-pine-oilssamples courtesy of Eden Botanicals

Aroma Assessment/Organoleptics: These two oils although very similar in chemistry are very different in their scent profile. Both are colorless, clear, non-viscous, intensity on the low side about 3-4 and with a bitter, somewhat sweet taste. Both have a green, herbal and fruity odor. However, whereas the Pinus sylvestris is really very much an airy woodsy odor, the Pinus edulis was fruitier with a delicious high note that tasted edible.

 Best method of application or what do you use each individual Pine for: Pinus sylvestris is considered to have qualities for convalescence, inhaled for bronchitis, sinusitis and asthma. and is used to tone the respiratory system, or as application in a massage blend. It is a hypertensive, tonic stimulant. Pinyon Pine could be used in the same way, both as an inhalation or an application for aching muscles or pain.

 Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields:
Needles of the Pine, the adult leaves, are green (photosynthetic), and bundled in clusters (fascicles) of 1–6, commonly 2–5 needles together, and when you look at them from the bottom when detached, they look like a perfect circle. The needles persist for 1.5–40 years, depending on species. If a shoot is damaged (e.g. eaten by an animal), the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can then replace the lost leaves.”
Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Pine, Norway Pine is a tall, evergreen, up to 150 feet with attractive, reddish-brown, deeply fissured bark with long, stiff needles that grow in pairs. The Essential oil is produced mainly in the Baltic states. The components are greatly influenced by geographical origin and consist mainly of Monoterpenes, Pinene, some Limonene. Needles are steam- or hydro-distilled. Yield varies widely depending on the source from 0.25 to 0.47% and 0.25–0.49% in the current-year and one-year-old needles of pine, respectively.
Piñon Pine. This is a very interesting historic tree whose needles and gum is steam or hydro distilled. Yield is about .05 to .1%.  It is a small to medium sized tree with a furrowed and scaly bark and whose needles come in pairs. The cones are green then ripen to yellow. The edible seeds are harvested from many types of Pinyon Pine. There are many species used by Native Americans depending on the area of growth. The tree was only recently described (about 1848).

pinyon-pine-copyPinon Pine tree

Pinon Pine is a historic tree of the Native Americans as it was a staple food, the resin was used in ritual, and the pinyon jay ate the nuts and this was important in the dispersal of seeds and regeneration of the tree.

Hydrosol Use of Pine: Most hydrosols have not as yet been tested as to what components they do or do not contain. Contrary to what several well-known aromatherapy experts say, hydrosols do not contain the same components as their essential oils but in less quantity. Here, in the case of Pinyon Pine, the EO contains mainly alpha and beta pinene while the hydrosol contains alpha-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol and borneol. Using hydrosols is easy: baths, compresses, wound cleansers.

Spray to refresh the air as the small airborne molecules disperse readily, particularly in cars or airplanes (don’t use too much), rinse to disinfect your hands, a slight spray on clothes after removing from the dryer creates a nice refreshing change, use in fingerbowls after your formal dinner, use in small amounts in creams and lotions to add therapy to the product.

            PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. AND “the very best hydrosols are the ones you distill yourself, for you or your loved ones.”—A. Harman from ”Harvest to Hydrosol”.
 

Chemistry: Piñon Pine usual GC/MS shows very high levels of terpenes; alpha-pinene up to 65% and beta-pinene to 8%, as well as small amounts of carene and myrcene and oxides of cineol to 11%. This shows its value in inhalation therapy and for healing. Scots Pine α-Pinene (18.5-33.0%) and δ-3-carene (9.1-24.6%) were dominating constituents.

Collective and interesting information: Pine honey is a particular type of honey that the honey bees produce, not on the basis of nectar or pollen, as is the case for other types of honey, but by using the honeydew excreted by an insect, an aphid named Marchalina hellenica, which lives by sucking on the sap of certain pine species, and leaves the honeydew on the trunks of these trees. Pine honey is produced in western (mainly southwestern) Turkey, in a number of Greek islands and in New Zealand.

alchemical-symbol-for-honey-beeswax

 The pine species on which Marchalina hellenica can be found are the Turkish Pine (Pinus brutia) and, to smaller extent, Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis), Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea). The insects hide in the cracks and under the scales of the bark of these trees, beneath a white cotton-like wax they secrete.

Pinyon wood, especially when burned, has a distinctive fragrance, making it a common wood to burn in chimneys. The pinyon pine trees are also known to influence the soil in which they grow by increasing concentrations of both macronutrients and micronutrients.

Pines are long-lived, and typically reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more. The longest-lived is the Great Basin Bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed “Methuselah”, is one of the world’s oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old. This tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old. It was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as “Prometheus” after the Greek immortals.

 

 Recipes for all Sorts of things.

  • Perfume ~ A lovely simple scent can be made by blending 20 drops of Pinus edulis, 10 drops of Clary Sage and 2-5 drops of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) or Balsam Fir absolute. When you have blended and used succussion to mix them and then aged your blend at least a week, smell the blend and then add more of each of the oils as you wish.
  • Skincare ~ I am particularly fond of using any of the Pine or Fir hydrosols in the bathtub with me. I fill the bath with warm water, add 4 to 8 oz. of hydrosol (even a little Rosemary for the anti-aging effect) and then add small Pine or Redwood branches (no more than inches long), throw in my yellow rubber ducky and then get in with a good book and read for a while. The steamy water lets off a refreshing forest scent, my skin gets tonified and glorified, my mind clears and I am ready for the rest of the day.
  • Haircare ~ Have you been out in the sun too long or have icy winds dried out your hair? Use a 50•50 combination of any Pine oil + Rosemary verbenone and then take a drop of this and add to your usual hair oil — you will only need 1 drop per ounce of oil. Rub on y our hands and then massage your scalp, gently pulling your fingers through your hair. Finish with a nice brush-out and you will have shiny hair with less dry-out.
  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks. Also posted in the Black Spruce profile.

Sequential Inhalation (A Treatment)
By Jeanne Rose – 1986

            There are six essential oils that I particularly like for colds and flus and include Black Spruce (stimulate the adrenal), Eucalyptus radiata (expectorant and mucolytic or liquefies the mucus in the lungs), Douglas-Fir (antiseptic and disinfectant, Rosmarinus pyramidalis (sinus cleanser and relief), Ravensara aromatica (antiseptic, antiviral), and Fir or Pine, any species as a (cleanser and respiratory tonic).
When there is any sort of respiratory congestion, it is good to inhale the essential oils in hot water.  Your mother probably taught you to do this. You will need a pot, water, essential oils and a towel. Bring two cups of water to a boil in a small pot. Bring the pot to the table. Cover your head with a towel over the pot making a tent. Now add one drop of essential oil at a time to the pot. Inhale one at a time until the scent is gone and then add the second oil. Continue until you have used all six oils. Use the oils in the sequence as given above. This will take about six minutes. Do not add more than one drop of essential oil at a time. Inhale the scent until the scent is gone (about one minute). [If you add more than one drop at a time you will probably gag and cough which is not a healthy act and not what you want.
Inhale through the mouth, exhale through the nose; then inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. Alternate throughout the procedure. This gives the essential oils a chance to cleanse both the sinus area and the throat and lungs. —using this Jeanne Rose method since 1990.

pinyon-scotch-pine

  • Another Amazing Tomato Tale ~ While on a walking excursion in northern California near Weaverville some years ago, my companion brought me to what he said was the ‘biggest’ Pine tree of the area. Thankfully, I have kept this picture of the tree as several years later it was blasted with a lightning bolt and split and fell in the forest. What a mighty beautiful Pine tree.

jeanne-big-pine

 

Bibliography:

  • Britton, Lord and Hon. Addison Brown • An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Vol. II • (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1970.)
  • Franchomme, P. and Pénoël, Docteur D • L’Aromatherapie Exactement • (Limoges, France: Roger Jollois Editeur, 1990.)
  • Guenther, Ernest, Ph.D. • The Essential Oils • (Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company 1976) (original edition 1952.) (in VI volumes)
  • Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol, botannicals, 2015
  • Rose, Jeanne • The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations • (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 3rd edition, 1994.)
  • 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols • (San Francisco, CA: Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy, 3rd edition, 1994)
  • Sudworth, George B. • Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope • (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1967.)
  • Tutin, Heywood, Burgers, Moore, Valentine, Walters and Webb, Editors • Flora Europea, Vol 4 • (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.)
 Do not Ingest essential oils: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.
Safety Precautions: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapists suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.
Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

~JR~

 

Firs – Profile and Hydrosol

Synopsis: Fir profile and specifics on use, history, and aroma of several Fir trees and includes chemistry and hydrosol.

 Fir – Abies alba and Abies balsamea

Abies grandis

 Essential Oil & Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose

abies-oilsAbies balsamea and Abies alba

Essential oils to examine are courtesy of Eden Botanicals.

 Common Name/ Latin Name/ Country of Origin: Fir, balsam Abs, Fir, balsam SD and Fir, Silver SD are the common names for the needle oil of two of the most commonly used Firs. Their Latin binomial and country of origin is this:

            Abies balsamea or Balsam fir is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada and the northeastern United States. Balsamea means it produces balsam from the bark.

Fir, Silver SD or Abies alba, the European silver fir or silver fir is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees north to Normandy and east to the Alps and the Carpathians as well as south to Italy Bulgaria and northern Greece.

 Endangered or not: Of least concern

Safety Precautions: Use moderately in your blends and perfumes. Remember that the conifer needle oils contain alpha- and beta-pinene and have been known to cause sensitivity and skin irritation in some.

Storage: Keep in a cool dry place and replace every year or so.

Organoleptic/Aroma Assessment:

fir-organoleptic

Aroma Assessment:
           There is something richly evocative of the forest in the scent of the Balsam Fir needle absolute. Woody, conifer, green, somewhat vegetative, earthy and deeply scented of the forest – a wonderful oil to use in a perfume.

            The Balsam Fir steam-distilled oil is very similar to other conifer needle oils and hard to differentiate if you do not have 5-6 to compare. It is, of course, green, conifer, slightly vegetative and herbaceous with that sweet airy note we smell as we walk in the conifer forest. So these Fir and Pine oils can pretty much be used interchangeably.             

The essential oil of white Fir Abies alba, is clear and colorless, fragrant with the notes of the forest, green and heady. After smelling other conifer needle oils this one has a sweet and heady scent. A resinous essential oil can  also be extracted. This conifer-scented oil has soothing qualities and is used in perfumes, bath products, and aerosol inhalants.         

Choose the one that you like best to use. I have a special kit of 20 Conifer oils for sampling – the cost is $140 and needs to be pre-ordered. But for trying out different Conifer scents it is the best.

Best method of application and Properties or what do you use each for. With the alpha- and beta- pinene in these oils, you really can’t go wrong. Just choose the one whose scent is most pleasing to you.

The essential oil of Silver Fir needle oil, is clear and colorless, fragrant with the notes of the forest, green and sweet. This conifer-scented oil has soothing qualities and is used in perfumery, bath products, and aerosol inhalants especially for the health of the respiratory system. The cone and leaf oil are steam-distilled in the Tyrol area of Austria from carefully harvested and maintained forests. Young twigs and leaves have a delightful odor. This EO is used in all kinds of ‘pine’ compositions such as room sprays, deodorants, and baths. In Aromatherapy it is used for inhalation for respiratory ailments, colds, etc.; and used externally, in preparations for rheumatism, aching muscles and other muscular-skeletal ailments. The cone oil has a suave balsamic odor and serves as an adjunct in all kinds of ‘pine’ needle scents.

                   A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and Fir is for friendly (needles don’t ‘stick’ or hurt you)           

Balsam Fir produces Turpentine oil and Turpentine oils are produced both from Abies balsamea called Canada Balsam Fir andPseudotsuga taxifolia. This product is a true turpentine because it consists of both resin and volatile oil. The component is principally l-a-Pinene.   Abies balsamea is Balsam Fir contains up to 90% Monoterpenes. Like the other needle oils, it is antiseptic and antispasmodic and is inhaled for the respiratory system or applied externally in blends to ease the muscular system. Balsam fir essential oil has a characteristic woody aroma. This oil usually contains between 6-9% of bornyl acetate and over 1% santene. The most common problems encountered with coniferous tree oil are contamination with other species during distillation and also misidentification of the distilled species. So, in a genuine balsam fir oil, it’s always important to have β-bisabolene, piperitone, and longifolene which are signature compounds for this species. Obviously, we also find commons monoterpenes in A. balsamea oil like β-pinene (the major component), α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, Δ3-carene.

balsam-fir-chemistryCourtesy of Laboratoire PhytoChemia

And the Absolute of Balsam Fir is just the best for perfumery or blends for calmness and relaxation. This delicious warm and woody forest-y scent comes thick and dark and will need to be dissolved in high-proof (80-95%) alcohol so that you can measure and use it. I fell in love with this product when it was first received a year or so ago. Love it for my ‘Muscle Relaxation’ blend that also soothes the mind. [see end for formula]

Hydrosol Uses: The conifers, especially the needle oils, when steam- or hydro-distilled yield a quantity of hydrosol. These hydrosols are very useful in a steam bath for the respiratory system, in a bath just for soaking and as part of the water in the Neti pot for cleansing the sinus. The hydrosol is used in baths, steam inhalations, compresses to soothe the skin, ease muscle tension and just to make you feel good as you inhale the forest. It is not hard to use and doesn’t need a lot of instruction. Just get the hydrosol — taste it or drink small amounts occasionally (1 oz./8 oz. water) for a cold or flu, pour into the bath (no quantities needed although I like a 50•50 mix with Rosemary hydrosol) for anti-aging and relaxation, and then use it.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how it’s distilled, extracted and yields: Balsam Fir and Silver fir needles are used in steam- and hydro-distillation. Silver fir yield is .25-.35% EO while Balsam fir is 0.65% essential oil, ranging to 1.4% or higher.

Chemistry: Abies balsamea or balsam fir is a North American fir. Turpentine oil is produced from Pseudotsuga taxifolia as well as from Abies balsamea aka Canada Balsam Fir. This product is also a true turpentine because it consists of both resin and volatile oil. The chemical component is principally l-a-Pinene. Abies balsamea is Balsam Fir. It contains up to 90% Monoterpenes. It is antiseptic and antispasmodic and is inhaled for the respiratory system.

       Silver Fir oil contains alpha and beta pinene and is antiseptic if used externally or when inhaled for all respiratory needs. Burn the oil on charcoal for refreshing the air.

needle-picture-fir                                                                     

The Difference between Firs and Spruces by Jeanne Rose
FIRS = Think about Abies the genus and then A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and common name Fir is for friendly [Abies has needles that are soft to touch and aren’t sticky and the needles when pulled off leave a Flat scar].
SPRUCE = Picea and the P is for prickly and S is for Spruce is for spiky feel. [Picea for prickly needles, Peg-like scar after needle is plucked and Spruce for spiky feel]

abies-balsamea-absFir absolute (Abies balsamea)

Historical Uses and Interesting Facts:             Abies alba is “the whitewood or silver fir, and the tallest European tree growing to 350 years old. It is much grown for construction work and telegraph poles and was favored by the Greeks and Romans for building fast warships, especially for oars of triremes (as it loses its lower branches early), but since 1900 is has been attacked by aphids and is now being replaced by the (deliciously scented) Grand fir, Abies grandis. It is a source of Alsatian or Strasburg turpentine called Vosges, essential oil is used in bath preparations and medicine especially respiratory uses when inhaled and is the principal Christmas tree of the Continent.”—Mabberley.

  • balsamea is named by Linnaeus and is the balsam fir of North America. The pulp contains juvabione which is a homologue of insect juvenile hormone. (juvabione because of the ability to mimic juvenile activity in order to stifle insect reproduction and growth). This tree is used in North America for paper products and is also a source of Canada balsam which is used in microscope preparations and as a local medication and for Canada pitch.

Collective information:

  • Perfume ~ There are few ingredients in a perfume that perform so well to make a scent both soft and attracting as well as masculine as the sweet, green, conifer (deep forest) scent of the Balsam Fir Absolute. All you need to do if you want this comforting scent of the forest is to add to your basic blend. I would suggest it in the blend up to 25%, although my favorites have always been about 15%. There is something deeply relaxing and compelling about this wonderful odor.
  • Skincare
  • Haircare – I rarely use the Fir oils and balsams in my hair care although I have on occasion added a drop to shampoo along with Rosemary CT. verbenone to assist in hair health.
  • Body Care – The Fir oils are excellent to be used in all manner of skin care in amounts up to 15% of the total blend to condition the skin, add a forest scent, refresh the body in a lotion.
  • Jeanne Rose Tips for Uses:
    This is a beautiful potpourri that if made with fresh picked cuttings of conifers and bay and some nutmeg will make a wonderfully fresh-scented room deodorizer. After a few days, make an infusion of the contents and throw into the bathtub for a soothing skin bath.

fir-potpourriunknown photographer

  • Amazing Tomato Tales the Jeanne Rose stories ~

Fir Absolute Limerick
I am liking the Fir absolute
The scent is so full, resolute.
Sweet in the wood
Don’t need a hood
It is like a very sweet tasty fruit…
JeanneRose2013

Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: Always pre-dilute your absolutes to a 50•50 with a 95% neutral grape spirits before using. I only use Alchemical Solutions for my alcohol. It is organically grown from grape, cane, corn and wheat. https://organicalcohol.com/ 

Aromatherapy Blend for Relaxation
First you will need to dilute your Balsam Fir Absolute to about 50%
Then take equal quantities essential oils of Piñon Pine, Black Spruce and Atlas Cedar,
About 30 drops total and add 15 drops of the diluted Balsam Fir Absolute.
Add or reduce these oils as you wish.
Shake it up by succussion. Let it rest and use with a carrier oil for
Muscle relaxation or for inhalation for the mind.

abies-balsamea-cones-and-resin

Source: I am very fond of the needle oils including the Firs that come from Eden Botanicals

* * *

Abies grandis ~ Grand Fir, an American native tree.

            There is another Fir I would like to mention that has a lovely citrus odor and is wonderful at Christmas time and that is the Grand Fir or Christmas Fir. [fall 2001 issue of the Aromatic News]
                 This large, grand tree is Abies grandis,  the Grand Fir that lives in the coniferous forests of the Northwest as well as being used as a landscape tree in many places of the world.  Here in San Francisco, Grand Fir is used throughout the city for its shapely beauty and scent.  In Strybing Arboretum, in the Redwood Forest (which 100 years ago was a lake on the edge of the Sunset District), the Grand Fir has a prominent place.  When walking in the Redwood Forest, take along a 5 foot long hooked cane so that you can pull down a branch of this handsome tree and smell the needles. There is a conifer and citrus note to the needles that is particularly appealing.
History: Kwakwakawaku shamans wove its branches into headdresses and costumes and used the branches for scrubbing individuals in purification rites.  The Hesquiat tribes used its branches as incense and decorative clothing for wolf dancers.  Grand Fir bark was sometimes mixed with Stinging Nettles and boiled and the resulting decoction used for bathing and as a general tonic.  The Lushoot tribe boiled needles to make a medicinal tea for colds (it contains vitamin C).  The Hesquait mixed the pitch of young trees with animal oil and rubbed it on the scalp as a deodorant and to prevent baldness.
Abies alba which is the tallest European tree and lives to 350 years is much grown for construction work and telegraph poles and was favoured by the Greeks and Romans for building fast warships, especially for oars of triremes.  But since 1900 this tree has been much attacked by aphids and has been replaced by A. grandis (D. Don) Lindley (white or giant fir) from Northwest America.  This tree reaches 100 meters and was introduced into Great Britain in 1834 and grew to a height of more than 62 meters by 1989.
Current Uses: Grand Fir has that delicious holiday Christmas tree odor.  It is green and vegetative in its back note, slightly citrus in its subsidiary note and strongly coniferous in the top note.  The smell is rich and sweet and joyous.  Grand fir is used during the holiday season to scent the air and keep it fresh and airy or to aerate the sickroom. Use a mixture of 10% Grand fir to 90% water or a conifer hydrosol to spray the room and scent the air or use 50•50 Grand Fir to Rosemary or mint hydrosol water solution for refreshing the sick room.  When using at holiday time and this includes any time during the season between All-Hallows and Valentines Day, spray the tree, spray your rooms, spray the wreaths, spray the bathrooms, spritz the decorations or the furniture, to keep everything fresh and smelling good.


Perfumery and Cosmetics: Grand fir can be added as a fresh note to many different types of perfume blends. When one is traveling and comes across those nasty smelling amenities that smell of Bitter Almonds it is only Grand Fir essential oil that can be added to the shampoo or hand lotion samples that will negate the bitter almond smell and add its own delicious sweet conifer note. Grand Fir essential oil mixed with other essential oils can act either as scent or therapy to all kinds of custom skin care products. Grand Fir can also be used as an inhalant with other conifers for all types of respiratory problems and conditions.

 

* * *

 

Bibliography:
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1995
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  botANNicals. 2015
http://uptreeid.com/KeyLeafOnly/Collection1.htm
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_balsam_fir.htm
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book. Third Edition of Cambridge University Press. 2014
Miller, Richard & Ann. The Potential of Herbs as a Cash Crop. Acres USA. Kansas City. 1985.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press,
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. Herbal Studies Course, Jeanne Rose – Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies, 1992.
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and some personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

~ JR ~

Black Spruce – Profile/Hydrosol

Synopsis: Specifics on history, uses, and aroma assessment of Black Spruce including chemistry and hydrosol.

Black Spruce – Picea mariana
Essential Oil & Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose

black-spruce-tip

Name of Oil and Country of Origin:  Black Spruce, Picea mariana, of the family Pinaceae, native to Canada, especially Quebec. The name Picea is from the root word pix meaning pitch or something that produces pitch and mariana means ‘of Maryland’.

Endangered: This is a common tree species and not endangered.

Safety Precautions:      None known.

Storage: Best to store all the conifers out of the light or in light proof containers. I prefer clear glass so that I can see what the essential oils look like but then I put them in wooden boxes in a cool dry place for storage.

Organoleptic and Aroma Assessment:
Color – Colorless
Clarity – Clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity – 3-5 (depends on what you are comparing it too)
Taste – bitter, astringent

 Aroma Assessment: The scent of Black Spruce has a clean bright deliciously conifer scent, green and delicately spicy. Black Spruce is calming in that it seems you are walking through a green forest of trees but it elevates the mind and stimulates as well.

 

Method of Application:

Essential Oil Properties include uses by both AP=application, IG=ingestion and IN=inhalation): Bactericide, anti-fungal, vulnerary, disinfectant, expectorant, calmative.

By Application:   Use this great oil in antifungal creams and lotions for external skin care and use as a vulnerary* as well. When applied is can be antifungal for Candida, useful on the solar plexus for spasms or excess hiccups, and as an application around the groin for prostatitis. Also used in household cleaner.
*Vulnerary is a plant or drug used in the healing of wounds.

By Inhalation: This EO has hormone-like action, possibly stimulating to the thymus and adrenal gland, seems to have cortisone-like properties that affect the HPA axis in a positive way. It is a mild stimulant, useful expectorant especially in sequential inhalation and thought to be an adrenal stimulant, grounding in a meditation, calmative, and uplifting. Useful for bronchitis and asthma.

For Emotional Uses (AP or IN): Inhalation:  Useful for sudden fatigue and exhaustion, grounding, anxiety, stress, and deep healing for the dark side of the male, or active, principle.

By Ingestion: It can be taken with other oils as a treatment for asthma, allergies, chronic bronchitis. However, this should be under the care and guidance of a qualified aromatherapy expert.

Hydrosol Use:   This is a fragrant hydrosol, one of my favorites, that can be used in bath, compress, and particularly in steams or nasal lavage for the health of the respiratory system and for the skin. It is soothing and cleansing.

General description of plant, habitat & growth:  “A northern evergreen tree ranging from Alaska and sweeping down across Canada to the Maritime Provinces and northeastern states. The trunk grows straight and is without branches for much of its length” from Canadian Forest Tree Essence.  Leaves are steam distilled. Yield is about 1.5- 3%.

spruce-tip

The Difference between Firs and Spruces by Jeanne Rose

            FIRS = Think about Abies the genus and then A is for amiable (soft feel) or Abies and common name Fir is for friendly [Abies has needles that are soft to touch and aren’t sticky and needles when pulled leave a Flat scar].

SPRUCE = Picea and the P is for prickly and S is for Spruce is for spiky. [Picea for prickly needles, Peg-like scar after needle is plucked and Spruce for spiky feel]

 

 

Chemistry Components: 55% Monoterpenes, including Camphene, -Pinene and -3-Carene, -Bornyl acetate, and Sesquiterpenes.

black-spruce-chemistry-phytochemiawith thanks to PhytoChemia for this photo

Historical Uses:       Respiratory aide and for parasites

Interesting Facts:  Valuable for asthmatics who take corticosteroids. “It is known that Black Spruce roots were used for sewing birch bark canoes. Its resin was used as chewing gum and a poultice for sores, and the inner bark to treat a variety of other ailments” —Canadian Forest Tree Essences, p. 73.

Patch Test and Safety Considerations: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin. Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Key Use:       Respiratory ailments and as a vulnerary (a remedy used for treating wounds)

 

My Personal Recipes

  • Perfume: Spruce scent usually acts as a middle or heart note and blends well with other conifers and the tree mosses. The true tree moss is a lichen that grows on the trunks and branches of both spruces and firs in the forests in central and southern Europe. Climacium dendroides is a tree moss that grows in America but is not processed for its scent.
  • Body Care: I use Black Spruce in a particular way that I call Sequential Inhalation.

Sequential Inhalation (A Treatment)
By Jeanne Rose – 1986

There are six essential oils that I particularly like for colds and flus and include Black Spruce (stimulate the adrenal), Eucalyptus radiata (expectorant and mucolytic or liquefies the mucus in the lungs), Douglas Fir (antiseptic and disinfectant, Rosmarinus pyramidalis (sinus cleanser and relief), Ravensara aromatica (antiseptic, antiviral), and Fir Pine is Abies spp. (cleanser and respiratory tonic).

When there is any sort of respiratory congestion, it is good to inhale the essential oils in hot water.  Your mother probably taught you to do this. You will need a pot, water, essential oils and a towel. Bring two cups of water to a boil in a small pot. Bring the pot to the table. Cover your head with a towel over the pot making a tent. Now add one drop of essential oil at a time to the pot. Inhale one at a time until the scent is gone and then add the second oil. Continue until you have used all six oils. Use the oils in the sequence as given above. This will take about six minutes. Do not add more than one drop of essential oil at a time. Inhale the scent until the scent is gone (about one minute). [If you add more than one drop at a time you will probably gag and cough which is not a healthy act and not what you want.

Inhale through the mouth, exhale through the nose; then inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. Alternate throughout the procedure. This gives the essential oils a chance to cleanse both the sinus area and the throat and lungs. —using this method since 1990

 

  • Haircare: Rosemary herb and EO and Spruce EO make a wonderful treatment for the hair. Make an infusion of Rosemary herb and strain it. To a cup of the strained herb add 1-2 drops each of Black Spruce and Rosemary. This liquid can be added to your shampoo or it can be the hair rinse or in the conditioner. I believe this is what has kept my hair dark all of these years as I have used this since 1970.

 

  • Skin Care: In 2012 while in the rehab hospital after a hip transplant I acquired nasty little skin parasites from the bedding – probably the mattress. In the beginning I thought nothing of the itch but since it continued into 2013, I began to treat it. At that time, I did not know what was making me itch. But one of the best treatments I devised included Black Spruce oil. For any sort of itch this would be useful.

Skin Itch from Broken Skin Infection
Calendula Infused Oil or 70% alcohol – 2 oz.
Black Spruce – 5 drops
Chamomile, Roman – 5 drops
Lavender oil -10 drops
Tea Tree or Plai – 5 drops
This is a total of 25 drops per two ounces or about 2.5% EO/oz.
Apply the mixture to the itch and not to the entire body.
Use several times per day and not more than 5 days.
Alternate formulas with another.

 

  • An Amazing Jeanne Rose Tomato Tale stories: I love a good gin and tonic and notice that many of the local conifers are being used or infused to add an interesting spirited taste to these drinks. Also, in the northern parts of the United States Spruce tips as well as Fir tips are used in the making of various gins. Gin is an incredibly popular spirit choice no matter where in the world you are and are being experimented with both in terms of distillation methods and ingredients for many times. There are now hundreds of gins made in the world.
  • Jeanne Rose tips and tricks: Sequential inhalation of certain essential oils is one of my most important discoveries using these very powerful substances. They often seem to work better in sequence and in small amounts (no more than one drop at a time) than using several oils all at once and in larger quantities. I first wrote about “Sequential Inhalation” in 1980 and published it in “Aromatherapy Treatments” book about 10 years ago (available on my website).

black-spruce

Black Spruce – Picea mariana Essential Oil – with appreciation to Eden Botanicals

 

Source: I am very fond of the needle oils including Black Spruce that come from Eden Botanicals.

Bibliography:
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1995
http://uptreeid.com/KeyLeafOnly/Collection1.htm
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils.
Miller, Richard & Ann. The Potential of Herbs as a Cash Crop. Acres USA. Kansas City. 1985.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press,
Prakash, V. Leafy Spices. CRC Press. NY. 1990
Rizzi, Susanne. Complete Aromatherapy. Sterling. NY. 1989.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne . Herbal Studies Course, Jeanne Rose – Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies, 1992.
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, CA. New World Library, 2003.
DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and some personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

 

JR

 

 

Sandalwood EO Profile

 Sandalwood is a favorite herb, ritual incense and perfume ingredient. It is now widely cultivated but over-harvested. It has some serious healthy benefits with a woody, warm and sensuous scent that is healing to the skin. Read the history and use of this ancient plant material.

Fig. 1.Sandalwood x 2Fig. 1. Oil from 2 Sandalwood species

 Sandalwood EO & Hydrosol
By Jeanne Rose ~ August 2016

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Sandalwood or Santal from various species of Santalum.  There are many species, about 15-25, I will mention only the ones currently used and distilled for their essential oil or that I have mentioned elsewhere in this article:

  1. S. album L. — Indian sandalwood, white sandalwood, chandana (India Indonesia, northern Australia);
  2. S. austrocaledonicum (New Caledonia, Vanuatu);
  3. S. fernandezianum Phil. (Juan Fernández Islands);
  4. S. freycinetianum Gaudich. — ʻiliahi (Hawaiʻi);
  5. S. paniculatum Hook. & Arn. — ʻiliahi (Hawaiʻi);
  6. S. spicatum (R.Br.) A.DC. — Australian sandalwood (Australia);
  7. S. yasi Seem. – yasi (Fiji, Niue) Tonga- Ahi.

 Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word Santalum simply is the Sanskrit name for the tree Sandalwood. How they began to use it in the beginning I don’t think we know. Although, the aroma of the oil and the wood is esteemed by people belonging to three major religions of the world – Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. The various species names are indicative of some part of the plant; album meaning white, austrocaledonicum means coming from the Australian and Caledonian area, spicatum meaning spiked like the grains on wheat.

Family: Santalaceae

Countries of Origins: There are many Indo-Malaysian to Australian and Hawaiian species. The natural distribution of sandalwood extends from 30° N to 40° S from Indonesia in the east to Juan Fernandez Islands (Chile) in the west and from Hawaiian Archipelago in the north to New Zealand in the south. It is a small to medium-sized hemi-parasitic tree, distributed rather widely in India. S. freycinetianum Gaudich is the basis of the Hawaiian Sandalwood industry from 1791 that peaked in 1810 and the trees were exhausted by 1840. Another species S. fernandezianum F. Philippi, is rare through over-exploitation for timber by 1740 and extinct by 1916. Used for fragrant timber, especially S. album L. from India called Sandalwood is widely cultivated and used for making chests, and the distilled oil used in scent and medicine.

 Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Australia, India, Hawai`i and New Caledonia.
http://www.edenbotanicals.com/

 Endangered or Not: The sandalwood tree has now become endangered due to over-harvesting, greatly limiting supply and hence use and unfortunately, Australian sandalwood oil (Santalum spicatum) is not only in short supply but does not have quite the odor quality of East Indian Sandalwood oil due to its lower amount of beta-santalol. When you consider that in 1957 the world population was 2.8 billion and now it is about 6 billion it is pretty clear that with more people there is more demand for precious essential oils and commodities. I believe that we have to grow more but use less, for each and every one of us is responsible for the damage to the planet by over-exploitation and desire. I would like to see people not use Sandalwood for two generations and prosecute, jail, and educate the pirates that are stealing it and cutting down trees.

“In the early 19th century, Santalum paniculatum and three other Hawaiian endemic species of sandalwood were severely over-harvested for the commercial export of their fragrant heartwood. Due to the slow growth of these trees and continued human disturbance, this species is uncommon in the native forests of Hawai`i.”
http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=10201

Fig. 2.Sandalwood x10Fig. 2. Sandalwood oil courtesy of Eden Botanicals, Prima Fleur

General description of Plant habitat and growth: S. album is a tall evergreen tree with bunches of reddish yellow flowers confined to forests in southern India.  Growing at altitudes of 2,000 to 3,000 feet, the tree grows up to 60-65 feet in height and is actually a hemi-parasite plant.  The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.  The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is endangered.

            Santalum paniculatum is only found on the big island of Hawai’i, called Mountain sandalwood, it is a shrub or small tree 3 to 10 meters in height. Its greenish-blue leaves are ovate to elliptic, 2.5-8 cm long and 2-4.5 cm wide. The upper leaf surface is shiny and the lower surface glaucous (covered with a powdery coat) and they are oppositely arranged along the twigs. The flowers are sweet smelling and usually clustered at the ends of the branches. The corolla (tube of fused petals) is green in the bud, turning brown or orange to salmon after opening. Each flower is between 4 to 8 mm long and contains both male and female reproductive parts. The ovary sits below the corolla and develops into a single seeded fleshy fruit. The mature fruits are black to purple and about 1 cm long.
Regarding S. austrocaledonicum and S. yasi there is an extensive article on their growth, plant habitat and description of uses at this link that you will have to cut and paste to read as the file may look scrambled. https://raskisimani.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/santalum-sandalwood.pdf

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: This is a hemi-parasitic tree and requires one or more host plants by which it obtains nutrition through the roots. The roots attach themselves to the roots of other trees, sucking nutrients from their host and causing the other trees to perish.  The heartwood is distilled from the mature tree.  However, the tree takes 60-80 years to mature and because harvesting has exceeded the planting and maturing of fresh crop, it is becoming endangered. The heartwood is chipped and steam-distilled sometimes over another plant. Yield is 4-6.5%.

Cropwatch Tony Burfield states, “Distillation. Many customers do not realize that production of E.I. Sandalwood oil involves several stages. The first distillation of pulverized wood or milled Sandalwood sawdust is soaked 48 hours and distilled 2-3 days’ oil if carried out at a pressure of 30-40 psig, to produce the crude oil. The first 2-5% of “sandalwood terpenes” are rejected, as it contains compounds like N-fufuryl pyrrole. This compound in extremely low concentrations smells like wheat popcorn, but in higher concentrations detracts from the sandalwood odor. The terpenes fraction also contains sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as the a- and b-santalenes, which detract from the solubility of the oil in alcohol. The oil is then redistilled at 30-40 psig, again, often rejecting the first few fractions. Finally, the resulting oil is rectified. “

Aging and Storage of Sandalwood: The wood can be stored indefinitely just as other wood and other essential oils are stored in dark, lightproof, airtight containers, glass preferred. However, that being said, I have some Sandalwood chips I purchased over 40 years ago that I stored in a paper bag in the dark basement that seems just fine with the delicious warm, woody odor intact. I have also pulled out all my old samples and bottles of Sandalwood essential oil, dusty as they are and as old as they are, they are somewhat more viscous but the scent has held up over all these years.
Sandalwood ages well. The essential oil should be kept in a tightly sealed airtight container, glass, and in a cool, dark place such as a basement that has an ambient temperature of 50-55°. The refrigerator is not the place to store good Sandalwood oil.

Fig. 3.Sandalwood-ChipsFig. 3. small chips of Sandalwood

 Sandalwood Differences and how to choose: Choose the scent that pleases you best. Choose one that is sustainable. Please be conscious of the fact that many Sandalwood trees are being destroyed to satiate the desire for this oil. To choose your favorite, read this profile and then try to purchase small samples of several Sandalwood types. Smell them. What do you like the best? Woody and floral? Woody and unctuous. Smell them over the course of a few days and then purchase what works best for you. Remember that you do not need to apply this oil to obtain its benefits on the skin. Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. Read the paragraph near the end of this article. If you want a Santalol type, then do not choose the spicatum type.

Fig. 4.sandalwood spicatumFig. 4. This Sandalwood from Australia is colorless, clear and viscous
 Organoleptic Qualities of 4 Different Species of Sandalwood Fig. 5. samples-organoleptic-sandalwood copyFig. 5. 6 Courtesy of Eden Botanicals samples of Sandalwood.

The right nostril processes navigational related odors. And people favor the right nostril when detecting and evaluating the intensity of odors. So if you are lost, sniff the air with the right side to get home and if you wish to know how intense something smells, smell with the right side as well. Left nostril smells the scent and right side nostril smells the intensity.

Smell left, smell right and then waft to get the entire scent experience.

Fig. 6.Oval six SandalwoodFig. 6. Sampling 6 different Eden Botanicals Sandalwood oils ~ note the color differences

 Odor Assessment: All the Sandalwoods I examined (10) were smooth and unctuous and were predominantly woody; with various subsidiary notes. S. album was evocative of the scent that I knew 50-some years ago, woody and floral. S. austrocaledonicum was the most like S. album but a wee bit more intense. S. paniculatum was woody, herbal, floral. S. spicatum had a slight floral subsidiary note and another S. spicatum had a slight sour back note.

 General Properties:
Australian Sandalwood was used both orally and externally against UTI and gonorrhea, more effective against Candida than Tea Tree oil, useful for many skin diseases such as acne and tinea, inhaled for calming or for the respiratory system and used as an exciting perfume addition.

Properties and Uses: Usually Sandalwood is of the East Indian type of fragrant Sandalwood Tree but we now have others. From Australia is Santalum spicatum R. Br. produced from the heartwood & rootball by solvent extraction and then the concrète is Steam-Distilled —USES have been both oral and external against UTI and gonorrhea, and more effective against Candida than Tea Tree oil and useful for many skin diseases such as acne and tinea; it is inhaled for calming or for the respiratory system and used as an exciting perfume addition.
All other Sandalwoods are having somewhat the same uses.

Application/ Skincare: Hawaiian Sandalwood, leaves and bark called `iliahi were used to treat dandruff and hair nits by early Hawaiians. Hawaiian healers are also reported to have used wood shavings in a maceration and application of `iliahi to treat venereal disease and skin sores. Our Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. This data indicates that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. So you don’t have to actually use it, just smell it. Isn’t that wonderful? We don’t have to actually use this over-harvested plant but we can just inhale the scent.

Diffuse/Diffusion: You can blend any Sandalwood with other fragrant oils and diffuse for a soft meditative blend that is mentally soothing and calming.

 Emotional/Energetic Use: Ritually used in meditation, Sandalwood is calming and uplifting and helpful in overall well-being. Both stimulating and grounding, Sandalwood is used in meditation for opening the Third Eye. According to Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the sandalwood tree (Brahma Vaivarta Purana)

Which Sandalwood is best and which is the most therapeutic? The most therapeutic of these various Sandalwoods is the one that you enjoy more than the others. If you can inhale one with a significant amount of santalol — enjoy the benefits, then that is what I would suggest. If you want a deodorant type, use the Australian Sandalwood, if you want the meditative one used for 5000 years then occasionally make use of the E.I. Sandalwood type. Learn what you really want and then find the right species to use.

 Key Use: Oil of Meditation and of Fatigue

Chemical Components: See Bojensen reference at end.

Fig. 7. Santalol copyFig. 7. Alpha-santalol and Beta-santalol

 Physicohemical Properties of Santalum album: (the properties that relate to both the physical and chemical aspects). These numbers are from 1950 when the Sandalwood was authentic and carefully grown and harvested. The closer your numbers are to these the better your oil probably is.

Fig. 8. Physico- Sandalwood copy

Fig. 8. Physicochemical Properties of S. album

 

Comparison of Main Components: Which Sandalwood has the most santalol and is this important? Recent studies have shown that no recently tested Sandalwood oil reached the desired expectation of santalol and that a reevaluation needs to be made of this oil.
Hawaiian sandalwood oil produced from wood of Santalum paniculatum originating from the island of Hawai`i (“The Big Island”) were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Main constituents of the oils were (Z)-α-santalol (34.5-40.4%) and (Z)-β-santalol (11.0-16.2%).
Trade and historic oils from ‘sandalwoods’, labelled as Amyris balsamifera, Eremophila mitchelli, Fusanus acuminatus (= Santalum acuminatum), Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, S. latifolium, S. spicatum and S. yasi, were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using GC-MS, none of the oils assessed complied with the internationally recognized standard of a 90% santalol content, and only about half of the trade sandalwood oils met with recent International Organization for Standardization standards. The majority of trade oils, reportedly from S. album, contained approximately 50-70% santalols (Z-alpha and Z-beta). Thus, the internationally recognized specification (90% santalols) for S. album requires re-evaluation by more efficient analysis methods. In view of the issues associated with the quality of sandalwood oils being traded, specifications of > or = 43% Z-alpha-santalol and > or = 18% Z-beta-santalol for S. album oil estimated by GC-MS are suggested. GC-MS are recommended as it assists with authentication and quality control issues associated with sandalwood oils. — J Chromatogr A. 2004 Mar 5;1028(2):307-12. Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by GC/MS Howes, MJ, Simmonds MS, Kite GC.

Evolva is making Sandalwood santalol by fermentation as a replacement for Sandalwood oil in formulations. They say, “Sandalwood oil primarily consists of a number of sesquiterpenoids, with alpha-santalol and beta-santalol comprising around 80%. Beta-santalol is the most important character impact compound, but is economically non-feasible to chemically synthesize.” Australian Sandalwood does not contain beta-Santalol.

Blends Best with: This wonderful soft, sweet-woody and delicately animal-balsamic odor has been used for thousands of years and it has been one of perfumery’s most precious items. It forms the basis of heavy Oriental compositions, and creates delightful combinations with Bergamot, Clove, Lavender, Rose, Tuberose and and so much more of the fragrant materials. It blends well with all florals and other woody scents.

 HYDROSOL: To date, I have only seen four analysis of this product and have not seen an analysis offered by any company with their sales. (I am hopeful this will change in the future) And the price differential is amazing. One site lists 4 oz. for $6 while two other sites list 2 oz. of Sandalwood hydrosol at about $7.00 and with no obvious analysis or Latin binomial it seems that something other than Sandalwood is being sold. Other companies list 2 oz. at $14-$24, also with no obvious analysis. The analysis from Ann Harman fine book, Harvest to Hydrosol shows Hawaiian Sandalwood (S. paniculatum) with about 7% santalol types and 30% furfuraldehyde.
Because no analysis and usually no Latin binomial comes with the hydrosols, at this point I probably would not purchase a Sandalwood hydrosol. I would use the EO with care and discretion and use another hydrosol as a spray or mist for skin care and skin health.

 PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. And as Ann Harman says, “I find that distilling for a quality hydrosol takes longer than distilling for the essential oil.”

 Historical Uses: “For more than 5000 years, India has been the traditional leader of sandalwood oil production for perfumery and pharmaceuticals. The aroma of the oil and the wood is esteemed by people belonging to three major religions of the world – Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. According to Vamana Purana, the wood is recommended for worshipping God Shiva. Goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in the sandalwood tree (Brahma Vaivarta Purana). The ancient Egyptians imported the wood and used it in medicine, for embalming the dead and in ritual burning to venerate the gods.” — Current Science, Vol. 103, No. 12, 25 December 2012

 Interesting Information: It is customary in certain communities among the Hindus to put a piece of sandalwood in the funeral pyre. The beige-colored paste of sandalwood is applied on the forehead and other body parts, especially by devotees of God Krishna (Vaishna-vites) and for ritual bathing of Hindu gods.

 Contraindications: Individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Sandalwood or its constituents should avoid using the oil, as there are reports of Sandalwood causing dermatitis, and Sandalwood oil causing photo-allergy. But there are very few reports of Sandalwood side effects — of the available literature, a few cases of the allergic reactions mentioned above.

 Safety Precautions: Sandalwood from India has been in use for 5000 years and yet there is little or no evidence of efficacy. Exposure to this oil and herb is of very minor concern.

 Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 References and Bibliography:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Askinson, George. Perfumes and Cosmetics. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 1915
Cooley, Arnold J. Complete Practical Treatise on Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia. 1874.
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Oregon. 1995
Deite, Dr. C. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Philadelphia, 1892.
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida. 1949 reprint 1974.
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
http://www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils27/EssentialOils27.htm
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Kumar, A. N. Arun *, Geeta Joshi and H. Y. Mohan Ram. Sandalwood: history, uses, present status and the future. Current Science, Vol. 103, No. 12, 25 December 2012
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, CA.,
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. In spiral bound format from Jeanne Rose from a 1972 1st Editor
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Guide to Food. North Atlantic Books. 1979.
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery. San Francisco, Ca. 2014

 Scientific Data: Olfactory receptors in the skin: Sandalwood scent facilitates wound healing, skin regeneration ~ Date: July 8, 2014. Source:Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum
Summary: Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. This data indicates that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics.
Story: Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, as researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered. Their data indicate that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. The team headed by Dr. Daniela Busse and Prof Dr med habil Hanns Hatt from the Department for Cellphysiology published their report in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

        The nose is not the only place where olfactory receptors occur. Humans have approximately 350 different types of olfactory receptors in the nose. The function of those receptors has also been shown to exist in, for example spermatozoa, the prostate, the intestine and the kidneys. The team from Bochum has now discovered them in keratinocytes — cells that form the outermost layer of the skin.

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

Do not Ingest Essential Oils

Following this post are individual posts on Australian, Hawaiian and East Indian Sandalwood.
See http://jeanne-blog.com/east-indian-sandalwood-eo-profile/

Fig. 9.Sandalwood-no backgroundFig. 9. ~ 6 Sandalwood types

 Jeanne Rose Formulas and Recipes for Sandalwood

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO and Herb: I have used various iterations of this herb and oil for 45 years. I loved it as a scent for my daughter to focus upon when she was a baby 52 years ago and I used it in potpourri and sachet when I had a cosmetic company (New Age Creations) and then again in perfumery. When I realized some years ago that it was in trouble ecologically I stopped using both herb and oil. Now I find myself occasionally using Australian or Hawaiian types of Sandalwood if I am positive they are sustainably grown and harvested.

Jeanne Rose uses this EO as little as possible because of the possibility of it being overexploited in the market place.

Sandalwood for a UTI. I have a very specific formula that has worked for me for mild UTI infections (urinary tract infections). In an herbal capsule of Marshmallow root add 2 drops of E.I. Sandalwood and 2 drops of Grand Fir (Abies grandis). Take a capsule 3-4 times per day, one every 4-6 hours; as well as using herbal dietary methods and fluids that include Cranberry juice and lots of water. [full treatment program is in the Aromatherapy Treatmentsbook.

Recipe by Jeanne Rose for an Underarm Deodorant. Sweat is essentially odorless, but acts as a culture medium for bacteria and that can produce unpleasant smells

Sandalwood Deodorant.
I have experimented with this oil and found a simple and easy Deodorant formula. First, I add a bit of Blue Cypress to the Australian Sandalwood oil (5% to 95%). This deepens the scent and gives it an invisible deeper woody odor. Then I add 95% neutral grape spirits to 5-10% of this essential oil blend. And don’t worry about the alcohol in the formula, alcohol also kills bacteria and you only use a short spray under each armpit (less than a drop), this kills the odor causing bacteria.

Formula:
In a 100 ml bottle (3.5 to 4 oz.) with a spray top
190 drops of Sandalwood oil
10 drops of Blue Cypress
This is about 6 ml. total
Fill the bottle with 95% neutral grape spirits (do not use vodka unless it is 150°, do not use rubbing alcohol, use only real neutral grain or grape spirits (Everclear works also)). Shake well.
The essential oils are at 5-6% and you may  increase up to 8% depending on the level of scent that you want. At 5-6%, this formula kills the human body odor, leaving little to no odor of itself behind. Only a short spray is used after bathing.

Formula for Incense using the herb and the oil

ECCLESIASTICAL INCENSE (from an old book)
That used by the Catholic Church is Frankincense, however, it must be burned on Charcoal. The Catholic Church has rigid specifications as to the Incenses used in its Church. No aromatic or synthetics may be used. There are occasions when some churches will use an Incense containing other ingredients than plain Frankincense. As an example, an addition of Myrrh and Benzoin, Sandalwood or Cinnamon.

 Sandalwood Incense for Charcoal — Herbs & Things p. 251
Mix together the following herbs: 4 oz. rasped or scraped Santal that you have added 10 drops of Sandalwood oil too; add this to 2 oz. gum Benzoin or Storax, 2 oz. ground Cascarilla or Cinnamon bark, ½ oz. Vetiver [cut & sifted or CS], 1 oz. potassium nitrate, and ½ oz. Balsam of Tolu (must be powdered and evenly incorporated throughout the mixture) — make sure that the resins do not clump up. Add 10 more drops of Sandalwood oil. Shake and mix and stir and store in a 16 oz. dark lightproof jar. The incense is ready anytime after 30 days. Drop a little on some burning charcoal. If your karma is really working for you, you won’t even need the charcoal; it will burn after being lit with a match. This is a lovely scent and good for meditation.

 Rose and Santal wood Sachet Powder
“Mix together 1 lb. of Rose petals and ½ lb. of finely rasped Santal wood. Add ½ oz. oil of any Rose.” —from Perfumes and Cosmetics by George Askinson 1909.
Put in an airtight container and let this age for a few weeks. Then bag in small linen bags (that hold about ½ oz. of the product) and store this in an airtight container. The scent should last for years if made well.

Blending/Perfumery with formula: There are simply dozens of beautiful formulas that incorporate Sandalwood in the formula. Since it works so well with Rose and Clove those are always go-to formulas. Here is one I made for my daughter Amber Rose as Sandalwood has been her favorite since she was a baby.

 Fig. 10. Lovely perfume

Fig. 10. A Lovely Perfume

 

AMBER & SANDALWOOD IN A LOVELY PERFUME
It is March 2003 but I find this note from 20 years ago by the electric Selectric,
When did I write these words, 1983? I don’t know. I just remember that when I was pregnant I found the note and that I had wanted to see if Amber would remember a favorite scent. So I had Sandalwood oil and herb and Sandalwood fans and also a Sandalwood box that I kept mementos in. These I gave to her and let her use; I kept Sandalwood scented paper in her clothing drawers. I wrote down the recollections in her baby book.

Amber’s Scent from 1964/65
Amber smells the Sandalwood that I have saved all these years.
She says, “It smells safe, a happy scent.”
It reminds her of when she was young.
It is woodsy and sweet.
She loves the scent, especially in intimate apparel —
So, familiar this scent of Sandalwood.
It smells friendly.
It smells feather bed, — clean
Crisp Sheets.  She likes this.
“Sandalwood reminds me of childhood,” she says,
Amber has always liked Sandalwood.

 

JR

 

I love Amber — she is my child!

 

Fig. 11. Sandalwood and oil

Fig. 11. Wood and oil

 

Sage EO Profile

Sage Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol Profile
By Jeanne Rose ~ 7-30-16

Sage Oil Synopsis: Including the organoleptic and physiochemical properties, history, naming, properties and uses and background, and Jeanne Rose personal recipes and formulas.


Sage EO-plantphoto by Jeanne Rose ~ essential oil courtesy Eden Botanicals

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Sage is the general name for the herbs of the Salvia species, all of which are native of southern Europe and the Western Mediterranean. Common sage also called Dalmatian Sage, Salvia officinalis L., is a perennial herb of the Labiatae/Lamiaceae family and is now produced worldwide.

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Sage was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The name salvus means safe and refers to the medicinal properties while officinalis means it was sold or used as a medicinal herb.

Family: Labiatae now called Lamiaceae are a family of flowering plants. The plants are frequently aromatic in all parts and include many widely used culinary herbs, such as Basil, Mint, Rosemary, Sage, Savory and Thyme.

Countries of Origins: Sage is the general name for the herbs of the Salvia species, all of which are native of
southern Europe and the Western Mediterranean. Originally, harvested in the Dalmatian Islands and nearby coast (now part of Croatia), Sage is grown easily in many areas.

Harvest Location: Bulgaria for Eden Botanicals and grown and distilled by many other countries in Europe.

Endangered or Not: The population is stable and is of least concern.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Perennial evergreen herb (shrub), with woody stems and grayish leaves and blue to purple flowers. It is a Mediterranean native plant but has been naturalized throughout the world. This herb has a long historical medicinal and culinary usage. Cultivars vary in size and leaf type with various colors of leaf and flower and also variegated leaves. The original Sage grows to about 2 feet, flowers in late spring or summer. The leaves can range in size from 2.5 inches and up to 1 inch wide.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The leaves of the young plants picked before flowering are either steam-distilled or CO2 extracted.  Yield 1.4%±. This oil is often adulterated with naturally occurring thujone and the adulteration may be hard to detect.

The leaves are used fresh or dried, whole or chopped, for foods and culinary teas and flavorings.

Sage CO2Sage CO2 courtesy Prima Fleur

Historical Uses: The herb has been in use for thousands of years, specifically in baths to ease muscle aches and pains and to cleanse smelly feet; in food to camouflage slightly putrefying meat; as a tea to drink for headache; as an infusion to use on the hair to keep it black or gargle for sore throat or mouthwash. In 1873, Sage was used with the toxic/poisonous compounds of lead and cantharides (from Lytta vesicatoria or Spanish fly as a rubefacient) with glycerin as a hair restorer. During WWI Sage oil was mostly used in field hospitals.

Interesting Information: Extracts of the herb Sage with Rosemary herb (as tea) can enhance memory and cognitive performance comparable to the effect of the caffeine found in tea and coffee.

Organoleptic Characteristic:

Sage Organoleptic x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Odor Description/Aroma Assessment: Sage oil has a camphoraceous, thujone-like aroma and is used in the fragrance industry. The oil is very aromatic with a distinct herbaceous, camphoraceous, and spicy scent.

General Properties: Leaves are used, usually dried, in cooking although often adulterated with Salvia fructicosa called Greek Sage or Greek Oregano. It is an antioxidant, folk remedy, and medicine for heart disease (in Crete), included in cheese (such as Derby cheese in the UK), formerly used as a medicine and cleaning teeth, in local drinks (in Cyprus), with the flavor having to due with terpineol and often thujone. —Mabberley’s Plant-Book.

Properties and Uses: The herb Sage tea was drunk as a bactericide, tonic, nervine, calmative, antiseptic, emmenagogue, and antisudorific. Due to the presence of thujone, it is not recommended that the essential oil and large quantities of the herb tea be taken.
Sage oil has been used by ingestion, inhalation and application.

The essential oil is used by Inhalation as an antidepressant, nervine, and  some say an adrenal cortex stimulant.
By application the EO is astringent, antiseptic, lipolytic, antifungal, and used in anti-cellulite and antifungal creams, and antibacterial for specific bacteria, such as staph’, strep’ and pseudomonas bacteria.

         Physical Uses: Ingestion:  “The herb tea is used internally as a tonic, as a general stimulant to the nervous system and adrenal cortex, as a calmative, it is antiseptic, stops sweating and lactation, encourages menses, has a restorative effect on the body, is used to reduce night sweats, can be taken during menopause and is indicated for all kinds of illness” 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p. 134.

Application: Sage oil in a dilution of  (99 parts carrier to 1 part oil) can be used in mouth rinse, vaginal rinse, and anal rinse and is applied to insect bites and stings, some say it is used for insufficient gall bladder and liver output. It is an emmenagogue, a powerful antifungal against Candida, is used on herpes, and in a massage oil for bad circulation, and in skin care products to reduce oily secretions.  It is a great, fragrant disinfectant.
Applied in a diluted rate of 75•25 (vinegar to oil)  blend with vinegar and rubbed on feet after sports exercises, it kills athlete’s foot fungus.
Both Sage tea as a tea and Sage oil inhaled alleviate the hot flashes of menopause and aids breathing for asthma as well.  However, too much inhalation can sometimes cause vertigo.

         Application/Skincare (formula at end) True Sage oil has dextrorotation while others have laevorotation.  “Many prominent aromatherapy authorities consider that Sage should never be used at all.  I believe it can be used in moderation especially in massage blends for aching muscles and muscular pain”, 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p. 137.

Do not use Sage oil in the underarm area or delicate areas of the body.

Diffuse/Diffusion: Sage oil can be used in blends in a diffuser. Allow it to be only 2% of the total of the EO blend.

Emotional/Energetic Use: The herb is used or the scent of the EO inhaled for wisdom, energy and for great esteem. “Inhaled the oil is antidepressant (although too strong for many), sometimes uplifting (depressing for some), and useful for mental strain, too much book-work and mental exhaustion.  When any oil is inhaled through the diffuser or via a pot of boiling water, it enters the mucous membrane of the nasal mucosa, is absorbed into the blood circulation and affects the entire body and mind” 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p. 134. Use this oil only in dilutions.

Blending and Perfumery: Dalmatian Sage oil is used for its powerful intense odor with good tenacity. In can be used as part of the top note or the heart note. The dry-down is herbaceous and pleasant.

Blends Best with: Citrus, Lavender particularly Lavandin, Rosemary, Rosewood and especially other Mediterranean scents. It produces sweet fresh qualities for Fern blends, Chypres types and colognes especially for men’s products.

SAGE EO-plant soft edge

Sage oil courtesy of Eden Botanicals

 Chemical Components: The essential oil (1 to 2.5%) is composed rather differently in different species and varieties of sage. “Dalmatian sage” (S. officinalis ssp. minor) contains mostly thujone (35 to 60%), 1,8-cineol (15%), camphor (18%), borneol (16%), bornyl esters, α-pinene and salvene.  “Spanish sage” (ssp. lavandulifolia) lacks thujone, but contains more cineol (29%) and camphor (34%); this subspecies is regarded as inferior. Its leaves lack the bitter diterpene carnosol (see hyssop).   And there is Mexican bush sage, Salvia leucantha and fructicosa, Salvia dorisiana as well as Greek sage (S. triloba) which is more strongly aromatic, but generally not accepted as a legitimate spice (at least, outside Greece). This species has an interesting, yet less subtle fragrance. The essential oil is dominated by cineol (64%) and contains small amounts of thujone (5%) and camphor (8%), but hardly any borneol. This species is furthermore characterized by a flavone called salvigenin, by which adulterations of S. officinalis with S. triloba can be detected. Carnosol is found in Sage. It is a phenolic diterpene found in the Mediterranean herbs Rosemary and Mountain desert sage. It has been studied in-vitro for anti-cancer effects in various cancer cell types.

Sage Physiochemical

 

 

 

 

Sage EO gland x4 copy

HYDROSOL: Salvia officinalis – Hydrosol • Historically, Sage water from Salvia officinalis was mentioned in 1874 as being used the same as Lavender water. (see Cooley, p. 651)   The hydrosol is very close in odor to the herb. This hydrosol is slightly astringent and good as a cleansing spray for oily or normal skin. It can be used as a facial spray for oily and acne-prone facial skin or on the body, particularly in dilution on the underarms and very personal areas to reduce odor. As a deodorant it works well with a preapplication of an Australian Sandalwood and alcohol mixture (10%•90%). The hydrosol I looked at and analyzed was from Provence, France ~ very nice and very fragrant of the herb.

As an insect spray add Eucalyptus citriodora and Peppermint essential oils to the Sage Hydrosol. In a massage and mist applications, it is considered a circulatory stimulant. It may help balance the hormones and autonomic nervous system and may be helpful in easing the symptoms of menopause, PMS and menstrual cramps. There is a suggestion that when Sage Hydrosol is applied at the onset of swollen lymph nodes, it can help reduce the swelling (but the person is not specific as to how this is applied).
Len and Shirley Price report that the Sage Hydrosol that they analyzed consists of 50-55% eucalyptol, 37-55% ketones and 5-6% alcohols and possesses the following properties: “analgesic, anticoagulant, antiinfectious, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, bactericidal, calming, cicatrizing, decongestant, digestive, expectorant, lipolytic, mucolytic, sedative, stimulant”. A drink of the Sage hydrosol can help reduce excessive sweating. (1 t./8 oz. water).

Sage Hydrosol
Sage Hydrosol and Plant
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Key Use: The Oil of Drying.

Contradictions: Know what you are using as some species of Sage contain thujone, which can affect the nervous system. Extended use or taking large amounts of Sage leaf or oil may result in restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, rapid heart rate, tremors, seizures, and kidney damage. It also may lead to wheezing. Ingesting 12 drops or more of the essential oil is considered a toxic dose.

Do not Ingest essential oils: Although Sage oil is one of the most important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use it yourself either in capsules or honey to take internally.

Safety Precautions: Do not apply this essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that Sage not be used at all. However, as with many Mediterranean plants, its chemistry is subject to change depending on species and terroir.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 Sage References:
Askinson, George. Perfumes and Cosmetics. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 1915
Cooley, Arnold J. Complete Practical Treatise on Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia. 1874.
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Oregon. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida. 1949 reprint 1974.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

Bibliography

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Deite, Dr. C. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Philadelphia, 1892.
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, CA.,
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. In spiral bound format from Jeanne Rose from a 1972 1st Editor
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Guide to Food. North Atlantic Books. 1979.
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery. San Francisco, Ca. 2014

Scientific Data: The oil of Salvia officinalis is also known for its medicinal-biological activities, such as antimicrobial and fungicidal effects (Carta et al., 1996; Edris et al., 2007; Barlcevic et al., 2000).

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©
Sage bunch
Sage plant from Eatwell Farm photo by Jeanne Rose

SAGE USES AND RECIPES BY JEANNE ROSE

Experience with this EO and Herb: When I first started using herbs and essential oils about 50 years ago I mainly used herb Sage for tea, coughs and colds, or sore throat gargle and the essential oil mainly for sports injuries as a massage with other oils for aching muscles. Now I prefer the EO diluted and as an inhalant because it reminds me to think healthy thoughts ~ it is a visionary odor of the garden.

Foot Soak & Plaster

Soak: For a good hot soak, use ½-cup to 1-cup of Epsom salts in enough water to cover your feet plus 6 to 10 drops of essential oil to reduce pain and edema. I am particularly fond of antiperspirant analgesic oils such as Sage, Juniper Berry, Cypress and Lemon. Essential oils that reduce pain can also be used in this soaking water such as Frankincense and Rosemary.

Herbal Foot Soak: Make a strong infusion of herbs that you have including Rosemary, Sage, Comfrey and whatever else looks good in your garden. Strain out the herbs and use the herbs as a plaster to wrap around foot holding in place with a linen or cloth. Put feet into a hot infusion for 20 minutes. After squeeze the fluid out of the plaster, wrap feet in a dry towel to keep warm for another 20 minutes. Remove plaster, dry feet, and massage. — SPA Book by Jeanne Rose

Sage Aftershave Spray
Infuse ½ oz. of herb Sage and Rosemary combination into 1-cup of Apple cider vinegar for a week. Strain out the herbs. Add an equal quantity of Witch Hazel extract or hydrosol or Rose hydrosol. Add up to 5 drops of Sage essential oil. Put into a spray bottle. Shake thoroughly before each usage.

Jeanne Rose uses this EO for Application with other oils for aching muscles and joints. A good combination is Sage oil mixed equally with Basil EO, Cypress oil and Juniper berry EO and then 75% Bruise Juice.

Aching Muscle Massage Oil
Make an herbal infusion of Sage leaves, Rosemary leaves and Basil in Olive Oil or the oil of your choosing. You can use the methods outlined in the Jeanne Rose Herbal Body Book on page 324-329. Make at least 2 cups to 1 quart of the oil infusion. To every quart of the strained herbal infused oil add up to ¼ oz. of essential oil (2.5% EO). My favorite combination is equal amounts of Basil, Rosemary and Sage essential oil. Very comforting, very relaxing.

 

Culinary Recipe by Jeanne Rose.

Delicious & Simple Turkey Stuffing
2 oz. butter
1 Onion, chopped
2 stalks Celery with tops, finely sliced
1 sweet Red Bell Pepper, chopped
1-2 T (tablespoon measure) Olive oil
½ cup coarsely chopped or sliced Mushrooms
2 T (tablespoon measure) fresh Sage, coarsely chopped
½ cup Parsley, chopped
¼ cup wheat germ (optional)
½ lb. whole wheat bread croutons (toasted)
salt, soy sauce, optional

Sauté in the butter the Onions, Celery, Garlic, and Bell Peppers. In another pan, sauté Mushrooms in the olive oil. Combine the two pans and add the Sage, Parsley, Wheat germ, and croutons.  Add salt if you like, and maybe some Soy sauce. Give it a few good stirs with a large wooden spoon. Lightly spoon the stuffing into the cavity of the turkey and bake or put into an oven-proof pan with some of the turkey fat and cook. —from Jeanne Rose Herbal Guide to Food.

Blending with formula:

Mediterranean Cologne

Eau de cologne is normally about 75% alcohol, 25% water + 5% EO blend. When I speak of alcohol I am discussing 95% neutral grape or grain spirit. If you cannot get this, then use ‘Everclear’ at 75% which already is 25% water. Then you will just need to add the essential oil blend. Any blend will do. But for Sage then additions already mentioned such as a sweet Lavender, Rosewood, maybe Australian Sandalwood, Violet leaf and the like would be appropriate. Try the following: Make a blend of 5 drops each of Sage, Clary Sage and Lavender. This is 15 drops total. Add this to 1 oz. of 75% alcohol and succuss (shake) vigorously. Put into a spray bottle and shake the bottle before each use. Spray on wrists, back of neck. [to 95 drops of the 75% alcohol add 5 drops of the EO blend].

 

Sage Limerick
Sage oil is useful for the bruise
It should be used on your cruise
To states far and wide
And wherever you ride
Sage oil will make you enthused.—JeanneRose2014.

JR

 

Sage 2-leaf

Sage oval

 

 

 

A Hydrosol Story

A Hydrosol Story ~ Drinking Rose Geranium oil

By Jeanne RoseRose Geranium-hydrosol copy 2

           Several years ago I was being televised and interviewed live, in my home, regarding aromatherapy and hydrosols. I had a number of show-and-tell items in front of me and our interview was going along quite nicely. I had a glass full of water and an identical glass full of Rose geranium hydrosol to show that the hydrosol is colorless and clear just like water. I had not as yet mentioned to the interviewer that when I distill I do not remove the small amount of essential oil that is present, so that the glass of hydrosol I was discussing actually had a thin layer of essential oil on it.  During the interview, I reached for the glass of water and took a drink and immediately knew I had made a mistake. With my mouth quite full of the very strong floral hydrosol and essential oil, I could only swallow  so as not to interfere with the interview, inwardly trying not to gag and hoping that Rose Geranium was truly the ‘oil of beauty’ and would not kill me. I continued with the interview all the while exhaling the scent of Rose Geranium. It was a shocking and not a planned experience. Later on, I kept an account of my symptoms which were that I got slightly sleepy, my hot flashes diminished and my body and secretions all took on the odor of Rose Geranium and I had a mild stomach ache.

However, please know that I do not recommend drinking essential oils or undiluted hydrosol. These are very powerful products, that will collect in the liver to be metabolized and may cause serious side effects to the organs and the mucous membranes of the body. If ingested, they can also cause extreme harm as they are so concentrated. Remember to label all your products  —JeanneRose 1995

 

JR

Red Cedar, Cedar-wood (Virginia Cedar)

EO Profile • Name of Oil:  Cedar-wood (Virginia Cedar)

by Jeanne Rose 6-30-16

A Profile of Juniper Cedar ~ Confused with a true Cedar, these two plants are physically and chemically unalike. Know them correctly.

Juniper Cedar-EO

Latin Binomial/Botanical Family:   Juniperus virginiana, Family Cupressaceae

This EO is often confused with the true Cedar of the genus Cedrus or confused with Thuja plicata, the Pacific red-cedar . These are physically and chemically unlike and should be known by their correct names, both common and Latin binomials. Red-Cedar or Virginia Cedar contains mainly cedrene while true Cedar contains cedrol and atlantone.

Countries of Origin of Juniperus virginiana: Northeastern North America. Southwest Maine, west to Northern New York, Southern Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, to Southwest North Dakota, south to West Kansas, Oklahoma to Central Texas, and east to Georgia, the most widespread and common juniper in the eastern US. [USDA data].  Juniperus virginiana or Eastern Red-Cedar or Cedar-wood (note the dash that keeps it separate from true Cedars) is an indigenous species native to the eastern North America. Lakota call it Chansha, “redwood” or Hante’. It belongs to the Cupressaceae family and not the Pinaceae family.

General description of plant, habitat & growth: Tree with some needle-like leaves and some with scale-like ones at maturity; females with cones with 3-8 fleshy coalescing scales becoming berry-like. A timber tree or a cultivated ornamental with flavoring and medicinal uses.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods & yield:  The wood chips and sawdust are steam distilled.  Yield: 1.06 to 3.44% based on fresh material weight. [American Journal of  Environmental Science 1 (2): 133-138, 2005]

organoleptic characteristics, J. virginiana

Chemical Components:            Oil from the leaves contains borneol, cadinene, d-limonene, and a-pinene (Guenther, 1948-1952). Hager’s Handbuch adds sabinene, g-terpinene, elemoacetate, 3-carene, myrcene, 4-terpineol, citronellol, elemol, eudesmol, estragole, safrole, methyl eugenol, elemicine, traces of thujene, cymene, and linalool (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). The Cedarwood oil contains ca 80% cedrene, some cedrol and pseudocedrol, and cedrenol. Juniperus virginiana contains the poisonous antitumor compound called podophyllotoxin (Lewis and Elvin-Lewis, 1977). — https://www.hort.purdue.edu/

Juniper cedar oil copyJuniperus virginiana ~ Red Cedar Oil from Eden Botanicals

Historical Uses:   Important local medicine, wood is used for insect-proof chests and Cedar-balls placed among clothes, oil used for scenting soap and in aromatherapy.

Interesting Facts:            “Repellant to insects. Native Americans use American-cedar as medicine and burn it for purification”. Also called the pencil-cedar. The wood is used in furniture as it is rot resistant and the essential oil distilled from the wood chips, twigs and leaves. The pollen is an allergen.

Properties EO (by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application):  Inhalation: Tonic to the respiratory system.  Application:  Arterial regenerative, lymphatic tonic, antiseptic, fungicide, tonic, anti-seborrheic, and regenerative.

          Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP) EO: Ingestion: Urinary infections. Application: It is used for arteriosclerosis, the retention of fluid in the tissue (edema), cellulite reduction, and in skin care for reducing oily secretions.  It is also used for  cleansing, as a general tonic, acne, rheumatism, cystitis, and scalp disorder. Cedarwood is used by application and inhalation for chest infections and asthma. The EO is used as an astringent compress or as an application in skin care or for varicosities of one sort and another.

          Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN):
Inhalation:  Considered to be calming. However, in my experience the odor is so evocative of the traditional cedar chest in which are contained old memories that for me it seems more conducive to reflection. Energetically this EO is often used to ‘clear’ negative energy.

 DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION: Diffuse to clear the air of a musty room or house. Can be blended with citrus and other oils.

BLENDING: This oil can be used in any woodsy scent where a spicy note is desired. Try it with Benzoin, cypress, Frankincense, Galbanum, Juniper berry, Oakmoss, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, vetiver and the like. It has a spicy fixative effect in blends when used in perfumery.

HYDROSOL: The hydrosol of Virginia cedar will help rid your home of ants, even fire ants. Just spray on the walls and around the baseboards or wherever you see ant trails.

Juniper cedar hydrosol copyJuniperus virginiana hydrosol

 

PERFUMERY FORMULA ~ Russian Leather
2 ounces Labdanum absolute
2 ounce Choya Loban (cedarwood based)
1/4th ounce Birch Tar Essential oil
1 ounce Virgina cedar-wood
1/2 ounce Tonka Bean Absolute

Mix these oils together. Succuss vigorously. And let them age for a few weeks. Then dilute or not as you wish. To scent leather goods, place a few drops of the scent on a cotton ball and envelop the ball in a piece of fabric. Then put this in an airtight container with the leather or gloves you wish to scent. Leave for another few weeks and finally, you will have leather or gloves that will have the odor of “Russian Leather”. Umm! Very nice.

 

Key Use: The EO is used as an astringent compress or application in skin care or for varicosities of one sort and another.

Safety Precautions: Be certain of what you are using. Both oils, called Cedar oil are used in repelling vermin in the storage of valuables, but the oil should not directly touch the garments.  Cedrus atlantica is a true cedar, whereas Juniperus virginiana contains mostly Cederene.  Even though they have the same common name, and although they both repel vermin, they are not used identically otherwise.  So, be absolutely certain of which oil you are using.

Do not use on pregnant women. May be sensitizing.

SCIENTIFIC DATA: J Med Food. 2013 Jan;16(1):48-55. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2472. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz. — Tumen I1, Süntar I, Eller FJ, Keleş H, Akkol EK.

Abstract

Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that in the traditional medicines worldwide, several Juniperus species are utilized as anthelmintic*, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, stomachic, antirheumatic, antifungal, and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook. and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz were evaluated for wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities by using in vivo experimental methods. The essential oils were obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method. Linear incision and circular excision wound models were performed for the wound-healing activity assessment. The tissues were also evaluated for the hydroxyproline content as well as histopathologically. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils, the test used was an acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oil of J. occidentalis showed the highest activity on the in vivo biological activity models. Additionally, the oil of J. virginiana was found highly effective in the anti-inflammatory activity method. The experimental data demonstrated that essential oil of J. occidentalis displayed significant wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

*Anthelmintic or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992.

 

Formulas:

JR

Clary Sage Essential Oil Profile



Native to Europe and cultivated worldwide, Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a
separate scent profile depending on what is harvested and the terroir. This profile details the many sides
of Clary Sage and how it is used.

Clary flowers_1101 opt(Clary Sage flowers – Jeanne Rose garden 2014)

Clary Sage Synopsis

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Clary Sage, Salvia sclarea

Other Common Name/Naming Information: The word salvia comes from the Latin salvus having to do with medicinal properties and health and sclarea from the Latin clarus or clear meaning the leaves and seeds are used medicinally to clear the eye. [It does NOT mean you can use the EO in the eye; it means if there was a bug or something in the eye, the seed was placed in the corner of the eye and exuded a moist gooey substance called a mucilage that would enable the person to remove the seed as well as whatever it was stuck too.]

Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Countries of Origins: It is native to Europe and cultivated worldwide. in the past was found in Southern France, Italy, and Syria, but today is cultivated worldwide – mostly within European regions, including Central Europe, as well as England, Morocco, Russia, and the United States.

Harvest Location: Clary Sage absolute originates in France and Clary Sage EO is from Bulgaria.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time

General description of Plant habitat and growth: Biennial or perennial plant growing up to three feet high with large hairy leaves that only grow to half the height of the plant.  Coming directly off long, thin stems, the lilac-pink flowers rise above the leaves.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Clary Sage must be picked and distilled fresh and with removal of the thick stalk. The flowers and flowering tops are steam distilled. Depending on terroir, climate and weather, the yield is .1-1.0%.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  • Color                           pale yellow green
  • Clarity                         clear
  • Viscosity                     Non-viscous
  • Intensity of odor        4

Bergamot & Amber =2; Rose Geranium = 4; Tea Tree= 6; Cinnamon = 8; Wintergreen & Cloves = 9

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment:Clary Sage has many chemotypes and each has a separate scent profile.I use a simple Vocabulary of Odor© to describe to describe the odor of essential oils. It is easy to learn and very helpful in the study of these products of distillation. I also have an Advanced Vocabulary of Odor© that is more complex but gives you a snapshot of the scent. So it always surprises me when someone can’t seem to use descriptive words to describe an odor and resorts to poetical uses. Poetry is beautiful but it is not helpful in describing an odor. The Perfume Album by Jessee describes Clary Sage thusly, “It taxes vocabulary and imagination to describe adequately the precise character of the clary sage fragrance. It has been likened to that of ambergris and labdanum…”. “The odor is considered reminiscent of Ambergris (a type of whale excreta)”. I find this description very unhelpful. It really doesn’t do this herb or EO justice.

However, since there are so many different Clary Sage odors due to the many chemotypes or the different terroirs and how it is grown; or whether it is harvested and distilled for leaves or for flowers alone; the variety of scent descriptions is enormous. My favorite Clary Sage odor is one that comes from plants distilled mainly from the flowers; it is citrus, strongly fruity and lightly floral with a distinctive herbaceous back note that is quite spicy.

Clary Sage Abs-EB copyClary Sage Absolute supplied by Eden Botanicals

General Properties: The herb is calmative, relaxant, and soporific. The EO can be calming, aphrodisiac, tonic, nervine, estrogenic, antidepressant astringent, antispasmodic and even grounding.

Uses of Properties:  When used by application in skin care products, Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may also be useful in certain products for muscular fatigue, cramps, and excessive perspiration.  The EO may also be inhaled for menstrual problems, fertility, PMS, menopausal problems, exhaustion, and for reducing epileptic attacks. Only more science and time will tell if these problems can be successfully treated by Clary Sage EO.

For years I primarily used Clary Sage as an inhalant during hot flashes. I alternated with Pink Grapefruit and White Grapefruit.

Application/ Skincare: Clary Sage is used in skin care for aging skin, regenerating skin, and for reducing wrinkles.  It stimulates hair growth when mixed with Jojoba oil and applied to the roots.  It may be used for excessive perspiration.

 

A Recipe by Jeanne Rose for the Skin

FINE SKIN CARE OIL Acne/Pimples.
Make a mixture of the following
• 2 drops Clary Sage
• 2 drops Roman Chamomile or Owyhee
• 1 drop Lantana
• 1 drop Cypress
• 14 drops Almond or Olive oil
Apply directly to the Acne or Pimple after cleansing the skin.

 

Diffuse/Diffusion: Clary Sage EO can be added to most other EO to make a blends depending on your need and what oils you blend together. Diffusion can be used for hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, and a good night’s rest.  It is grounding, relaxing and mildly intoxicating.

Thirty years ago I decided to spend a summer making Clary Sage perfumes. I tried everyone’s recipes and made over a hundred using Clary Sage and Patchouli as the top note and base note with a variety of different odors in between. Up to that time I had not truly appreciated the scent of Clary Sage but grew to love it especially with Labdanum and Vetivert. So I grew it in the garden. Now I notice that the very special pungent odor of Clary Sage EO that I am used too is gone, replaced by a pale shadow of itself. This less intense odor may be preferred by those who make perfume. I suggest to anyone who enjoys Clary Sage EO to make a point of growing several of the chemotypes (sclareol type and other) sometime to really get to know and understand the odor.

Clary Sage Exam of 13 sorts – see how many I studied

Emotional/Energetic Use:  When inhaled Clary Sage is useful to reduce hot flashes, nervous fatigue, depression, emotional distress, PMS, and for a good night’s rest.  It is grounding and also mildly intoxicating. There are internet sites that state Clary Sage is “energetically attuned to the structure of the eye, connecting the physical eyes with the Third eye.  It expands sensory and psychic powers.”

Key Use: Skin care and female problems related to the reproductive system.

Chemical Components: linalool, linalyl acetate up to 72%, caryophyllene, a-terpineol, geraniol, neryl acetate, sclareol in the sclareol chemotype and germacrene D. There are many chemotypes of Clary Sage and they are rarely identified on the bottles. The farmers who grow Clary Sage for the tobacco crop often have the sclareol type while perfumers want the non-sclareol type.

Physiochemical Properties:
Specific Gravity at 15°/15° ……….
0.900 to 0.910
Optical Rotation ……………………… -11°22’ to -32°38’
Refractive Index ……………………… 1.4613 to 1.4700
Solubility        ………………………… Soluble in some cases in 1 vol. of 80% alcohol, opalescent with more. In most cases, however, soluble in 0.5 vol. of 90% alcohol, clear to turbid with more.      

clary-sage-EO_smEssential oil glands of Clary Sage

Comparison of Main Components: Abstract from Flavour and Fragrance Journal. June 1991, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages fmi–fmi, 109–169. The chemical composition of two essential oil types of Salvia sclarea L. during early and late flowering stages was analyzed. A new chemotype with relatively high citral, geranyl acetate and geraniol content was observed in two small populations growing in northern Israel. Comparison of the new chemotype with a Russian type showed a great difference in composition, scent and organoleptic character between the two oils. The highest amount of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was detected in the Israeli type, at the early flowering stage. The relative quantity of most components of hybrid oils was intermediate between those of the parent plants.

Blends Best with: Clary Sage blends well with Bergamot, Wild Orange, Cypress, Geranium, Jasmine, Lavender and Sandalwood essential oil and is a perfect combination with Labdanum or Patchouli.

Blending with formula: Here is a simple calming massage oil.
Top note – 20 drops of Pink Grapefruit
Heart note – 10 drops of Clary Sage
Base Note – 5 drops Patchouli

Succuss the formula. Then add a carrier oil of your choice up to ½-1 oz. Succuss again. Use.

Clary Sage Hydrosolphoto by Jeanne Rose ~ see Hydrosol Booklet

 HYDROSOL: Clary Sage hydrosol is used for oily skin as an astringent. It can be a facial spray to energize, for PMS and for easing drug withdrawal. I also spray it on sweets as a tasty addition.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Poucher mentions that Salvia sclarea “is pre-eminent as a fixator for any perfume and when added to a perfume at ½ to 1% will within a month smooth out and get rid of “any chemical smell” of your perfume”.  It is invaluable as a blender and fixative in alcoholic perfumes, and particularly in toilet waters —such as traditional eau-de-cologne.

Interesting Information: It is grown in North Carolina for the flavor and fragrance industry. When it is in bloom it fills the field at harvest time and the odor is very strong.  David Peele of Avoca, Inc. laughs when he mentions how people react to the odor, … “People have a concept of what it should smell like,” he said. “We have to laugh when we see them stop on the road and grab a bunch of the flowers. “Then, about a mile down the road, we’ll see the flowers thrown out on the side.”

“The name Salvia is derived from the Latin word for ‘good health’.  In Germany the herb was used with elderflowers as an additive to cheap wine to make it taste like Muscatel.  Also used to flavor vermouths and liqueurs.  In Britain, it was used as a substitute for hops in beer making.  In Jamaica, the plant was blended with coconut to ease scorpion stings.  The seeds were used in many countries to clear conditions of the eye—hence the name ‘clear-eye’”, Essential Aromatherapy, p.126.

Contraindications: There is no evidence that the sclareol of Clary Sage ‘balances the hormones’ and does not seem to have any negative side effects although there are some sources that recommend it not be used during the first trimester of pregnancy. For some, Clary Sage is mildly intoxicating.

Safety Precautions: Moderation in use is recommended.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

Ingestion of  Essential Oils: I do not recommend the ingestion or injection of essential oils for any reason.

References:

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Jessee, Jill. Perfume Album. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 1951.
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Poucher, W.A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. D. Van Nostrand Company. 1923
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

Abstract/Scientific Data:

Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae) By C. Schmiderer1, P. Grassi1, J. Novak1, M. Weber2 and C. Franz1

Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00053.x© 2008 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands Plant Biology Volume pages 433–440, July 2008.

The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialized epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavor. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 JR

 

 

 

Douglas-Fir Essential Oil Profile

Douglas-Fir – EO Profile

Synopsis of Douglas-Fir essential oil/hydrosol profile with formulas, recipes, therapeutic and cosmetic applications.

By Jeanne Rose

Douglas Fir-oil-cone copy

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Douglas-Fir ~ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco aka P. douglasii,

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Douglas-fir is in a separate genus from either the fir or the pine and more closely related to a Spruce. A Fir is of the genus Abies while a Douglas-fir or Oregon-pine is a falsely named tree. In botany the dash shows that the person who is writing about the plant knows that it is not a Fir or a Pine and in fact Douglas-fir is more closely related to a Spruce.

Family: Pinaceae

Countries of Origins: It is native to the West Coast of the United States and is now grown elsewhere

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: France

Endangered or Not: The population is stable and there is little concern with this tree in California.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: In Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, the leaves are spirally arranged, but slightly twisted at the base to lie flattish on either side of the shoot, needle-like, 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) long, green above with no stomata, and with two whitish stomata bands below. Unlike the Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, coast Douglas-fir foliage has a noticeable sweet fruity-resinous scent, particularly if crushed.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Wild-grown and certified organic, the leaves and twigs are distilled, usually from fallen or logged trees. Yield was 1 gallon EO per ton for oven dried branches in one study.

Organoleptic Characteristics:

  Color: Colorless
  Clarity: Clear
  Viscosity: Non-viscous
  Taste: Bitter, aromatic, umami
  Intensity of Odor:

 Scale is 1-10 with  1= lowest

5

Properties and Uses: Douglas Fir essential oil is strongly antiseptic and indicated for respiratory infections. It can be used as a local disinfectant. This is one of the most lemon-scented of the ‘Firs’, with a powerful sweet, fresh, refreshing odor, well-liked as a room refresher or scent in soap blends.

Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP):   

Application:  Massage for sore muscles

Ingestion: We do not recommend ingestion of EO; the leaves can be used as tea

Inhalation: For all respiratory problems

Tell us what Jeanne Rose uses this EO as a respiratory inhalant in a process “Progressive Inhalation” for colds and flu and she also used the needles in a tea to flavor other herbs and for colds. Jeanne calls this the “Oil of Clean Air”.

Application/ Skincare. It can be used as a local disinfectant when used in lotions for the skin. This is one of the most lemon-scented of the ‘Firs’, with a powerful sweet, fresh, refreshing odor, well-liked as a room refresher or scent in soap blends. Jeanne loves this oil in soaps and prefers it to many others.

Diffuse/Diffusion: The essential oil is used as a respiratory inhalant to ease breathing; in a home diffused odor to purify the air and in products for a great uplifting odor. If you diffuse this oil in late November and early December, you are sure to inspire the “Christmas spirit” in even the grouchiest of scrooges! It is a wonderful oil to wake up to at that particular time of year.

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO: Jeanne loves this EO for its fragrant air scent and slight citrus odor. She uses it in “Progressive Inhalation” as well as to ‘clean’ the air of her home and to remove ‘negative energy’.

Emotional Use: Refreshing and even slightly stimulating by inhalation.

HYDROSOL: The Douglas-fir hydrosol is organically grown from a USA source. It can be used in any skin care product for its refreshing quality, as a skin toner; and especially nice to be sprayed about a room to refresh the air.

Douglas-Fir hydrosol -optfrom www.edenbotanicals.com
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Key Use: Jeanne Rose calls this the “Oil of Clean Air” in her course for its refreshing healthful qualities.

Chemical Components: ß-Pinene and smaller amounts of Citronellyl acetate and b-Phellandrene. USA grown and distilled Douglas Fir is organically grown and contains terpenes and some limonene giving it a citrus note. “Chemistry of the hydrosol of one sample was mainly 30% monoterpenols, 12% esters, 10% borneol, other alcohols and a small amount of aldehydes and camphor ketones —Harman.”

Physical/chemical Properties: The leaves are steam distilled to create the essential oil whose components vary considerably. The French oil contains large quantities of ß-Pinene and smaller amounts of Citronellyl acetate and b-Phellandrene.

Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog) The main compounds found in Serbian EO were bornyl acetate (34.65 %), camphene (29.82 %), α-pinene (11.65 %) and santene (5.45 %).

Blends Best with: The EO can be blended with any other conifer oil as well as the Mediterranean plants such as Spearmint and rich deep oils such as Spikenard.

Aroma Assessment: Green, herbaceous and citrus.

Historical Uses: Native Americans made much use of Douglas-fir leaves and twigs in medicine.

Key Use: Air freshener and breathing tonic.

Interesting Information/Science Abstract: Dripping pitch from the trunk of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in northern Montana. Conifers such as this ignite like a torch during a fire storm due to the combustible terpene oleoresins.

Abundant resin ducts throughout the trunk and branches of healthy trees is vital to survive freezing winters and to retard the invasion of bark beetle larvae. During prolonged summer drought conditions, stressed trees produce less resin and are more vulnerable to bark beetles. In fall of 2003, this drought stress was especially evident throughout mountainous areas of San Diego County where thousands of pines were dying.

Contradictions: Caution use of conifer oils on children under 5 years.

Safety Precautions: Dilute as needed. No known precautions.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64.

 References:
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol, 1st edition, 2015, IAG Botanics
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  North Atlantic Books. 2000:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose .2015 edition. San Francisco, California

 Scientific Data: In 1994 a Comparative Investigation of Douglas Fir Headspace found

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

JR

 

 

 

 

Rose Geranium EOP

Synopsis: A fascinating, informative portrayal of the well-loved and often-used flower oil of the Rose Geranium. Includes the essential oil profile and factual science as well as favorite recipes and perfumes of this refreshing plant by Jeanne Rose.
[ File # csp1013926, License # 2390417 ] Licensed through http://www.canstockphoto.com in accordance with the End User License Agreement (http://www.canstockphoto.com/legal.php) (c) Can Stock Photo Inc. / belokurovPelargonium flowers

Rose Geranium Profile

By Jeanne Rose

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Rose Geranium is the common name of the essential oil called Pelargonium graveolens syn. P. asperum or P. roseum L’Hérit.

Family: Pelargoniums belong to the geranium family (Geraniaceae), as does the genus Geranium, which includes cranesbills and herb Robert. ?

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Popularly known as scented geraniums, these plants are actually scented Pelargoniums.  Like the common garden geraniums, they belong to the genus Pelargonium.  The generic name, from the Greek pelargos, “stork”, comes from the notion that the long, narrow seed capsule and flower parts resembled a stork’s bill.  Storksbill is also an old common name.  The word graveolens means ‘heavily scented’.

Countries of Origins: Indigenous to South Africa and grows in Morocco, Madagascar, Egypt, China and California. Unfortunately, at this time only the hydrosol is available from the USA.

History and Growing Conditions: The great part of the world’s supply of Pelargonium oil comes from the island of Reunion (Bourbon), a very fertile island about 400 miles east of Madagascar. The plant was introduced to the island in about 1880. The original plant grown for essential oil production was different from that cultivated today. In about 1900 P. graveolens was introduced from Grasse in France and was a plant that grew larger and bushier, and therefore produced more oil—and the oil was of a sweeter, more rose-like odor. Since Pelargonium changes and develops according to the climate and soil type in which they are grown, the essential oil of Reunion also changed and altered. Reunion oil contains more citronellol than that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. Pelargonium plants like a soil that is neither moist nor dry, a temperate climate with sea moisture (such as occurs in San Francisco) and do not like periods of heavy rain or torrid heat. Cuttings of this plant have been taken throughout the world and various plantings have been started.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: The hydrosol is obtained organically grown from the West coast of the U.S. and the essential oil is cultivated but unsprayed and obtained from South Africa and Egypt.

Endangered or Not: Rose Geranium is an odd plant that changes and develops differently according to climate and soil type where grown. Réunion type oil contains more citronellol that that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. It is generally not considered to be endangered although the original South African type has changed its chemistry somewhat over the last 200 years.

General description of Plant habitat and growth: True Pelargonium oil comes from P. graveolens or P. asperum or a cross of these two. Pelargonium plants readily cross and they change their oil components, quality, and quantity, depending on where grown.  Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil does not come from the garden plants called P. odoratissimum, which is a small trailing plant whose leaves have the odor of nutmeg or green apples, nor does it come from the garden plant called P. fragrans, which is also not suitable for cultivation nor does it come from the genus called Geranium.

Rose_Geranium-Africa via Jeanne Rosea field in Malawi 2014

Description of the Plant: A perennial hairy shrub up to 3-4 feet in height. It is shrubby, erect, branching, hairy, densely leafy; the leaves are triangular, cordate at the base, deeply five-lobed, hairy, grey-green, rose-scented; peduncle, 5-10 flowered; petals, small, pink; upper veined and spotted purple. P. asperum is often considered to be unpleasantly scented with few flowers of pale lilac. The scent is contained in small beads of oil produced in glands at the base of tiny leaf hairs.  Bruising or crushing a leaf breaks the beads and releases their fragrance. There are about 200-280 species of Pelargonium and only a few are distilled. The EO is dependent on where it is grown, on the distiller, on terroir as well as season of the year when distilled. This is one of the most diverse plants for producing an essential oil. I have a box at home of 25 different Rose Geranium distillations with 25 different odors. I have my preferences.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: The top third of the plant is cut, up to four times per year, and is steam-distilled to yield the oil and hydrosol. Generally, the heavier stalks are removed prior to distillation. The wood absolutely must be excluded from the distillation process.  The yield of oil varies from 0.1 – 0.2% or up to 0.05 kg per 250 kg of freshly picked material. The amount is higher in the summer cut (August) than the winter cut (late spring). In California where we mostly try to get great quality hydrosol, 200 lbs. of leaf material cut and distilled in August, produced 1 ounce of emerald green essential oil and 50 gallons of hydrosol.

Organoleptic Characteristics of the Essential oil:

  Color: Pale green to yellow depending upon source
  Clarity: Clear
  Viscosity: Non-viscous to semi-viscous depending upon source
  Taste: Bitter, aromatic, umami Remove
  Intensity of Odor:

 Scale is 1-10 with  1= lowest

4-6

Scale is 1-10 with 1= lowest;

An example of scale: Bergamot=2; Rose Geranium (Malawil) = 4; and Peppermint = 8

 Properties and Uses: Skin care: Used externally on acne, bruises, as a tonic astringent application for broken capillaries, burns, couperose or reddened skin, cuts, all types of skin conditions, externally for hemorrhoids, in products for oily or mature skin. It is used externally in massage for cellulite, breast engorgement, edema, or poor circulation.  It is used by inhalation for menopausal symptoms or PMS, nervous tension, or stress. Used extensively in the skin-care industry for all types of cosmetic problems. As an inhalant, the EO is considered to balance the adrenocortical glands. This oil has properties that are considered to be anti-infectious, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal (Spikenard is better), anti-inflammatory, relaxing, and anti-spasmodic. We will reword this as to not make any medical claims.

Application/ Skincare: Used externally on acne, bruises, as a tonic astringent application for broken capillaries, burns, couperose or reddened skin, cuts, all types of skin conditions where its gentle therapeutics will work. Externally in facial steams, lotions, massage oils, baths to treat face and body especially dry to normal and normal to oily skin. Balances all functions of the oil glands. In massage to ease PMS or cramps. A healing and antiseptic EO. Excellent all-purpose essential oils for skin of young to old women, also children. My personal favorite use of this essential oil is simply as an inhalant. It has supported my emotional life for over 75 years from the time my father grew it as a plant until now when I grow it, and distill it for the hydrosol

 My Personal Hair Care
I am quite fond of this essential oil and hydrosol in my hair care. I will take my favorite shampoo of the moment (I usually make my own shampoo) and add 8 drops Rose Geranium and 8 drops of Rosemary verbenone to 8 oz. of shampoo. Mix thoroughly and use. When I use these types of therapeutic shampoos, I will wet the hair thoroughly, put on the shampoo, build a lather and let it sit for 3 minutes to soak into the scalp. Now at 80 years, my hair is still naturally black with only 5% white hair framing my face. I attribute my still dark hair to a lifetime (since 1967) of the above treatment.

Diffuse/Diffusion: Works well by itself or in a blend for emotional issues, or to cleanse the air, and to scent and calm the atmosphere.

I have grown the plants for years, I have harvested and distilled them as well. I have found the correct cultivar and delivered them to dozens of growers in California where they have been particularly well-received and was especially taken with the hydrosol and all of its many uses.

Emotional Use: Geranium: Inhaled it is thought to stimulate the adrenal cortex to reduce symptoms of asthma and menopause and as an aid to stimulate the thyroid for weight loss. Rose Geranium oil is good to treats depression, dejection, fatigue, inertia, confusion and bewilderment, all anxiety states, balances adrenals, balances hormones, has a harmonious effect and calms and refreshes and uplifts the body and psyche.

Hydrosol Use: The hydrosol is excellent as a spray tonic for the skin, to reduce stress, relieve all sorts of menstrual or menopausal symptoms. Used internally by ingestion for the liver and pancreas (with the assistance of a health care provider).

A Hydrosol Story ~ Drinking Rose Geranium oil

By Jeanne Rose

Several years ago I was being televised and interviewed live, in my home, regarding aromatherapy and hydrosols. I had a number of show-and-tell items in front of me and our interview was going along quite nicely. I had a glass full of water and an identical glass full of Rose geranium hydrosol to show that the hydrosol is colorless and clear just like water. I had not as yet mentioned to the interviewer that when I distill I do not remove the small amount of essential oil that is present, so that the glass of hydrosol I was discussing actually had a thin layer of essential oil on it.  During the interview, I reached for the glass of water and took a drink and immediately knew I had made a mistake. With my mouth quite full of the very strong floral hydrosol and essential oil, I could only swallow, inwardly trying not to gag and hoping that Rose Geranium was truly the ‘oil of beauty’ and would not kill me and I continued with the interview all the while exhaling the scent of Rose Geranium. It was a shocking and not planned experience. Later on, I kept an account of my symptoms which were that I got slightly sleepy, my hot flashes diminished and my body and secretions all took on the odor of Rose Geranium and I had a mild stomach ache.

However, please know that I do not recommend drinking essential oils or undiluted hydrosol. These are very powerful products, that will collect in the liver to be metabolized and may cause serious side effects to the organs and the mucous membranes of the body. If ingested, they can also cause extreme harm as they are so concentrated. —JeanneRose 2000

Rose Geranium-hydrosol copy 2

Key Use: Oil of Beauty™

Chemical Components: Our Geranium EO are from South Africa and Egypt, the hydrosol is USA organic.

               Comparison of Main Components that I have tested:

Compound                        California           Bourbon             Egyptian             Chinese

Citronellyl formate            21.78%

citronellol                           34.82 %               22-40 %             30-38 %               45-51%

geraniol                                  6.86 %              14-18 %             16-17%                   5-7 %

Physiochemical Properties — According to Guenther.  The Réunion geranium oil possesses a very strong, heavy rose-like odor, occasionally slightly harsh and minty.  The oil is valued particularly on account of its high citronellol content, which makes the Réunion type of geranium oil the best starting material for the extraction of commercial “rhodinol.”. According to Gildemeister and Hoffman*, the physiochemical properties of the Réunion geranium oils vary within these limits:

Specific Gravity at 15˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.888 to 0.896
Optical Rotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .-7˚ 40’ to -13˚50’
Refractive Index at 20˚. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.461 to 1.468
Acid Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1.5 to 12
Ester Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-78
Ester Content, Calculated as Geranyl Tiglate . . . .21 to 33%
Ester Number after Acetylation. . . . . . . . . .206 to 233
Total Alcohol Content, Calculated as Geraniol.67 to 77.6%
Solubility. Usually clearly soluble in 2 to 3 vol. of 70% alcohol; often separation of paraffin crystals on addition of more alcohol.

Comparison of Main Components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Citronellyl formate, Linaloöl, Terpineol and others yes

Blends Best with: This is one of those chameleon odors that can be used in most blends and work to do its magic. I am particularly fond of this is blends and perfumes where I wish a ‘rosy’ odor but without the true ‘rose’ scent. A fabulous scent. blends well with Lavender, Patchouli, Clove, Rose, Neroli/Orange blossom, Sandalwood, Jasmine, Juniper, Bergamot and other citrus oils perfect

Rose Geranium SILK Perfume:

Your top note will be 30 drops of Tangerine or Yellow Mandarin;

Heart = 10 drops of May Chang
+ 20 drops of Ylang Xtra
+ 25 drops of Rose Geranium is the Heart note;

and the Base note is 7 drops Rose absolute
+ 5 drops Ginger
and 5 drops Oakmoss.

Mix each note separately and succuss, then add together and success; let it sit and age for several weeks before you add your carrier or alcohol. A 25% scent blend and 75% neutral spirits is good. Then let it age again before you use.

Eden Rose Geranium EOEO supplied from Eden Botanicals

Aroma Assessment: This EO is most interesting in that the scent is indicative of the source of the oil. If you purchase EO Rose Geranium from Malawi it will be fresh, green, herbaceous and somewhat floral and vegetative; from Madagascar it is very floral, herbaceous and even a little spicy. Knowing your source country is often preferred for perfumery. Personally, I have samples from all countries and choose the scent specifically for the project at hand.

RoseGeranium-VO-Egypt (002)Advanced Odor Profile of Pelargonium graveolens of leaves & tops EO~JeanneRose
RoseGeranium-VO-So.Afr (002)Advanced Odor Profile of Pelargonium graveolens of leaves & tops of Malawi grown~JeanneRose

Historical Uses: The great part of the world’s supply of Pelargonium oil comes from the island of Reunion (Bourbon), a very fertile island about 400 miles east of Madagascar. The plant was introduced to the island in about 1880. The original plant grown for essential oil production was different from that cultivated today. In about 1900 P. graveolens was introduced from Grasse in France and was a plant that grew larger and more bushy, and therefore produced more oil—and the oil was of a sweeter, more rose-like odor. Since Pelargoniums change and develop according to the climate and soil type in which they are grown, the essential oil of Reunion also changed and altered. Reunion oil contains more citronellol than that grown in France and less than that grown in Egypt and China. Pelargonium plants like a soil that is neither moist nor dry, a temperate climate with sea moisture (such as occurs in San Francisco) and do not like periods of heavy rain or torrid heat. Cuttings of this plant have been taken throughout the world and various plantings have been started.    How would this compare to Egyptian and South African? This is the explanation. You get different things from different terroir.

Interesting Information/ Abstract: This plant produces quite different oils depending on the environment, climate, soil, elevation. Take several cuttings of a mother plant and plant each cutting in different parts of the world; within three years, depending on the environmental and ecological conditions you will have as many different oils with varying components as you have different environments.

Contradictions: None (as always do not use to excess)

Safety Precautions: None known. Moderation is always a precaution to use.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 

References:
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

Bibliography
Clifford, Derek. Pelargoniums. Blandford Press: Great Britain, 1958
Franchomme, P. l’aromatherapie exactement. R. Jollois: France, 1990
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing: Florida, 1950
Lawless, Julia. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element: Massachusetts, 1992
Rose Jeanne. The Aromatic Plant Project. World of Aromatherapy Conference Proceedings: California, 1996
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Grosset & Dunlap: New York, 1992
Vincent, G.  [Effect of limiting overall growth potential on the architecture of rose geranium (Pelargonium sp.).]  Effet de la limitation du     potentiel de croissance global sur l’architecture danium Rosat (Pelargonium sp.)Acta Botanica Gallica (1995) 142 (5) 451-461 [Fr, en, 10 ref.] CIRAD-Réunion, Station de la Bretagne, 97487 Saint-Denis Cedex, Réunion.

Scientific Data: http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Brochures/ProGuRosegeranium.pdf

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

JR

Chamomile, Roman Essential Oil Profile

Organoleptic qualities, description, growth, and properties, uses and blends for all sorts of needs.

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 2/16

roman_chamomile

 

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Roman, Tea or Sweet Chamomile. Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (syn. Anthemis nobilis)

Other Common Name/Naming Information: Also called Sweet or Tea Chamomile. Chamae means ‘on the ground’ and melum means honey-like and thus Chamaemelum refers to the scent and that it grows low to the ground.

Family: Asteraceae

Countries of Origins: Native to south and western Europe and the Mediterranean and naturalized worldwide.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Oregon, USA organically grown

Endangered or Not: No

General description of plant habitat and growth: This perennial plant grows 20” with feathery, green leaves, and small white single or double flowers with yellow centers extending from strong stems. It grows along roadsides and damp grassland

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Steam-distilled from fresh flower heads, particularly of a double-flowered form. “The distillation of dried calices—the part left after the petals fall off—produces a pale blue oil which quickly turns to pale yellow and which may not have the same properties as true flower Roman Chamomile herb. Yield: 1.7%

Organoleptic Characteristics:  What  you can see, taste and degree of intensity ~ There is more to essential oil than odor —
There are also the organoleptic qualities color, clarity, viscosity, intensity and even taste.

  • Color                    when fresh it is pale blue that quickly fades palest yellow to colorless
  • Clarity                  Clear
  • Viscosity              Non-viscous (water-like)
  • Intensity of odor 3-4 on a scale of 1-10

Jeanne Rose Chamomile photo bottles

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment – Steffen Arctander has a lovely description of the odor as sweet herbaceous, somewhat fruity-warm and tealeaf-like odor. When charted out on the ‘Advanced Circular Vocabulary of Odor’ the scent of Roman Chamomile is predominating Fruity with a subsidiary note of Herbaceous and several back notes of Floral, Conifer, Woody, Oily-Fatty, Aldehydic and Spicy.  It has a low intensity of 3 and low tenacity as well.

General Properties.  Anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative,antiseptic, anticatarrhal and spasmolytic properties are the main properties. Tea is used traditionally to treat nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and gas. EO is often used today to relieve anxiety or in skin care.

Properties and Uses: Roman Chamomile is used in flavoring liqueurs, as a tea, and especially for hair shampoos (especially blonde hair) and many other cosmetics.; formerly cultivated as a lawn that needed minimum maintenance and good drought tolerance before mowing was simplified through mechanization. It is still mixed with grass that is under heavy pressure such as at Buckingham Palace, London. The scented plant gives off perfume when crushed; seats are planted with it, although there are some who are allergic. Used on the skin, it may also reduce inflammation from cuts. and the flowers are used medicinally as oil to mitigate psoriasis. It is sometimes used to ease the discomfort from eczema and gingivitis (swollen gums) or hemorrhoids. Used in formulas for acne, couperose skin, devitalized or inflamed skin, sensitive skin or moist or sweaty skin. The herb is used to flavor alcoholic beverages such as gin.

Application/ Skincare. This is a wonderful oil to use on tender or delicate skin and in proper dilution can be used on a child’s skin after an insect bite or sunburn. It gives relief for any skin irritation and by inhalation of the product is calming as well. I like the fact that Shirley Price thinks this Chamomile is the best for all uses. I add it to any lotion that I have as an application to my sensitive skin.

Jeanne’s Age Spot Lotion – Measurements are by volume using percentage or drops – Mix carrier oils, mix waters and mix extracts, mix essential oils. Mix all together and then heat gently in a bain-marie. Cool, Bottle. Probably needs to be shaken prior to each use.

Ingredients: Sunflower seed oil 45%, + Cistus or Chamomile hydrosol 20%, Licorice root decoction 10%, Sugar cane or sugar cane alcohol like white rum 5%, Lemon juice 3% + Shea nut butter 5%, beeswax or any solid butter 10%, + Essential Oil Mixture 2% of Roman Chamomile, Lemon oil and Cypress oil. [you may need to experiment yourself with the proportions as I use very specific strengths of Licorice root and beeswax. I always use only totally natural products that are organically grown with no processing.]

Diffuse/Diffusion: This essential oil diffuses quite nicely and can be mixed with any other oil and especially those that contain esters such as Lavender or Petitgrain. Start with a 1•1 mixture of Roman Chamomile to other oil and add to your diffuser. Put the diffuser on a timer • 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Use to to calm people in the room and prepare for sleep.

Tomato Tales ~ A personal Story
I remember many years ago, another boy was visiting my 8-year-old and they were riding skateboards and bikes up and down my flat along the hallway which is only 15-feet long. The noise was intense. Rather than yelling at them to be quiet, I mixed together an equal quantity of sweet Lavender and Roman Chamomile and put it in the diffuser at the entrance near the hall. Within moments the two boys were calm and relaxed, had stopped skateboarding and were working on some project in the bedroom. It was a most efficient calming mechanism.

Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale for nervous tics, asthma, insomnia, headache or depression. When you use a diffuser, make sure that you only use it for 10 minutes on and 30 minutes off. Do not let it run non-stop. Energetically, use this oil in blends for peace.

          Relaxing & Skin Treatment Formula
½ oz. Calendula infused oil
10 drops sweet Lavender EO
10 drops Bergamot EO
10 drops Roman Chamomile EO
Mix these all together and succuss well. This formula can be used in the evening for dry skin by application and the scent will be useful for sleep and sweet dreams as well.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory.

Chemical Components: Esters of Angelic, Butyric & Tiglic Acids, Bisabolol, and Farnesol. The biological activity of chamomile is mainly due to the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin and essential oil constituents such as α-Bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes. The ester content is very high about 85% and is considered along with Owyhee (Artemisia ludoviciana CT. esters) as the highest in essential oils.  There are several Chamomile chemocultivars.

 Physiochemical Properties:

Solubility in oil and alcohol and insoluble in water. Soluble in 5-10 vol. of 70% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity. Soluble in 1-2 vol. of 80% alcohol, occasionally with turbidity

Specific Gravity @ 20° C 0.880 to 0.930

Optical Rotation —1°0’ to +3°0’

Refractive Index at 20° 1.430 to 1.490

Comparison of Main Components: The main components are esters which account for its fruity scent and gentle nature on the skin.

Blends Best with: Blends seamlessly with many oils such as Bergamot, Lavender, Neroli, Petitgrain, Rose, Sandalwood. Useful in a perfume blend with Bergamot, Grapefruit (30 drops total) as the top note, Rose (20 drops total) as the heart note and Patchouli (5-10 drops total) as base note.

Blending with formula. One of our customers say “I use it in many blends; muscular oils, joint oils, migraine and headache oils and PMS/Woman’s health. I also make body balms, salts, scrubs and massage oils that enhance the pure oil.”

Muscle Aches and Pains-Relaxing

Make a blend of equal quantities of of Roman Chamomile, sweet Basil and Cypress EOs. Take 20 drops and add to 1 ounce of carrier oil. Succuss thoroughly. Use by application.

HYDROSOL: I adore Roman Chamomile hydrosol. I use it in the bath, as a facial toner and to spray my sheets for sleeping. Ann Harman found that in testing Roman Chamomile hydrosol there was 0.0042% of EO in it and the hydrosol was composed of 61 components, mainly sorbic acid, trans-pinocarveol and lesser amounts of ketones, acids and other components.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses: Cultivated for lawns, for ornament, and for therapeutic infusions.

Interesting Information: Insoluble in glycerin.  “Upon exposure to air and light and on prolonged standing the light blue color of the oil changes first to yellow to green and later to yellow-brown.  They present the highest ester value of all essential oils, from 272 to 293.5”   World of Aromatherapy, p. 203.        Roman Chamomile has a lower concentration of azulenes than Blue/German Chamomile, and it does not stimulate liver regeneration after subcutaneous applicationContradictions: None discussed.

Key Use: Anti-inflammatory

Safety Precautions: Possibly not to be used by persons allergic to the Ragweed family.  Non-toxic.

Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

 

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, a pocket guide to essential oils and aromatherapy.  Novato, California:     New World Library, 2003.

 

Scientific Data: Although chamomile is popular, there are not many studies about it. Test tube studies have shown that chamomile can kill bacteria, fungus, and viruses. It also helps relax muscle contractions, particularly in the smooth muscles that make up the intestines. There is an interesting article about both the “German and Roman Chamomile” in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (10; 2011:01-05).

 

DISCLAIMER: This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor. The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 

 

 

Bergamot Essential Oil and/or Hydrosol EO Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ 3-3-16

Synopsis of Bergamot Essential Oil ~ A complete description, country of origin, characteristics, skin care, formulas and recipes on how to use this oil

Common Name/Latin Binomial: Bergamot

Citrus x limon (syn. Citrus bergamia (Risso))

Other Common Name/Naming Information:  It also takes its name from an Italian city, that of Bergamo in Lombardy, where the essential oil was originally sold. It is related to French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, of Turkish origin: beg-armudi or beg armut (“prince’s pear” or “prince of pears). The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, and are named for their similar aroma.

Family: Rutaceae

 Countries of Origins: Native of tropical Asia, Bergamot is now extensively cultivated in the southern part of Italy, particularly Reggio di Calabria, Sicily; and Ivory Coast.

Eden Botanicals Harvest Location: Calabria region of Italy.

Endangered or Not: Not at this time.

 General description of Plant habitat and growth: The small fruit tree 16 feet tall, branches with thorns, flowers white, fruit not edible about 2-4 inches in length is a characteristic of the southern Italian landscape; its small, round fruit is very bitter and is inedible when raw. The fruit looks like a miniature pear-shaped orange. It is a hybrid of bitter Orange and Lemon, a product of cultivation.

citrus_bergamot_orange

Bergamot citrus on the tree

 Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: Bergamot essential oil is obtained from the cold expression of the peel of nearly ripe fruit of the Bergamot tree. Yield up to 9.7% for hydro-distilled and .5-1.5% for cold-pressed or 100 Bergamot fruit yields 85 grams of oil.

Organoleptic Characteristics of Bergamot:

Organo-Bergamot

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: The odor is floral, fruity, slight spicy back note, that is, predominating floral and citrus, subsidiary notes of fruit with a slight spicy back note. When you purchase Bergaptene-free or decolorized Bergamot oil, you begin to lose the rich floral/fruity/citrus odor and it becomes less ‘natural smelling’ and more ‘synthetic smelling’.

Bergamot EO

General Properties: Bergamot is an important ingredient in high end perfumery. Without it many perfumes could not be made. It is calmative, antispasmodic, antidepressant and antiseptic.

Properties and Uses:  Physically Bergamot oil can be used highly diluted as a gargle for sore throat, used to flavor Tobacco and tea; by application it can be used in skin care for skin infections, on cold sores, and inhaled for depression, stress, frustration, anxiety or emotional crisis

 Application/ Skincare. Bergamot is used in a variety of skin care lines, in lotions, creams, bath, salve, unguents and for massage or direct application to a variety of skin conditions; cold sores, acne, skin infections.

Diffuse/Diffusion.  Bergamot is best used in a blend in the diffuser (Lavender or Rosemary are good) to promote relaxation and alleviate stress by stimulating the mind. It helps to resolve your irritable nature and soothe tension and ease sadness.

Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN) Use Bergamot by inhalation while drinking the Earl Grey Tea (bergamot infused); this is both uplifting and calming. Ritually, Bergamot oil is used for success and comfort as it can help clear the mind of depressing recurring thoughts.

 Key Use: ‘The Oil of Anxiety’ and for perfumery.

Chemical Components: The peel oil contains; The chemical composition of Bergamot from Tunisia was obtained by hydrodistillation and fifteen compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).

When cold-pressed, Bergamot oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl and linalyl acetate up to 50%. The ester content changes depending on climate in any year.(375 Essential Oils, p. 49) 30-60% linalyl acetate and 11-22% linaloöl. Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and Bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

linaloollinalool

Bergamot juice contains neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, ponceritin, melitidin, and brutieridin.  Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties.

 Comparison of Main Components: (Chart/ Formatted into the Blog): The hydrodistilled was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%). The cold-pressed oil is the only Citrus oil in which limonene is not the dominant component.  It is however, rich in linaloöl 11-22% and linalyl acetate up to 30-60%.  Oxygenated derivatives of the hydrocarbons of caryophyllene, germacrene D, farnesene and bisabolene contribute to the typical odor of Bergamot.

Blends Best with: Bergamot’s light refreshing citrus scent makes is a good blending partner for just about any other oil. And its use in the perfume industry bears this out. It is of particular importance in a ‘Chypre’ type blend with rich deep oils like Labdanum, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Frankincense, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetivert.

HYDROSOL: I have not as yet had hydrosol of true Bergamot only of sour Oranges.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh

Historical Uses: – History is speculative. Possible that the tree was brought to the Canary Islands and found there by Christopher Columbus who brought it to Calabria.

 Interesting Information: a native of tropical Asia, Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is now extensively cultivated in the Southern part of Italy, particularly in the Calabria region. The Italians have used Bergamot in folk medicine for years, in particular for fevers. Legend has it that Christopher Columbus found the tree in the Canary Islands and brought it back to Italy. Bergamot gets its name from Bergamo a town in Italy, where it was originally cultivated.

Fruitcake copy

It can be candied and eaten either in a fruitcake or with bitter Coffee as a sweetmeat as they do in Greece.

Abstract/Scientific Data: “Bergamot is frequently adulterated … when doubtful of purity, the expert should resort to thorough odor and flavor tests, which usually are more indicative of the quality than mere chemical analysis.” — Guenther, The Essential Oils

 Contraindications: Pure Bergamot is photo-sensitizing; we recommend that it be highly diluted (less than 2%) when applied to the skin, or that one of our Bergamot FCF essential oils be used instead. FCF (furanocoumarin-free) is an acronym that indicates the chemical constituent(s) responsible for extreme sensitization of the skin to sunlight has been removed, in the case of Bergamot oil, the specific furanocoumarin being bergaptene.

Key Use: Perfumery, skin care and calming.

 Safety Precautions: Bergamot is known to be one of the most photo toxic essential oils and for this reason should be used with care in sunlight, hot climates and with other ultraviolet light. Photo sensitivity is caused by the presence of furocoumarins, most notably Bergaptene, in this particular essential oil. Apart from this factor, Bergamot is considered to be a relatively non-toxic and non-irritant essential oil. Photosensitizing. Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Here is some basic information from the web on this reaction of Bergamot with the sun.

  1. Definition: Berloque Dermatitis is a skin condition in which patients develop a brownish to reddish discoloration of the neck and sometimes the arms due to applying perfume or cologne to the skin. Sometimes the skin first turns red before changing to a brownish color. This condition can persist for years or even be permanent.
  2. Causes: Many perfumes and colognes contain oil of Bergamot, an extract of the peel of a specific orange grown in the South of France and the Calabria district of Italy. When this oil contacts the skin and the skin is exposed to sunlight, the oil of Bergamot causes the skin to discolor. With repeated exposures to sunlight, the discoloration becomes permanent.

Treatment:

  • Cosmetics can work well to cover the area so it is not as noticeable.
  • Patients with Berloque dermatitis should use a daily sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher to help keep the condition from worsening. In addition, perfume should no longer be applied to areas of the skin that get sun exposure.
  • Laser treatment may be an effective treatment in the future. At this time, we do not have this available. You may want to go to a laser center to seek their opinion.
  • Retin-A applied to the involved areas daily will improve this condition.
  • Daily application of soothing gels is a treatment for this problem.

 

Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO:

A story about Bergamot Sensitivity, called Berloque Dermatitis
March 11, 2004 – “Ask Jeanne Rose” Question

I need your advice.  I was wearing a strong blend of Bergamot, Rosemary and Geranium on a HOT day this week. I woke up the next day with a big brown-red splotch on my neck. I realize this may take months and months to heal correctly (it’s the Bergamot I think that is so sensitive to sunlight.) I am going on vacation to the beach. Any suggestions as to what to put on my neck NOW that I have burned it? I need something to heal it fast. At least I am an example of what not to do. I am so embarrassed. I forgot to look at the Aromatherapy Studies Course Work. — Thanks, Jeanne,

Answer: Dear K.
Wear a hat. Keep face and neck out of sun. It will only get worse. Use Sea Buckthorn, Calophyllum, and Bruise Juice in this proportion 25•25•50.   Do not use any citrus at all as a scent or deodorant or body wash until it is gone. This brown mark is the reaction of the sun and Bergaptene. Now you know from personal experience what not to do.   In the future, you can put on the citrus as scent on the parts of the body that are covered or put on the scent and stay out of sun for several hours. It is the combination of the application and the immediate sun exposure that does this.

Jeanne Rose

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Dear Jeanne,
Thank you for your help with my neck burn, I really appreciate your time and caring. Some notes: I went and got some Calophyllum inophyllum (cold pressed) and filled up the rest of the bottle of Bruise Juice with it. About .25 oz. or 20-25% total. I am applying this in the morning and evening. I am wearing scarf to keep out of sun. I am using titanium 25 sunscreen that is nice, thick, and mostly organic. I notice when the sun/heat gets on the scarf even, the burn mark will start to hurt/sting, than I will apply more of the Sea Buckthorn/Calophyllum/Bruise Juice treatment. (I also have applied a Calendula and Comfrey salve when I didn’t have the other treatment handy). I have an inclination to apply the Calophyllum by itself because it is so soothing. It is like becoming familiar with Calendula infused oil, it works for everything! The mark is now a brown/pink. I am writing down in my journal and taking notes. Thanks again Jeanne, don’t know what I would have done without you -probably cried for days about ruining my neck.

Patch Test Link: Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in an vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

References:
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Mojay, Gabriel.  Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit.  Rochester, Vermont:  Healing Arts Press, 1999.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann.  Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.

 

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

 Do not ingest clause for EO

Jeanne Rose Recipes/Formulas Using Bergamot

Blending and Perfume Formulas:

Summer Breeze Blend

Bergamot – Citrus bergamia – 10 drops
Geranium – Pelargonium graveolens – 5 drops
Lemongrass – Cymbopogon flexuosus – 2 drops
Peppermint – Mentha x piperita – 2 drops

“Summer Breeze” scent has become a hot weather staple around here. We use it to scent bath gel for a cooling shower, or it makes a wonderful detoxifying scrub in Sugar or Salt Glow; in room spritzers for a bright refreshing atmosphere, or to spray in a hot car. I also like to use it as a body spray for a light cologne IF I’m not going to be in the sun. (If I am going to be in the sun, I’ll use Bergaptene-free Bergamot oil).

Bergamot Floral and Smoke ~ a light tempting perfume
Top Note ~
10 drops Pink Grapefruit
10 drops Bergamot BGF

Heart Note ~
5 Drops Jasmine Sambac
5 drops Ylang complete

Base Note ~
2 drops Amber
2 drops Vanilla

Use the residue in the Amber and Vanilla bottle to get your drops. Take the empty ¼ oz. Amber bottle and add neutral grape spirits to half full. Shake it up. Pour that alcohol into the empty ¼ oz. Vanilla abs bottle. Now you have your base note mixed. To this bottle add the rest of the ingredients. Shake the bottle vigorously by succussion. Now just almost fill it with neutral grape spirits. Succuss again. Label the bottle and let it sit on your desk for 2 weeks. Smell it now and again. It should be perfect to you. Your perfume is at about 15%.

 

Consultation Usage ~ I have also used this oil, inhaled, to inhibit anorexia and generally in any blend where I want a bright sassy citrus scent.

Ritual Use ~ I like to add a drop or two to a dollar bill and put it in my wallet. It inhabits my entire purse with a wonderful cheery odor.

 

Skin Care for Normal skin ~
Apply in evening to clean washed face
Bergamot – 15 drops
Rosemary verbenone – 10 drops
Spikenard – 5 drops
Jojoba/Almond oil or lotion to fill 1 oz. = about 2.5% [EO an be reduced by adding more carrier oil]

 

JR