Archive | November 2017

FENNEL SEED Herb/EO/Hydrosol Profile

Synopsis: Fennel is an herb that is used in many ways, root in the kitchen, seed in the herbal formulary, pollen to make flavorful seasonings.


By Jeanne Rose ~ November 2017


Common Name/Latin Binomial ~ Fennel seed oil (Foeniculum vulgare) of the Family Apiaceae. A Mediterranean plant that is cultivated worldwide for food and medicine. It is mainly the oil of sweet Fennel seed or Roman Fennel seed that is steam-distilled while Guenther mentions an oil of Bitter Fennel seed that is cultivated and distilled in Romania and Russia but in other countries as well.

Countries of Origins ~ It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become naturalized world-wide.


Eden Botanicals Harvest Location ~ wild grown or cultivated in Egypt.


General description of Plant habitat and growth ~ A biennial or perennial herb up to six feet tall. Very pretty when given water, it has feathery leaves and a flower head that produces yellow pollen that has much use in culinary world. There are two varieties — Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group; syn. F. vulgare var. azoricum) also called finocchio and is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure that is a delicious edible and the other a highly aromatic and flavorful herb used both culinary and medicinally. Oil of Fennel is considered to be one of the most important all-around flavoring agents.


Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields ~ 800 pounds of seed can be produced per acre, dried and then is crushed or comminuted and then steam-distilled immediately for the essential oil.
Yield is 2 ½ to 5% depending on the quality of the seed.

Endangered or Not ~ Not at this time. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some butterfly species swallowtail and in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail.


SUSTAINABILITY ~ Essential oils are just not sustainable for the environment in the amounts that we are now using. In my own lifetime, I have seen many oils be overused and then go out of use as they were not being replanted. Be selective in your usage of the plants essential oil. Be moderate. Often, the herbal use is preferred over the essential use.


Organoleptic Characteristics ~
Color –
colorless to pale, pale yellow
Clarity – clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity of odor – 4-5, depending on where harvested [the scale is 1-10]

Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment ~ The oil is pale, clear, gold colored and with sweet, honey and herbal licorice notes.

The sweet Fennel from Eden Botanicals is described as “very sweet-scented, anise/licorice-like, herbaceous and slightly camphoraceous and somewhat citrus back note, with earthy, peppery undertones; more intense and sharp than their organically grown Sweet Fennel –which is described the same but not as sharp as the conventional Sweet Fennel”.



Properties and Uses ~ The herb or seed tea is a mild carminative and the essential oil is a popular extract (diluted in alcohol) to flavor food. In this case it is often the herb tea that has the best medicinal benefits although the essential oil is used by inhalation for scent, relaxing the breathing, and helping lactation.

Application/ Skincare ~ Eating Fennel and adding the EO to a cream is considered to reduce hairiness or hirsutism. The cream was better than a placebo at 2%. (see Science Direct article in References).

SPA’s also use Fennel EO with herbs and other essential oils such as Star Anise and Sandalwood to make body scrub, skin-softening body mask, and facials and massage oils that will soothe sore joints, alleviate skin issues and warm the body. You can make these at home using unscented scrubs and masks to which you add your own essential oils.

Body Scrub.
70% by weight sugar, gritty sugar like Turbinado
30 % by weight oil such as Calendula Infused oil or any vegetable oil.
2% by weight of essential oils
This translates to about 1 cup of a nice gritty sugar like Turbinado + ½ oz. by volume of carrier oil (or more if needed) and 10 drops of essential oil blend (I have used 3 d. Fennel + 3 d. Star Anise + 4 d. Sandalwood).


‘Magical’ Fennel Seed Eyewash

  • Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds are used in eyewash formulations. I discovered that a simple combination of Fennel seed and Comfrey root was effective where the other usually recommended herbs had not been in sty eye or eye stress or any eye irritation. This remedy has been previously discussed in much of my work, as it is really quite powerful in its uses. It can be used on any eye problem, for any first aid problem, and should be kept freshly made in the refrigerator at all times. Make a decoction by simply taking 1 t. of Fennel seeds and 1 t. of cut & sifted Comfrey root and put into a small pot with ½ cup of water. Bring to a boil and simmer 2-3 minutes, turn off heat and cool. Strain carefully through silk or tight muslin. Wash eyes using an eyecup. Store excess in refrigerator. Use 2-3 times per day. Replace with new decoction every 3 days. [this is a living herbal formula and will grow bacteria, so make it, use it, replace it, every 3 days]. (from Jeanne Rose Herbal Studies Course and more)


            Steep 1 teaspoon of crushed Fennel seeds in 1/2 cup of Witch Hazel extract (the kind that you buy in a drugstore) for 1 week.  Strain, bottle, and label.  Use this as a compress when your eyes are tired, or dilute 1 teaspoon with an equal amount of water and use this to wash the eyes. Alternatively, compress with Witch Hazel hydrosol. (you may substitute Witch Hazel hydrosol, but since this has no alcohol to preserve, it too will need to be remade every 3 days).


Fennel seed and Licorice root, together, as a tea will quickly aid digestion, ease the overfed digestive system, and cure flatulence. When I was pregnant in 1973, I used Fennel Seed tea with other herbs as a lactogogue. It was quite successful.


Diffuse/Diffusion ~ I have never had the desire to use Fennel oil in a diffuser. If you wish to try it, first dilute with other EO such as Lemon and Lavender as the Fennel scent is very penetrating.


Jeanne Rose’s experience with this EO: In 1977, this oil was about $1.77 per ounce in 2017 it is about $10.00 per ounce.


Emotional/Energetic/Ritual Use ~ Fennel seed has a long and interesting ritual use. Scott Cunningham wrote about it often and mentioned that the fresh stalks were woven into chaplets with were used to crown Greek athletes. Fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the Anglo-Saxon Pagan Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. The other herbs being Mugwort, Mayweed, Thyme, Lamb’s Cress, Cockspur grass, Plantain, Nettle, and Crab-Apple. Cunningham mentions that the scent of the fresh seeds is thought to increase life-span, to produce courage, and to purify the inner self.


Culinary/Herbal Use ~ There is plenty to love about Fennel seed in foods and medicine. It has a nice licorice-like taste and seasons breads, bakery goods, and many foods. I am currently madly in love with the pollen that drops from the ripened heads and use it in a recipe called “Fennel Pollen Encrusted Salmon”.  Dredge the salmon in the pollen with salt and pepper and corn meal, place in a shallow pan with olive oil and gently roast over a low flame until the salmon is cooked and the outside is nicely browned.



Fennel pollen



The herb and its pollen is very popular in foods, breads and pastries. Grieve says that Fennel is one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking.


Culinary Use of EO:  Perfumer & Flavorist Magazine states that “the sweet, anisic notes of this EO make it a useful addition to soda flavors like root beer, cola, cream soda and ginger ales. Sweet spice flavors and blends can be applied, including those for gingerbread, anise, pepper, cinnamon, clove and Italian sausage. Other flavors where this material will add sweetness and depth are cherry, mint, licorice, vanilla and those for cordials like ouzo, absinthe, anisette, etc.”

Chemical Components: The chemistry depends upon the plant variety used and whether it is the herb or the seed that is distilled. The primary component for seed is delta-alpha-pinene, anethole and fenchone and Guenther mentions also phellandrene and limonene.


BLENDS ~ Add drop by drop to your blends, succuss after each addition and carefully smell the blend before adding more Fennel seed EO, until the desired effect is achieved. Fennel seed oil is not much used in perfumery.

            Blends Well ~ Basil, Cardamom, Clary Sage, Coriander, Rose Geranium, Lavender, most Citrus oils, Rose, Rosemary and Sandalwoods.


HYDROSOL ~ The hydrosol is very fragrant and I like to use it in the bath and on foods. It is useful as a digestive (use 1 t. per glass of water) and has other uses as well.
Harman shows the GC/MS of the hydro-distilled hydrosol to be mainly Estragol (60 mg/L), Fenchone (52 mg/L), Anisaldehyde (24 mg/L) and other components such as cinnamon aldehyde, cineole, and more.  Become a member of the Circle H Institute to get the full values and more information on the hydrosol.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.


HISTORICAL USE ~ According to the Greek legend of Prometheus, Fennel was thought to have bestowed immortality. Fennel seeds are a common cooking spice, particularly for use with fish. After meals, they are used in several cultures to prevent gas and upset stomach. Fennel has also been used as a remedy for cough and colic in infants.

            A Modern Herbal by Grieve states that Fennel was well known to the Ancients and was cultivated by the ancient Romans for its aromatic fruits and succulent, edible shoots. Pliny had much faith in its medicinal properties, according no less than twenty-two remedies to it, observing also that serpents eat it ‘when they cast their old skins, and they sharpen their sight with the juice by rubbing against the plant.’


Interesting Information ~ In addition to its medicinal uses, aerial parts, namely, leaf, stem, and fruit/seed of F. vulgare, are extensively used as galactagogue not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers. From ancient times, Fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics, for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. —


Contraindications ~ Tisserand recommends “We advise the use of Sweet Fennel for short periods of time and only when highly diluted – while it is safe and effective when properly administered, it should be avoided by those who are pregnant/breastfeeding, who have endometriosis, estrogen-dependent cancers, who take certain medications (diabetic, anti-coagulant, hormone replacement), who have peptic ulcers, hemophilia, other bleeding disorders, or who have had major surgery, and by children under five years of age (including herbal fennel tea).”


Key Use~ Digestive and to flavor liqueurs


Patch Test: If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Arctander. 1960
Circle H Institute at
Cunningham, Scott. Magical Aromatherapy. Llewellyn Publications, 1989.
Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal: the …Properties, …with their Uses. Brace & Company, Harcourt, 1931
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol.  IAG Botanics. 2015 (supporter of testing hydrosols)
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California
Perfumery & Flavorist. Vol. 42, June 2017
Tisserand, R. and Rodney Young. Essential Oil Safety, 2nd ed., 2014, pp. 277-8.
Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. Phytomedicine, vol. 10, 6-7, 2003. P. 455-458


Fennel from an old herbal

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©


Fennel – 40-year history with seed and pollen
Fennel EO 2000; Fennel seed 2017; Manheimer Fennel EO 1977; Eden Botanicals EO 2017;
Fennel Pollen & cut Fennel tops









~ JR ~

Clove EO/Herb Profile & Information

Synopsis ~ Cloves are flower buds used as spice for 2000 years and have properties and uses beyond food — to support the health of your body; includes aromatherapy information and safety tips.

 CLOVE EO Profile & Information

Name of Oil and Naming and Family ~ Clove Oil from bud, leaf and stem oil is also called Oil of Clove,  an essential oil extracted from the Clove plant. Normally, the Clove oil is best known as water-distilled from the immature flower buds called Clove buds. This is the sun-dried, unopened flower buds of the Clove tree, Syzygium aromaticum from Indonesia and other locations.

“The earliest written mention of cloves is in writings from the Han dynasty in China (207 BC to AD 220) which tell how officers of the court were made to hold cloves in their mouth when talking to the king, apparently to insure the sweetness and acceptability of their breath” —Univ. Minnesota Library.

Clove buds are warming and spicy and are now used to flavor foods, making pomanders and used in medicine. Cloves supply vanillin to the industry.


Dicypellium caryophyllatum (syn. Cassia caryophylatta) bark from another family Lauraceae is used as a substitute tor true cloves and cinnamon. The wood is valuable but is little exported from Brazil. The bark is sold as quills and smells like cloves (95%) eugenol) and it is also called Cassia caryophylatta. It is used as a flavorant and with its leaves is a stimulating tea.


The true Clove, Syzygium aromaticum (the old name is Eugenia caryophylatta), is from the family Myrtaceae. Other names for this is Clove, clovos, caryophyllus and the parts used are Flower buds, stems or leaves.

Is one or the other better for aromatherapy use?  If you want to use Cloves, use cloves. These are of two different families, indigenous to different areas.


Different plants called Clove ~ The difference(s) between Clove Bud, Clove Leaf and Clove stem is CLOVE BUD is the fruit, CLOVE LEAF is the leaf of the tree and CLOVE STEM is the stem. They have different chemical constituents. They are all used in aromatherapy and the applications are different. See page 87 in The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations for uses of these two trees. This article is entirely about Clove Bud oil and herb.


         Latin Binomial/Botanical? L. There is some confusion between the two above named plants and their essential oils. This paper discusses Syzygium aromaticum or Clove of the Family – Myrtaceae.


Countries of Origin:  Clove trees are native to the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. Much exported from Zanzibar, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and the Reunion and Madagascar where they are thought to have derived from one tree.


General description of plant, habitat & growth: Syzygium is native to Africa and the Pacific. They are evergreen, canopy and emergent trees, growing to a height of between 40 and 50 feet, with large, bright green leaves and strongly fragrant flowers that grow in bunches at the end of the twigs. These flower buds are pale, then turn green and eventually turn bright red when they are ready to harvest.


Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods & yield ~ The essential oil is water/hydro or steam-distilled from the sun-dried flower buds depending on the condition of the Cloves. “As it distills over the Clove oil is collected, in the receiver, in two fractions, one lighter, the other heavier, than water. These two fractions must be mixed to obtain the complete oil.” —Guenther, vol. 4, p. 428.    Yield: 10-15%.

This picture shows the two fractions of the oil during distillation with a layer of water in between. It is not a hydrosol as the distillation water has to be cohobated continually back into the still to obtain the maximum amount of hydrosol.

There is also an absolute of Clove available obtained by solvent-extraction and is considered to bring the true scent of the buds to life when used in a perfume.


SUSTAINABILITY ~ Essential oils are just not sustainable for the environment in the amounts that are now in use. In my own lifetime, I have seen many oils be overused and then go out of use as they were not being replanted. Be selective in your usage of the plants essential oi. Be moderate. Often, the herbal use is preferred over the essential use.


Organoleptic Characteristics:
Color:                           Light yellow to pale brown when older
Clarity:                        Clear
Viscosity:                   Some viscosity
Taste:                          Bitter, aromatic
Intensity of Odor:   7  (Scale is 1-10 with some Lavenders about 2)


Odor Assessment and Description: This is one of the several plants whose useful parts are considered to have a licorice or anise scent. In this case, it is the eugenol that is being described. Eugenol in my opinion, does not smell much of licorice/anise. Clove oil can be described as very spicy, with a fruity subsidiary note and a somewhat woody back note.


Chemical Components: Active Compounds in Clove oil is 60 to 90 percent eugenol. Its properties are anesthetic and antiseptic.  India’s traditional Ayurvedic healers have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory and digestive ailments.


Historical and Interesting Facts and Uses ~ Like the history of many spices, the history of Cloves goes back many centuries. In fact, this spice was one of the first to be traded and evidence of cloves have been found in vessels dating as far back as 1721 BC. Besides being used as a mouth refresher by ancient Chinese, Clove bud was used in Alexandria in 200 BC as a spice.  Clove first arrived in Europe around the 4th century A.D. as a highly coveted luxury. The medieval German herbalists used cloves as part of anti-gout mixture. Indonesia is the largest customer of Clove bud oil as it is used in Kretek cigarettes. There is a fascinating history of Cloves in commerce in the Guenther books, volume IV, p. 306. Portuguese explores carried cargoes of Cloves in their galleons, and “unwittingly initiated that fabulous spice trade which caused many a bloody and lengthy sea war”.

2.The old (1902) and the new (2017) 

Safety Precautions for Clove Oil:       It can cause serious skin and mucous membrane irritations when used by application. Use this oil only highly diluted and do not take by mouth. This is one of those plants that can be used herbally in small amounts but the EO is not to be taken internally.



The EO is antibacterial, antiviral (against herpes), and analgesic, which helps in headache and toothaches. In skin care Clove oil, highly diluted, is used for the spicy scent in aftershave products or products for problem skin. Clove bud oil is effective in perfumery as a fixative or as part of a ‘Carnation’ scent. Clove EO is an anesthetic and is often used in carious teeth to relieve pain. The oil is wonderful in potpourri and sachet, the buds themselves boiled in wine with Cinnamon and other spices as drink.

 Properties (by AP=application or IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation):
Application: Antiseptic, stimulant, carminative, parasiticidal, antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal, analgesic, anti-neuralgic, antispasmodic, and anti-infectious.

Ingestion (only if highly diluted) for Stomachic, tonic, antiparasitic but the herbal tea is recommended instead.

Inhalation (only if highly diluted): Antiseptic, stimulant, aphrodisiac.


Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP):
Application: Clove Bud is used to relieve toothache, for some types of cancer, and in removing warts.  In fact, it was one of the first oils to be directly applied in therapy.  Other uses include external application, greatly diluted in carrier oil for rheumatism, and arthritis, and for muscular aches and pains.  Further still, Clove bud is used in salves or lotions as an application for colds, flu, verrucae, tired limbs, scabies, ringworm, and recovery from infections.

Contraindication in Skin Care: Clove oil can cause serious skin and mucous membrane irritations, make sure that if you use it, dilute it greatly and use only the bud oil and neither the stem nor the leaf.

Inhalation: Use with other oils and diluted for colds, flu, chest infections, and bronchitis.  It stimulates the respiratory system and is antiseptic for various infectious diseases.

Emotional Uses:
By inhalation, Clove Bud alleviates mental debility, stimulates the memory, stimulates the mind, and helps one overcome exhaustion. Use in dilution with other oils such as Rosemary, Bergamot and Lavender.


DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION of the Essential Oil ~ Clove oil is very powerful and I strongly urge you not to use it in a diffusor.


BLENDING and Perfumery: Cloves blend well with Vanilla, Rose, deeply-scented or sweet florals where it has a ‘unique and natural richness and body’. The classic scent called Rondeletia is a mixture of Lavender and Clove where Sage and Clary Sage is a good addition. Rondeletia Odor described by Askinson is Bergamot, Lavender, Clove, Rose, Sandalwood, Vanilla and a fixative of ambergris and musk.

            Rondeletia accord was recently used to make a modern masculine creation. It is a sweet, floral spicy odor of Lavender, Clove and spring flowers with Rose first macerated in corn alcohol with maybe some Clary Sage absolute.  Corn alcohol is used according to the British manner. The spirit has to be carefully chosen in perfumery; if a brandy scent is desired use grape spirits for an entirely different odor choose corn or wheat spirits.


Clove Perfume ~ Formula for Mock Carnation Scent:
Cinnamon 10% percentage by weight   — 2 drops
Clove   10% —  6
Geranium 10% —  6
Green Mandarin 10% —  3
Osmanthus abs 10% —  3
Rose abs 15% —  10
Tuberose 10% —  4
Vanilla C02 10% —  4
Ylang Ylang 10% — 7


HYDROSOL: I have never had the opportunity to use Clove hydrosol but I imagine it would have some use either as a seasoning in food or possibly diluted as a stimulating antiseptic mouthwash.


CULINARY AND HERBAL USES ~ Cloves are extensively used in all sorts of foods or spicy seasonings. The holiday ham can be studded with Cloves. Herbally, the buds are useful in antiseptic or analgesic formulas when infused in carrier oils or to make potpourris and pomanders.



MY FAVORITE USE for Clove buds is to make pomanders at Christmas. You can hang them on the tree or on your door to fragrance your home or just pile them in a bowl. You have to start the pomander as soon as September so that the Clove buds have time to do their magic in that the apple or orange will begin to dry up, wizen-up, shrink and become simply a ball of clove buds.

FORMULA: Purchase small fragrant Apples or non-juicy Oranges. I prefer small sweet Apples. Stab all over with the point of a sharp knife or an ice pick in a design or just in rows. It will take over 300 Clove buds to cover a small Apple. Stick the pointy end of the Clove bud into the holes that you have made. Make sure that the Apple is thickly studded with Clove. Now mix together some powdered Cinnamon, powdered Cloves, maybe some Nutmeg and powdered Star Anise and place the pomander apple in this mixture. Roll it around until all parts are covered (or shake in a bag with the spices). Let the pomander sit somewhere where it can dry out. This will take a month or so. Tie some bright green or red ribbons around the Pomander and tuck fresh Rosemary into the bow for good luck.

In the past, I have just dropped the last years pomander balls into my “Old Oil Jar”. The Clove-studded Apple quickly becomes a part of the scent of the oil, thus changing it. This “Old Oil Jar” is now about 25 years old and changes scent continually as I add oils and pomanders and remove some to add to my clean house routine. I will never know the entire ingredients of the jar.


Key Use: Culinary use and tooth care.


Patch Test:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64


Science article: where it is discussed that Cloves are an antioxidant, food preservative, reversal of memory impairment, radical scavenger and as a commercial source of polyphenols and antifungal.


 References: There is a lot of information online as well as in the Arctander book (referenced below) and The Essential Oils books by Ernest Guenther.

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Elizabeth, NJ. 1960
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Vol. IV. Pages 396-436
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol. 2016
Mabberley, D.J., Mabberley’s Plant Book, 2008 Third Edition with 2014 updates, Cambridge University Press
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Personal copy
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Frog. Ltd.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Frog Ltd. 1999
Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Essential Aromatherapy, Novato, California: New World Library, 2003.


DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose

105 years of Clove Bud Oil






~ JR ~